• organisms
  • Sexual reproduction for fungi begins when branching structures, called hyphae, of two compatible organisms join. (reference.com)
  • The fungi have a range of features defining the fungal kingdom, some of which are shared with other organisms while others are unique to the fungi. (biocyclopedia.com)
  • With animals: Fungi lack chloroplasts and are heterotrophic organisms, requiring preformed organic compounds as energy sources and also as carbon skeletons for organic synthesis. (biocyclopedia.com)
  • They are fungi, which are unique organisms unto themselves. (shroomery.org)
  • These fungi metabolize carbon-rich compounds manufactured by plants and other organisms. (shroomery.org)
  • So, while their overall body mass may not make them the Earth's largest organism, the area some of them cover definitely qualifies them to be one of the world's broadest organisms. (shroomery.org)
  • These organisms are classified as a kingdom, Fungi, which is separate from the other eukaryotic life kingdoms of plants and animals. (wikipedia.org)
  • These and other differences place fungi in a single group of related organisms, named the Eumycota (true fungi or Eumycetes), which share a common ancestor (form a monophyletic group), an interpretation that is also strongly supported by molecular phylogenetics. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fungi that receive their food from living organisms are called parasites. (prezi.com)
  • The fruiting bodies produce trillions of single celled spores which get carried by wind, water, or other organisms. (prezi.com)
  • Fungi are heterotropic, meaning that they consume other organisms or compounds for energy and nutrients. (washington.edu)
  • Fungi are a very diverse and important group of organisms, although not very well understood or appreciated by the general public. (washington.edu)
  • Frequently, single-celled organisms such as cyanobacteria or spores of free-living fungi colonize bare ground first. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fungi and yeast are two closely-related organisms, which belong to the kingdom Fungi. (clickspay.ru)
  • A number of methods of attacking dry rot have been developed which can be classified as follows: Orthodox - emphasis on the use of chemical fungicides Environmental - emphasis on controlling the fungus by controlling environmental conditions Heat treatment - exploiting the fungus' sensitivity to heat Biological treatment - use of competitor organisms The latter two methods are included for completeness as they are currently not widely used. (wikipedia.org)
  • Production can vary significantly from one isolate to another and is dependent upon a poorly understood combination of many factors probably including temperature ( Fusarium tricintum produces significant amounts of toxin when the temperatures is less than 15°C and produces very little when it is warmer), nutrient sources, competition with other organisms, relative humidity, growth rate, and maturity of the fungi 1,2 . (emlabpk.com)

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  • Infection
  • New rounds of infection are initiated by rain-splash or wind dispersal of spores. (wikipedia.org)
  • Infection begins when spores land on leaf tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • Plants with severe rust infection may appear stunted, chlorotic (yellowed), or may display signs of infection such as rust fruiting bodies. (wikipedia.org)
  • These spores are referred to as the repeating stage because they can cause auto-infection on the primary host, re-infecting the same host from which the spores were produced. (wikipedia.org)
  • The incidence of fungal infection in the immunocompromised has continued to increase over the last two or three decades. (bmj.com)
  • It is crucial to the development of knowledge and understanding of the pathogenesis and evolution of fungal diseases, for prediction of intrinsic resistance to antifungal agents and for the detection of clusters of nosocomial infection among hospitalised patients. (bmj.com)
  • O. unilateralis is in turn also susceptible to fungal infection itself, an occurrence which can limit its impact on ant populations, which has otherwise been known to devastate ant colonies. (wikipedia.org)
  • This process is beneficial as a potentially serious invasive fungal infection is converted into surface colonization. (wikipedia.org)
  • conidia
  • In some groups, the conidiophores (the structures that bear the conidia) are aggregated to form a thick structure. (wikipedia.org)
  • These produce structures rather like corn-stokes, with many conidia being produced in a mass from the aggregated conidiophores. (wikipedia.org)
  • true fungi
  • The fungi are a monophyletic group, also called the Eumycota ('true fungi' or eumycetes), that is phylogenetically distinct from the morphologically similar slime molds (myxomycetes) and water molds (oomycetes). (biocyclopedia.com)
  • True fungi include many phylla, but NOT slime molds and oomycetes. (washington.edu)
  • The cell wall of the true fungi ALWAYS contains chitin. (washington.edu)
  • higher fungi
  • In some higher fungi such as ergot, sclerotia become detached and remain dormant until favorable growth conditions return. (wikipedia.org)
  • mycorrhizal
  • Some research shows that the functional surface area of roots in symbiotic relationship with mycorrhizal fungi is increased by as much as 700 percent. (independent.com)
  • The presence of A. occidentalis is associated with increased growth and nutrient uptake in jarrah seedlings, despite the fact that mycorrhizal structures were not recovered from the roots of the eucalypt (no root colonization). (wikipedia.org)
  • Fungal hyphae can be seen entering plant material, acting as decomposers and mycorrhizal symbionts. (wikipedia.org)
