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  • species
  • As in animals, fungal sexual reproduction allows for genetic variation within species. (reference.com)
  • pl. ectomycorrhizas or ectomycorrhizae, abbreviated EcM) is a form of symbiotic relationship that occurs between a fungal symbiont and the roots of various plant species. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ectomycorrhizas form between fungi and the roots of around 2% of plant species. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is one of several dermatophyte fungal species that infect humans. (sciencephoto.com)
  • One thing I thought it might be interesting to highlight is that we talk about the human "microbiome" rather than the human "bacteriome" because it contains a range of microbial species including bacteria, fungi and even possibly blastocysts . (scientificamerican.com)
  • Though clamp connections are exclusive to this phylum, not all species of Basidiomycota possess these structures. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are over 100,000 species of described fungi and probably over 200,000 undescribed. (eol.org)
  • The fungal group Zygomycota is most frequently encountered as common bread molds, although both freshwater and marine species exist. (eol.org)
  • The Deuteromycota, or conidial fungi, are a group of about 17,000 distinct species in which the sexual reproductive features are either not known or are not used to classify them. (eol.org)
  • The fungal kingdom offers enormous biodiversity with over seventy thousand known species and an estimated 1.5 million species. (encyclopedia.com)
  • some fungal species also grow as single cells. (biocyclopedia.com)
  • Some species have lost the ability to form reproductive structures, and propagate solely by vegetative growth. (biocyclopedia.com)
  • Many fungal species have long been used as a direct source of food, such as mushrooms and truffles and in fermentation of various food products, such as wine, beer, and soy sauce. (biocyclopedia.com)
  • Several species of the fungi are significant pathogens of humans and other animals, and losses due to diseases of crops (e.g., rice blast disease) or food spoilage caused by fungi can have a large impact on human food supply and local economies. (biocyclopedia.com)
  • The genus is also monotypic, as it contains a single species, the aquatic fungus Limnoperdon incarnatum. (wikipedia.org)
  • The species, described as new to science in 1976, produces fruit bodies that lack specialized structures such as a stem, cap and gills common in mushrooms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Limnoperdon incarnatum was originally thought to be associated with the Gasteromycetes, an artificial assemblage of species united by the fact that their spores mature inside the fruit bodies and are not forcibly discharged from the basidia. (wikipedia.org)
  • A 2007 field study that used molecular techniques to survey aquatic fungal taxa in a small springbrook in Valley Spring, Southern Ontario, Canada discovered many fungal taxa with high genetic affinity to Limnoperdon incarnatum, which suggests that a closely related species may also be common in streams. (wikipedia.org)
  • The fruiting structures of a few species contain psychotropic compounds and are consumed recreationally or in traditional spiritual ceremonies. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, little is known of the true biodiversity of Kingdom Fungi, which has been estimated at 2.2 million to 3.8 million species, of which only 120,000 have been described. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although the number of fungal species in Arkansas is not known, fungi are quite diverse worldwide. (encyclopediaofarkansas.net)
  • According to one estimate by biologist E. O. Wilson, the number of described fungal species worldwide is about 69,000 species, though this number is thought to represent only about five percent or less of the actual number of species in existence. (encyclopediaofarkansas.net)
  • Most sclerotia are relatively small, but one species of fungus found in Arkansas develops an edible underground sclerotium resembling a coconut, called tuckahoe or Indian Bread ( Wolfiporia extensa ). (encyclopediaofarkansas.net)
  • Ectomycorrhizal fungi form a mutualistic symbiosis with the majority of tree species. (inra.fr)
  • 8,000 ectomycorrhizal basidiomycetes (e.g. agarics, boletes) and ascomycetes (e.g. truffles) are not a phylogenetically distinct group, but an assemblage of very different fungal species that have independently developed a symbiotic lifestyle over the last 150-180 millions years. (inra.fr)
