• size
  • In children, it causes the long bones of the body to increase in size often resulting in gigantism. (brighthub.com)
  • The Hawaiian lineage of Canada geese diverged more dramatically, splitting into at least three species that differ in body size, body proportions, and flight ability. (monteartemisio.it)
  • The giant Hawaii goose, an as yet undescribed fossil species from the island of Hawaii (1, 2), was incapable of flight, was much larger in body size, and had a far more robust skull and bill (Figs. 1-3). (monteartemisio.it)
  • Enormous sizes were also suggested by comparing the arms with those of tyrannosaurs, even though members of that group did not have large arms in proportion to their body size. (wikipedia.org)
  • a condition in which tissue or an organ of the body fails to grow to normal size. (encyclopedia.com)
  • One observation that has been made about the evolution of larger body size is that rapid rates of increase that are often seen over relatively short time intervals are not sustainable over much longer time periods. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is thought to reflect the emergence, during a trend of increasing maximum body size, of a series of anatomical, physiological, environmental, genetic and other constraints that must be overcome by evolutionary innovations before further size increases are possible. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since generation time scales with body mass0.259, increasing generation times with increasing size cause the log mass vs. time plot to curve downward from a linear fit. (wikipedia.org)
  • Anthropometry involves the systematic measurement of the physical properties of the human body, primarily dimensional descriptors of body size and shape. (wikipedia.org)
  • As in other tyrannosaurids, the skull was large compared to its body size, although chambers within the skull bones and large openings (fenestrae) between bones reduced its weight. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tyrannosaurid hindlimbs were long relative to overall body size compared with other theropods. (wikipedia.org)
  • If the proportions between body length and chelicerae match those of other giant pterygotids, such as Acutiramus and Pterygotus where the ratio between claw size and body length is relatively consistent, the specimen of Jaekelopterus that possessed the chelicera in question would have measured 233 and 259 (average 246) centimetres in length. (wikipedia.org)
  • This estimate exceeds the maximum body size of all other known giant arthropods by almost half a metre even if the extended chelicerae are not included. (wikipedia.org)
  • A study on the influence of the methods used to establish divergence dates on the studies reconstructing body-size evolution of the Cretaceous and Paleogene eutherian mammals is published by Halliday & Goswami (2016). (wikipedia.org)
  • A study on the impact of the Eocene Thermal Maximum 2 on the evolution of the body size in four placental lineages, especially in the early equid lineage Arenahippus pernix, is published by D'Ambrosia et al. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2017) infer the climatic variables for the middle Miocene of the Somosaguas vertebrate fossil site (Spain) on the basis of the body size structure of the mammal fauna known from the site, which is intimately related to climate and vegetation. (wikipedia.org)
  • According to Marshall T. Newman in 1953, Native American populations are generally consistent with Bergmann's rule although the cold climate and small body size combination of the Eastern Eskimo, Canoe Indians, Yuki people, Andes natives and Harrison Lake Lillouet runs contrary to the expectations of Bergmann's rule. (wikipedia.org)
  • In marine crustaceans, it has been proposed that an increase in size with latitude is observed because decreasing temperature results in increased cell size and increased life span, both of which lead to an increase in maximum body size (continued growth throughout life is characteristic of crustaceans). (wikipedia.org)
  • instead, Geist found that body size is proportional to the duration of the annual productivity pulse, or food availability per animal during the growing season. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because many factors can affect body size, there are many critics of Bergmann's Rule. (wikipedia.org)
  • Examples of other selective factors that may contribute to body mass changes are the size of food items available, effects of body size on success as a predator, effects of body size on vulnerability to predation, and resource availability. (wikipedia.org)
  • organs
  • 6. Should have a statement pertaining to retention of body parts/ organs Get specific permission for an unusual examination (removal of eyes/limbs) even if signed as NO RESTRICTIONS Make sure the case is not medicolegal, like delayed accidents, homicides, deaths after abortions, occupational diseases, suspicious cases of poisoning, deaths on table. (slideshare.net)
  • often
  • We get so busy with every day of our lives, I think we often neglect us, but in many cases give our bodies what they need will effectively enhance our performance in our jobs and in our lives. (thepreventioncenter.org)
  • relation
  • Hesse's rule, also known as the heart-weight rule, states that species inhabiting colder climates have a larger heart in relation to body weight than closely related species inhabiting warmer climates. (wikipedia.org)