  • The two authors chose the epithet nothofagi based on the characteristic of the fungus as mycorrhizal symbiont of Nothofagus fusca. (wikipedia.org)
  • Aspergillus
  • Fungi such as Aspergillus spp. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The fungus Aspergillus flavus sporulating on corn. (emlabpk.com)
  • citation needed] Although most fungi - especially Aspergillus - fail to grow in healthy human tissue, significant growth may occur in people whose adaptive immune system is compromised, such as those with chronic granulomatous disease, who are undergoing chemotherapy, or who have recently undergone a bone marrow transplantation. (wikipedia.org)
  • network of hyphae
  • Cortinarius cinnamomeus colonizes the root systems of the sedges Carex flacca and Carex pilulifera, forming ectomycorrhizal-like structures lacking a Hartig net-a network of hyphae that penetrate between the epidermal and cortical cells of the root. (wikipedia.org)
  • occurs
  • Pinaceae represents the oldest extant plant family in which symbiosis with EcM fungi occurs, and fossils from this family date back to 156 million years ago. (wikipedia.org)
  • M. Chitin biosynthesis occurs in fungi. (powershow.com)
  • organism
  • In the case of morels, the mushrooms sprout from a net of microscopic underground fibers called hyphae, which is the equivalent of the "body" of the fungus organism. (shroomery.org)
  • Many mycotoxins are secondary metabolites of fungi, meaning that they are not required for growth of the organism producing them. (emlabpk.com)
  • Similarly, if a fungus is producing toxins in the field, that same organism may not produce toxins in the lab. (emlabpk.com)
  • Zygomycota
  • The name Zygomycota refers to the zygosporangia characteristically formed by the members of this clade, in which resistant spherical spores are formed during sexual reproduction. (wikipedia.org)
  • Zygophores are chemotropic aerial hyphae that are the sex organs of Zygomycota, except for Phycomyces in which they are not aerial but found in the substratum. (wikipedia.org)
  • hypha
  • After its dispersal, this will break open to produce a hypha which grows to support a sporangium, which once again releases spores. (biotopics.co.uk)
  • When the fungus reaches the bottom of the ovary, it leaves the pollen tube path and enters the vascular tissues where it branches its hypha. (wikipedia.org)
  • molds
  • Some fungi become noticeable when fruiting, either as mushrooms or molds. (biocyclopedia.com)
  • This in turn is derived from the Greek word sphongos/σφογγος ('sponge'), referring to the macroscopic structures and morphology of some mushrooms and molds and also used in other languages (e.g., the German Schwamm ('sponge') or Schwammerl for some types of mushroom). (biocyclopedia.com)
  • This fungal group is distinct from the structurally similar myxomycetes (slime molds) and oomycetes (water molds). (wikipedia.org)
  • cells
  • Instead, they form an entirely intercellular interface, consisting of highly branched hyphae forming a latticework between epidermal and cortical root cells, known as the Hartig net. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fungal cells contain membrane-bound cytoplasmic organelles, DNA with noncoding regions called introns, sterol-containing membranes, and ribosomes of the 80S type. (biocyclopedia.com)
  • H. cytoplasmic ultrastructure broadly similar to plants cells, but differ significantly in kinds of organelles and their structures. (powershow.com)
  • The hyphae invade the leaf, using specialised branches to gain entry to the outermost layer of cells on the leaves. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most cells are haploid and elongated, thread-like structures. (prezi.com)
  • Unicellular fungi are either individual oval or cylindrical cells. (prezi.com)
  • Spores are produced by one parent cell through mitosis which means they are genetically identical to their parent cells. (prezi.com)
  • Most septate hyphae have pores in the septa to allow for the cytoplasm and other molecules to flow between cells. (washington.edu)
  • The fungus invades inter- and intracellular spaces, and chlorosis of the epidermal cells is seen in as little as 3 days after inoculation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Once it causes necrosis of the epidermal cells, the fungus moves toward the chlorenchyma and cortical tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • dimorphic
  • e.g. sporotrichosis - ulcerated lesions at site of inoculation followed by multiple nodules - caused by a dimorphic fungus Sporotrix schenckii. (powershow.com)
  • mushroom
  • The English word fungus is directly adopted from the Latin fungus, meaning 'mushroom', used in Horace and Pliny. (biocyclopedia.com)
  • The discipline of biology devoted to the study of fungi is known as mycology (from the Greek μύκης mykes, mushroom). (wikipedia.org)
  • The use of the word mycology, which is derived from the Greek mykes (μύκης "mushroom") and logos (λόγος "discourse"), to denote the scientific study of fungi is thought to have originated in 1836 with English naturalist Miles Joseph Berkeley's publication The English Flora of Sir James Edward Smith, Vol. 5. (wikipedia.org)
  • Example of a macroscopic fruiting body-a mushroom! (washington.edu)
  • penetrate
  • Before invasion, hyphae may cover the root and plant surface and penetrate directly or through wounds. (wikipedia.org)
  • The fungus settles in a cavity and is able to grow free from interference because critical elements of the immune system are unable to penetrate into the cavity. (wikipedia.org)
  • hydnoid fungus
  • Hydnellum peckii is a stipitate hydnoid fungus, meaning that it has a cap atop a stipe (stem), and a form resembling a Hydnum-characterized by a teeth-like hymenium, rather than gills or pores on the underside of the cap. (wikipedia.org)
  • enzymes