  • A single species of rust fungi may be able to infect two different plant hosts in different stages of its life cycle, and may produce up to five morphologically and cytologically distinct spore-producing structures viz. (wikipedia.org)
  • Rusts can produce up to five spore types from corresponding fruiting body types during their life cycle, depending on the species. (wikipedia.org)
  • This can be contrasted with an autoecious fungus which can complete its life cycle on a single host species. (wikipedia.org)
  • Free-living Fungi Microfungi in biological soil crusts can occur as free-living species, or in symbiosis with algae in lichens. (wikipedia.org)
  • They are the largest phylum of Fungi, with over 64,000 species. (wikipedia.org)
  • Previously placed in the Deuteromycota along with asexual species from other fungal taxa, asexual (or anamorphic) ascomycetes are now identified and classified based on morphological or physiological similarities to ascus-bearing taxa, and by phylogenetic analyses of DNA sequences. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some species of Ascomycetes form their structures within plant tissue, either as parasite or saprophytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is a hydnoid species, producing spores on the surface of vertical spines or tooth-like projections that hang from the undersurface of the fruit bodies. (wikipedia.org)
  • The unusual appearance of the young fruit bodies has earned the species several descriptive common names, including strawberries and cream, the bleeding Hydnellum, the bleeding tooth fungus, the red-juice tooth, and the Devil's tooth. (wikipedia.org)
  • Austroboletus occidentalis, commonly known as the ridge-stemmed bolete, is a species of bolete fungus found in Australia. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sclerotia initially were mistaken for individual organisms and described as separate species until Louis René Tulasne proved in 1853 that sclerotia are only a stage in the life cycle of some fungi. (wikipedia.org)
  • Examples of fungi that form sclerotia are ergot (Claviceps purpurea), Polyporus tuberaster, Psilocybe mexicana, Sclerotium delphinii and many species in Sclerotiniaceae. (wikipedia.org)
  • O. unilateralis and related species are known to engage in an active secondary metabolism, among other reasons, for the production of substances active as antibacterial agents that protect the fungus-host ecosystem against further pathogenesis during fungal reproduction. (wikipedia.org)
  • Like other fungi pathogenic to insects in the Ophiocordyceps genus, O. unilateralis targets a specific host species, the Camponotus leonardi ant. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, the fungus may parasitize other closely related species of ants with lesser degrees of host manipulation and reproductive success. (wikipedia.org)
  • They are formed in specialized structures, the mitosporangia (sporangia) that contain few to several thousand of spores, depending on the species. (wikipedia.org)
  • The walls of these spores contain sporopollenin in some species. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fruit bodies of species in the genus have caps, stipes, and a hydnoid (tooth-like) hymenophore. (wikipedia.org)
  • Like all species of Boletopsis, it has a porous spore-bearing surface on the underside of the cap, but differs from other species of Boletopsis by having characteristics such as elongated spores and a green discoloration when stained with potassium hydroxide. (wikipedia.org)
  • The fungus is most likely a native species of New Zealand and was present there before the arrival of Europeans. (wikipedia.org)
  • Morphological comparisons and molecular analysis of other species of the genus suggested that the fungus could not be attributed to any known representative of the genus, and so it was described by mycologists Jerry A. Cooper and Patrick Leonard as a new species. (wikipedia.org)
  • Aspergillus fumigatus, the most common causative species, is typically inhaled as small (2 to 3 micron) spores. (wikipedia.org)
  • algae
  • Aquatic fungi in this group are predominantly found on submerged wood, but others are free floating or found on sediments and algae. (eol.org)
  • Unlike algae and plants, which are autotrophs (meaning "self-feeders), fungi lack chloroplasts and the ability to produce their own food through the process of photosynthesis. (encyclopediaofarkansas.net)
  • penetrate