  • large
  • Children with cerebral gigantism are mentally retarded and have a large head and extremities and a clumsy gait. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The proportions of the toe bones resembled those of tyrannosaurs, due to the large weight they had to bear. (wikipedia.org)
  • The immense physiological problems associated with such hypertension, including high perfusion pressure throughout the body ( Hohnke 1973 ) and excessively large, strong or thick hearts ( Seymour 1976 ), have been proposed. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Baleen whales can have streamlined or large bodies, depending on the feeding behavior, and two limbs that are modified into flippers. (wikipedia.org)
  • long
  • They had tiny heads, massive bodies, and most had long tails. (wikipedia.org)
  • Their head-to-body-length is 240 to 300 cm (94 to 118 in) with a tail 60 to 100 cm (24 to 39 in) long, and a shoulder height of 150 to 190 cm (59 to 75 in). (wikipedia.org)
  • mammal
  • In an examination of mammal body mass changes over time, the maximum increase possible in a given time interval was found to scale with the interval length raised to the 0.25 power. (wikipedia.org)
  • terrestrial
  • Among terrestrial mammals, the fastest rates of increase of body mass0.259 vs. time (in Ma) occurred in perissodactyls (a slope of 2.1), followed by rodents (1.2) and proboscids (1.1), all of which are hindgut fermenters. (wikipedia.org)
  • species
  • The species is very close to the European polecat in general appearance, proportions and habits, though its body seems somewhat more elongated, due to its shorter guard hairs. (wikipedia.org)
  • skull
  • Daspletosaurus shared the same body form as other tyrannosaurids, with a short, S-shaped neck supporting the massive skull. (wikipedia.org)
  • typical
  • In several smaller specimens of Gorgosaurus, the tibia was longer than the femur, a proportion typical of fast-running animals. (wikipedia.org)
  • primarily
  • Overall, specimens exhibiting gigantism are more common than in the European polecat, and occur primarily in western Siberia, where they likely hybridise with Siberian weasels. (wikipedia.org)
  • lead
  • Changes in lifestyles, nutrition, and ethnic composition of populations lead to changes in the distribution of body dimensions (e.g. the rise in obesity), and require regular updating of anthropometric data collections. (wikipedia.org)
  • individual
  • People who are overweight have a greater chance of developing type 2 diabetes It is scientifically proven that the effect of decreasing 5% of body weight helps in reducing the signs and symptoms of diabetes, can reduce the need for medication, and improves the general health of the individual. (thepreventioncenter.org)
  • length
  • The tail is short, constituting a third of its body length. (wikipedia.org)
  • One giant polecat from Semirechye had a body length of about 775 mm. (wikipedia.org)
  • When normalized to generation length, the maximum rate of body mass decrease was found to be over 30 times greater than the maximum rate of body mass increase for a ten-fold change. (wikipedia.org)
  • The largest antelope is the giant eland (Taurotragus derbianus) from Africa They are typically between 220 and 290 cm (7.2 and 9.5 ft) in head-and-body length and stand approximately 130 to 180 cm (4.3 to 5.9 ft) at the shoulder and weigh 400 to 1,000 kg (880 to 2,200 lb). (wikipedia.org)
  • Blood
  • Between the alveoli are numerous blood vessels into which the secretion is absorbed to be distributed all over the body. (secrets-of-self-sufficiency.com)
  • With measurements of the range of tensions exerted by real cardiac muscle ( Seymour & Blaylock 2000 ), it was estimated that a heart weighing 5 per cent of the body weight was necessary to produce 700 mm Hg arterial blood pressure below an upright Barosaurus neck ( Seymour & Lillywhite 2000 ). (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • similar
  • A similar trend emerges when rates of increase of maximum body mass per generation for different mammalian clades are compared (using rates averaged over macroevolutionary time scales). (wikipedia.org)
  • All tyrannosaurids, including Albertosaurus, shared a similar body appearance. (wikipedia.org)
  • weight
  • The hypothalamus stimulates the gland and influences food intake, weight regulation, fluid intake and balance, thirst, body heat, and the sleep cycle. (blogspot.com)
  • ratio
  • The earliest explanation, given by Bergmann when originally formulating the rule, is that larger animals have a lower surface area to volume ratio than smaller animals, so they radiate less body heat per unit of mass, and therefore stay warmer in cold climates. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus, the higher surface area-to-volume ratio of smaller animals in hot and dry climates facilitates heat loss through the skin and helps cool the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • In particular, a variant of approximately 20 kDa originated by an alternative splicing is present in a rather constant 1:9 ratio, while recently an additional variant of ~ 23-24 kDa has also been reported in post-exercise states at higher proportions. (wikipedia.org)
  • increase
  • This trend of increasing body mass appears to level off about 40 Ma ago (in the late Eocene), suggesting that physiological or ecological constraints had been reached, after an increase in body mass of over three orders of magnitude. (wikipedia.org)