  • Fungal enzymes. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Food formulation using enzymes derived from fungi has undergone a rebirth in recent years. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Enzyme suppliers have improved their ability to supply single-activity enzymes that do not have undesirable side activities (see Table 1 for a list of commercial fungal enzymes and their uses). (encyclopedia.com)
  • In both types of cheeses, the fungi grow and release protein and fat-degrading enzymes that soften and ripen the cheese. (encyclopedia.com)
  • More recently, fungi are being used as sources for antibiotics used in medicine and various enzymes, such as cellulases, pectinases, and proteases, important for industrial use or as active ingredients of detergents. (biocyclopedia.com)
  • Enzymes break these compounds into molecules, which are absorbed through the fungus' cell wall. (shroomery.org)
  • The spores of the fungus attach, and eventually break through the ant's exoskeleton using mechanical pressure and enzymes. (wikipedia.org)
  • An international team of researchers, including scientists from the University of York, has discovered a set of enzymes found in fungi that are capable of breaking down one of the main components of wood. (phys.org)
  • With the restoration of normal defense mechanisms, neutrophils and lymphocytes are attracted to the edge of the spherical fungal growth where they lyse, releasing tissue-digesting enzymes as a normal function. (wikipedia.org)
  • plants
  • EcM plants and fungi exhibit a wide taxonomic distribution and are similarly present across all continents (apart from Antarctica), suggesting the EcM symbiosis has ancient evolutionary roots, as well. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fungi resemble plants in that they both always. (slideserve.com)
  • Fungi are associated with some of the earliest remains of land plants. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The fungi are more closely related to animals than plants, yet the discipline of biology devoted to the study of fungi, known as mycology, often falls under a branch of botany. (biocyclopedia.com)
  • Occurring worldwide, most fungi are largely invisible to the naked eye, living for the most part in soil, dead matter, and as symbionts of plants, animals, or other fungi. (biocyclopedia.com)
  • With plants: Fungi possess a cell wall. (biocyclopedia.com)
  • In the past, mycology was regarded as a branch of botany, although it is now known fungi are genetically more closely related to animals than to plants. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fungi include symbionts of plants, animals, or other fungi and also parasites. (wikipedia.org)
  • Before the introduction of molecular methods for phylogenetic analysis, taxonomists considered fungi to be members of the plant kingdom because of similarities in lifestyle: both fungi and plants are mainly immobile, and have similarities in general morphology and growth habitat. (wikipedia.org)
  • The reason they are called rusts is obvious: they make plants look rusty by discharging orange, powdery spores on leaves and stems during at least one of their many life stages. (scientificamerican.com)
  • These fungi have partnerships with other orgaisims - usually plants or protists. (prezi.com)
  • Fungi are members of the domain Eucara, like animals and plants. (washington.edu)
  • The delicate and complex relationships between fungi and green plants make these gourmet treats difficult to grow commercially. (independent.com)
  • The introduced fungal spores need to find active roots within 24-48 hours of germination, so they should be added just before planting or to established plants with intact roots. (independent.com)
  • Taken as a group, rust fungi are diverse and affect many kinds of plants. (wikipedia.org)
  • Furthermore, the 33P uptake study revealed that fungal hyphae do not transfer nutrient directly to plants. (wikipedia.org)
  • Little research has been conducted to date on fungi that live on dead trees, although they are vital to forest ecology, breaking down dead wood and completing the elemental cycle between plants and soil. (phys.org)
  • Today our world is visually dominated by animals and plants, but this world would not have been possible without fungi, say University of Leeds scientists. (phys.org)
  • The discipline of biology devoted to the study of fungi is known as mycology, which is often regarded as a branch of botany, but fungi are genetically more closely related to animals than to plants. (phys.org)
  • Whenever the environment is wet, spores can be splashed onto the leaves, petioles, and stems of the plants. (wikipedia.org)
  • soil
  • This sheathing mantle can be up to 40 µm thick, with hyphae extending up to several centimeters into the surrounding soil. (wikipedia.org)
  • Abundant worldwide, most fungi are inconspicuous because of the small size of their structures, and their cryptic lifestyles in soil or on dead matter. (wikipedia.org)
  • Example: Arthrobotrys trap nemotodes that live in the soil with rings in its hyphae. (prezi.com)
  • The largest percentage of the body of these fabulous fungi lives in the soil and is composed of fragile, nearly microscopic threads. (independent.com)
  • Crust lichens include crustose and aerolate lichens that are appressed to the soil substrate, squamulose lichens with scale- or plate-like bodies that are raised above the soils, and foliose lichens with more "leafy" structures that can be attached to the soil at only one portion. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fungal hyphae can bind soil particles together. (wikipedia.org)
  • organic matter
  • Fungi perform an essential role in the decomposition of organic matter and have fundamental roles in nutrient cycling and exchange in the environment. (wikipedia.org)