  • Numerous hyphae penetrate the wood, cheese, soil, or flesh in which they are growing. (eol.org)
  • Cortinarius cinnamomeus colonizes the root systems of the sedges Carex flacca and Carex pilulifera, forming ectomycorrhizal-like structures lacking a Hartig net-a network of hyphae that penetrate between the epidermal and cortical cells of the root. (wikipedia.org)
  • Before invasion, hyphae may cover the root and plant surface and penetrate directly or through wounds. (wikipedia.org)
  • The fungus settles in a cavity and is able to grow free from interference because critical elements of the immune system are unable to penetrate into the cavity. (wikipedia.org)
  • organisms
  • Sexual reproduction for fungi begins when branching structures, called hyphae, of two compatible organisms join. (reference.com)
  • Like all internal micro-organisms C. albicans faces challenges living within a human body, most noticeably the need for trace metal elements. (scientificamerican.com)
  • These substances are produced by the fungus to inhibit the growth of other living organisms around them-in particular, disease-causing bacteria. (eol.org)
  • The fungi have a range of features defining the fungal kingdom, some of which are shared with other organisms while others are unique to the fungi. (biocyclopedia.com)
  • They are fungi, which are unique organisms unto themselves. (shroomery.org)
  • These fungi metabolize carbon-rich compounds manufactured by plants and other organisms. (shroomery.org)
  • So, while their overall body mass may not make them the Earth's largest organism, the area some of them cover definitely qualifies them to be one of the world's broadest organisms. (shroomery.org)
  • These and other differences place fungi in a single group of related organisms, named the Eumycota (true fungi or Eumycetes), which share a common ancestor (form a monophyletic group), an interpretation that is also strongly supported by molecular phylogenetics. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fungi that receive their food from living organisms are called parasites. (prezi.com)
  • The fruiting bodies produce trillions of single celled spores which get carried by wind, water, or other organisms. (prezi.com)
  • Frequently, single-celled organisms such as cyanobacteria or spores of free-living fungi colonize bare ground first. (wikipedia.org)
  • A number of methods of attacking dry rot have been developed which can be classified as follows: Orthodox - emphasis on the use of chemical fungicides Environmental - emphasis on controlling the fungus by controlling environmental conditions Heat treatment - exploiting the fungus' sensitivity to heat Biological treatment - use of competitor organisms The latter two methods are included for completeness as they are currently not widely used. (wikipedia.org)
  • tips of hyphae
  • Unlike animals, which ingest food and digest it internally within the body, fungi grow through their food source, secreting extracellular enzymes from the tips of hyphae causing the breakdown of food and allowing dissolved products to diffuse back into their hyphae. (encyclopediaofarkansas.net)
  • infection
  • New rounds of infection are initiated by rain-splash or wind dispersal of spores. (wikipedia.org)
  • Infection begins when spores land on leaf tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • Plants with severe rust infection may appear stunted, chlorotic (yellowed), or may display signs of infection such as rust fruiting bodies. (wikipedia.org)
  • These spores are referred to as the repeating stage because they can cause auto-infection on the primary host, re-infecting the same host from which the spores were produced. (wikipedia.org)
  • O. unilateralis is in turn also susceptible to fungal infection itself, an occurrence which can limit its impact on ant populations, which has otherwise been known to devastate ant colonies. (wikipedia.org)
  • This process is beneficial as a potentially serious invasive fungal infection is converted into surface colonization. (wikipedia.org)
  • true fungi
  • The fungi are a monophyletic group, also called the Eumycota ('true fungi' or eumycetes), that is phylogenetically distinct from the morphologically similar slime molds (myxomycetes) and water molds (oomycetes). (biocyclopedia.com)
  • mycorrhizal
  • In forest, pasture and meadow soils, mycorrhizal fungi are almost ubiquitous. (inra.fr)
  • There are two main types of mycorrhizal symbiosis: ectomycorrhiza (ECM) and endomycorrhiza (AM). Ectomycorrhiza, or ectotrophic mycorrhiza, are formed by fungi that are only externally associated with the plant root, whereas endomycorrhiza fungi (Glomeromycota) form their associations within the cells of the host. (inra.fr)
  • In the different mycorrhizal associations, extramatrical and intraradicular networks of hyphae are active metabolic entities that provide essential nutrient resources (e.g. phosphate and amino acids) to the host plant. (inra.fr)
  • The ecological performance of mycorrhizal fungi is a complex phenotype affected by many different genetic traits and by biotic and abiotic environmental factors. (inra.fr)
  • The switch between saprotrophic and mycorrhizal lifestyles probably happened convergently, and perhaps many times, during evolution of these fungal lineages. (inra.fr)
  • The presence of A. occidentalis is associated with increased growth and nutrient uptake in jarrah seedlings, despite the fact that mycorrhizal structures were not recovered from the roots of the eucalypt (no root colonization). (wikipedia.org)
  • Fungal hyphae can be seen entering plant material, acting as decomposers and mycorrhizal symbionts. (wikipedia.org)
  • The two authors chose the epithet nothofagi based on the characteristic of the fungus as mycorrhizal symbiont of Nothofagus fusca. (wikipedia.org)
  • mycology
  • The fungi are more closely related to animals than plants, yet the discipline of biology devoted to the study of fungi, known as mycology, often falls under a branch of botany. (biocyclopedia.com)
  • Index Fungorum USDA ARS Fungal Database Sizing up Septoria (Studies in Mycology 75: 307-390). (wikipedia.org)
  • The discipline of biology devoted to the study of fungi is known as mycology (from the Greek μύκης mykes, mushroom). (wikipedia.org)
  • In the past, mycology was regarded as a branch of botany, although it is now known fungi are genetically more closely related to animals than to plants. (wikipedia.org)
  • The use of the word mycology, which is derived from the Greek mykes (μύκης "mushroom") and logos (λόγος "discourse"), to denote the scientific study of fungi is thought to have originated in 1836 with English naturalist Miles Joseph Berkeley's publication The English Flora of Sir James Edward Smith, Vol. 5. (wikipedia.org)
  • morels
  • Familiar examples of sac fungi include morels, truffles, brewer's yeast and baker's yeast, dead man's fingers, and cup fungi. (wikipedia.org)
  • cells
  • Instead, they form an entirely intercellular interface, consisting of highly branched hyphae forming a latticework between epidermal and cortical root cells, known as the Hartig net. (wikipedia.org)
  • What the researchers found was that fungi next to human cells were growing faster and longer hyphae than those growing alone. (scientificamerican.com)
  • The fungi seemed to be picking the zinc up from the human cells. (scientificamerican.com)
  • I've written before about bacteria that steal iron from human blood cells, and it looks like the fungi are using a similar sort of trick. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Going back to the whole fungal cell they then made a mutant without the Pra1 gene to see if the hyphae still grew in the presence of human cells. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Pra1-less cells still grew the same number of hyphae, but they were a lot smaller. (scientificamerican.com)
  • The mutants lacking Pra1 clearly had no problem processing zinc, or growing hyphae, they just couldn't get any zinc out of the human cells. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Comparing the normal wild-type fungi to the Pra1-less mutant found that while in wild type the human cells were damaged both in the presence and absence of surrounding zinc, in the mutant there was far less human cell damage when no surrounding zinc was present. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Fungal cells contain membrane-bound cytoplasmic organelles, DNA with noncoding regions called introns, sterol-containing membranes, and ribosomes of the 80S type. (biocyclopedia.com)
  • The hyphae invade the leaf, using specialised branches to gain entry to the outermost layer of cells on the leaves. (wikipedia.org)
  • H. cytoplasmic ultrastructure broadly similar to plants cells, but differ significantly in kinds of organelles and their structures. (powershow.com)
  • This characteristic differentiates fungi from bacteria, which are prokaryotes (cells lacking in a true membrane-bound nucleus) and do not have these features. (encyclopediaofarkansas.net)
  • For example, though similar to plant cells in possessing a rigid cell wall, the cell wall of fungi is composed of a nitrogen-containing polysaccharide known as chitin (similar to that found in the exoskeletons of arthropods) instead of the cellulose found in plants. (encyclopediaofarkansas.net)
  • Spores can be asexual (products of mitosis, a process by which a cell nucleus divides, making two identical copies) or sexual (products of meiosis, in which there are two divisions, producing four cells with half the amount of the original DNA present) in origin. (encyclopediaofarkansas.net)
  • Most cells are haploid and elongated, thread-like structures. (prezi.com)
  • Spores are produced by one parent cell through mitosis which means they are genetically identical to their parent cells. (prezi.com)
  • Unlike most fungi, yeast cells are round or oval in shape. (biotopics.co.uk)
  • The fungus invades inter- and intracellular spaces, and chlorosis of the epidermal cells is seen in as little as 3 days after inoculation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Once it causes necrosis of the epidermal cells, the fungus moves toward the chlorenchyma and cortical tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • molds
  • This fungal group is distinct from the structurally similar myxomycetes (slime molds) and oomycetes (water molds). (wikipedia.org)
  • soil
  • This sheathing mantle can be up to 40 µm thick, with hyphae extending up to several centimeters into the surrounding soil. (wikipedia.org)
  • While these are fairly easy to find in a soil environment, they are harder to get hold of inside a body. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Occurring worldwide, most fungi are largely invisible to the naked eye, living for the most part in soil, dead matter, and as symbionts of plants, animals, or other fungi. (biocyclopedia.com)
  • Abundant worldwide, most fungi are inconspicuous because of the small size of their structures, and their cryptic lifestyles in soil or on dead matter. (wikipedia.org)
  • The fungi are unique in having a simultaneous dual life-style, living both within the plant roots as symbionts and, at the same time, in the soil as facultative, transitory saprotrophs. (inra.fr)
  • The trees "feed" the ECM fungus with plant-derived carbohydrates and the fungus then utilizes this energy to decompose and assimilate essential nitrogen and phosphate compounds in the soil and transfer them back to the trees. (inra.fr)
  • Example: Arthrobotrys trap nemotodes that live in the soil with rings in its hyphae. (prezi.com)
  • Crust lichens include crustose and aerolate lichens that are appressed to the soil substrate, squamulose lichens with scale- or plate-like bodies that are raised above the soils, and foliose lichens with more "leafy" structures that can be attached to the soil at only one portion. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fungal hyphae can bind soil particles together. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chemical and genetic analysis of the soil and plants showed that fungal hyphae were nearby the roots and that plants had increased levels of nutrients including phosphorus, nitrogen, sulphur, magnesium, and several trace elements. (wikipedia.org)
  • dimorphic
  • e.g. sporotrichosis - ulcerated lesions at site of inoculation followed by multiple nodules - caused by a dimorphic fungus Sporotrix schenckii. (powershow.com)
  • lichens
  • Some scientists believe that lichens (a stable self-supporting association of a fungus and an alga) might be transmigrants, the earliest colonizers of land. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The fungal symbionts in the majority of lichens (loosely termed "ascolichens") such as Cladonia belong to the Ascomycota. (wikipedia.org)
  • hydnoid fungus
  • Hydnellum peckii is a stipitate hydnoid fungus, meaning that it has a cap atop a stipe (stem), and a form resembling a Hydnum-characterized by a teeth-like hymenium, rather than gills or pores on the underside of the cap. (wikipedia.org)
  • enzymes
  • The hyphae secrete digestive enzymes that break down the substrate, enabling the fungus to absorb the nutrients contained within the substrate. (eol.org)
  • Fungal enzymes. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Food formulation using enzymes derived from fungi has undergone a rebirth in recent years. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Enzyme suppliers have improved their ability to supply single-activity enzymes that do not have undesirable side activities (see Table 1 for a list of commercial fungal enzymes and their uses). (encyclopedia.com)
  • In both types of cheeses, the fungi grow and release protein and fat-degrading enzymes that soften and ripen the cheese. (encyclopedia.com)
  • More recently, fungi are being used as sources for antibiotics used in medicine and various enzymes, such as cellulases, pectinases, and proteases, important for industrial use or as active ingredients of detergents. (biocyclopedia.com)
  • Enzymes break these compounds into molecules, which are absorbed through the fungus' cell wall. (shroomery.org)
  • Since the 1940s, fungi have been used for the production of antibiotics, and, more recently, various enzymes produced by fungi are used industrially and in detergents. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fungi feed by secreting digestive enzymes on food and then absorbing the nutrients through their cell membranes (extracellular digestion). (prezi.com)
  • The spores of the fungus attach, and eventually break through the ant's exoskeleton using mechanical pressure and enzymes. (wikipedia.org)
  • With the restoration of normal defense mechanisms, neutrophils and lymphocytes are attracted to the edge of the spherical fungal growth where they lyse, releasing tissue-digesting enzymes as a normal function. (wikipedia.org)
  • yeast
  • Due to this biological diversity, fungi can be found inhabiting a wide variety of natural and manmade habitats in Arkansas, provided that oxygen (although some fungi, such as brewer's yeast, are facultative anaerobes, meaning that they can live with or without atmospheric oxygen), water, and a food source are available. (encyclopediaofarkansas.net)
  • Yeast is a fungus which has been used by Man for a long time in the brewing and baking processes. (biotopics.co.uk)
  • Yeast stages of the fungus spread in the ant's body and presumably produce compounds that affect the ant's hemocoel, utilizing the evolutionary trait of an extended phenotype to manipulate the behavioral patterns exhibited by the ant. (wikipedia.org)
  • Morphology
  • Before the introduction of molecular methods for phylogenetic analysis, taxonomists considered fungi to be members of the plant kingdom because of similarities in lifestyle: both fungi and plants are mainly immobile, and have similarities in general morphology and growth habitat. (wikipedia.org)
  • organic
  • Fungi perform an essential role in the decomposition of organic matter and have fundamental roles in nutrient cycling and exchange in the environment. (wikipedia.org)
  • symbiosis
  • EcM plants and fungi exhibit a wide taxonomic distribution and are similarly present across all continents (apart from Antarctica), suggesting the EcM symbiosis has ancient evolutionary roots, as well. (wikipedia.org)
  • These nutrient contributions are reciprocated by the provision of a stable carbohydrate-rich niche in the roots for the fungal partner, making the relationship a mutualistic symbiosis. (inra.fr)
  • Without doubt, anatomical features (e.g., extension of the extraradical hyphae) resulting from the development of the symbiosis are of paramount importance to the metabolic (and ecophysiological) fitness of the mature mycorrhiza. (inra.fr)
  • Without this symbiosis, forests as we know them could probably not exist because of the essential role of the fungi for tree growth and in the cycling of essential nutrients. (inra.fr)
  • Thus, ECM fungi are responsible for a symbiosis of global ecological and economic importance. (inra.fr)
  • A. occidentalis establishes a new type of plant-fungus symbiosis with jarrah (Eucalyptus marginata), which has been described recently. (wikipedia.org)
  • thick
  • The peridium (the outer protective tissue layer) is 18-30 μm thick, byssoid, and made of clamped hyphae typically 2.5-4 μm in diameter intertwined with dendrophyses (irregularly branched cystidia) 1 μm in diameter. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fresh fruit bodies exude a striking, thick red fluid when they are moist. (wikipedia.org)
  • The subcutis consists of swollen hyphae up to 6 µm thick. (wikipedia.org)
  • mass of hyphae called
  • The fruit body is often expanded at the base into a solid rounded mass of hyphae called an emplacement, which typically becomes tangled and entwined with small fragments of the underlying growing surface, improving its stability and helping it from being knocked over by rain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Inside the purse and middle piece is a coiled thread of interwoven hyphae called the funicular cord, attached at one end to the peridiole and at the other end to an entangled mass of hyphae called the hapteron. (wikipedia.org)
  • pathogen
  • 2000). The fungus is more abundant in tropical and subtropical regions than in temprate (CAB international 2005).This pathogen infects about 470 different host genera. (biotech-asia.org)
  • However, some variation in penetration efficiency exists among different host and fungal pathogen combinations ( Mellersh and Heath, 2003 ). (plantcell.org)
  • Within the family Clavicipitaceae, Epichloë is embedded in a group of endophytic and plant pathogenic fungi, whose common ancestor probably derived from an animal pathogen. (wikipedia.org)
  • C. graminicola is a fungal pathogen that colonizes and infects many turfgrass e.g. (wikipedia.org)
  • Phaeosphaeria nodorum (synonym and correct taxonomic name: Parastagonospora nodorum) is a major fungal pathogen of wheat (Triticum aestivum) and a member of the Dothideomycetes, a large fungal taxon that includes many important plant pathogens affecting all major crop plant families. (wikipedia.org)
  • group of fungi
  • Recent studies have provided support for the recognition of additional phyla, such as Glomeromycota, a group of fungi once placed in Zygomycota that form an association with the roots of most plants (Fig. 2). (apsnet.org)
  • S. lacrymans is a form of brown rot, a group of fungi which digest the cellulose and hemicellulose in timber. (wikipedia.org)
  • Polyozellus multiplex is part of the group of fungi collectively known as cantharelloid mushrooms (which includes the genera Cantharellus, Craterellus, Gomphus, and Polyozellus) because of the similarity of their fruit body structures and the morphology of the spore-producing region (the hymenophore) on the underside of the caps. (wikipedia.org)
  • bird's nest
  • Phylogenetic analysis is providing new insights into the evolutionary relationships between the various species in Cyathus, and has cast doubt on the validity of the older classification systems that are based on traditional taxonomic characteristics Bird's nest fungi were first mentioned by Flemish botanist Carolus Clusius in Rariorum plantarum historia (1601). (wikipedia.org)
  • Like other bird's nest fungi, C. olla relies on the force of falling water to dislodge peridioles from fruiting bodies to eject and disperse their spores. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cyathus olla bears a resemblance to a miniature bird's nest containing eggs, hence the common name bird's nest fungi. (wikipedia.org)
  • spherical
  • To a casual observer there is little to distinguish the flask, spherical or disk-shaped fruiting bodies of Dothideomycetes from several other groups in the Ascomycota, but they share a distinctive pattern of development. (tolweb.org)
  • Fruit bodies, technically known as gasterocarps, form spherical spore-bearing heads with a peridium (outer tissue layer) made of two to four clearly defined layers of tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • The spores are spherical to elliptical in shape, and typically have surfaces that are reticulate (with interconnected grooves resembling a net) or pitted. (wikipedia.org)
  • mushroom-formi
  • 2000). Mushrooms exquisitely preserved in amber from the Late Cretaceous (94 million years ago) tell us that there were mushroom-forming fungi remarkably similar to those that exist today when dinosaurs were roaming the planet (Hibbett et al. (apsnet.org)
  • Two amber-preserved specimens provide evidence that the earliest known mushroom-forming fungi (the extinct species Archaeomarasmius legletti) appeared during the mid-Cretaceous, 90 Ma. (wikipedia.org)
  • mycelia
  • Sexual fruiting bodies (perithecia) can only be formed when two mycelia of different mating type come together (see Figure). (wikipedia.org)
  • It has septate hyphae with a woolly colony texture and white mycelia. (wikipedia.org)
  • The "eggs", or peridioles, are firmly attached to the inner surface of this fruit body by an elastic cord of mycelia known as a funiculus. (wikipedia.org)
  • The ascomata, which may be clustered together in groups or scattered about, grow in a shallow layer of "hairs" (actually fungal mycelia) called a tomentum. (wikipedia.org)
  • When two homokaryotic hyphae of different mating compatibility groups fuse with one another, they form a dikaryotic mycelia in a process called plasmogamy. (wikipedia.org)
  • After a period of time and under the appropriate environmental conditions, fruiting bodies may be formed from the dikaryotic mycelia. (wikipedia.org)
  • model fungus
  • More than four different mechanisms of microRNA-like RNAs (milRNAs) production have been illustrated in the model fungus Neurospora crassa including a dicer-independent pathway. (jove.com)
  • filamentous
  • We have chosen to carry out our studies in the model filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans . (biologists.org)
  • RNA silencing such as quelling and meiotic silencing by unpaired DNA (MSUD) and several other classes of special small RNAs have been discovered in filamentous fungi recently. (jove.com)
  • In this study, small RNA and degradome libraries were constructed and subsequently deep sequenced for investigating milRNAs and their potential cleavage targets on the genome level in the filamentous fungus F. oxysporum f. sp. (jove.com)
  • these multicellular benthic organisms had filamentous structures capable of anastomosis, in which hyphal branches recombine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Aspergillus nidulans (also called Emericella nidulans when referring to its sexual form, or teleomorph) is one of many species of filamentous fungi in the phylum Ascomycota. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Dothideomycetes are a newly recognised major class of filamentous fungi that replaces the long-recognized loculoascomycetes. (wikipedia.org)
  • algal
  • A close examination of algal spores shows that none have trilete spores, either because their walls are not resistant enough, or in those rare cases where it is, the spores disperse before they are squashed enough to develop the mark, or don't fit into a tetrahedral tetrad. (wikipedia.org)
  • taxonomic
  • Examples of traditional taxonomic features include the presence or absence of septa in hyphae, fine details of the type, formation and release mechanisms of spores , or aspects of the biology and ecology of fungi. (istudy.pk)
  • In fact, recent taxonomic treatments such as the Tree of Life Project show that fungi and animals both belong to the group Opisthokonta (Fig. 1). (apsnet.org)
  • fossil
  • 2000). Based on fossil evidence, the earliest vascular land plants didn't appear until approximately 425 million years ago, and some scientists believe that fungi may have played an essential role in the colonization of land by these early plants (Redeker et al. (apsnet.org)
  • 2003). However, the fungal fossil record is incomplete and provides only a minimum time estimate for when different groups of fungi evolved. (apsnet.org)
  • Molecular data suggest that fungi are much older than indicated by the fossil record, and may have arisen more than one billion years ago (Parfrey et al. (apsnet.org)
  • In contrast to plants and animals, the early fossil record of the fungi is meager. (wikipedia.org)
  • The bulk of the fossil bed consists of primitive plants (which had water-conducting cells and sporangia, but no true leaves), along with arthropods, lichens, algae and fungi. (wikipedia.org)
  • The oldest known clamp connections exist in hyphae present in the fossil fern Botryopteris antiqua, which predate Palaeancistrus by about 25 Ma. (wikipedia.org)
  • Evidence for the appearance of the first land plants occurs in the Ordovician, around 450 million years ago, in the form of fossil spores. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2000
  • 2000) Fungi probably colonized the land during the Cambrian, over 500 million years ago, (Taylor & Osborn, 1996) but terrestrial fossils only become uncontroversial and common during the Devonian, 400 million years ago. (wikipedia.org)
  • lichen
  • Prototaxites, which was probably a fungus or lichen, would have been the tallest organism of the late Silurian. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Rhynie chert contains exceptionally preserved plant, fungus, lichen and animal material preserved in place by an overlying volcanic deposit. (wikipedia.org)
  • gills
  • special large sterile cells amongst the basidia on the gills of many fungi - often of distinctive shape and used in classification. (shroomery.org)
  • parasitic
  • A group of parasitic organisms called Microsporidia that live inside the cells of animals are also now considered to belong in the fungal kingdom (Fig. 2). (apsnet.org)
  • Autoecism (Gr. autos = self, i.e., the same + oikos = home): the ability of a parasitic fungus to complete its entire life cycle on a single host species. (ucr.edu)
  • There are growing tips on the hyphae, on the saprophytic and parasitic fund, that can break down complex organic materials into simpler soluble substances absorb in the cell walls. (essortment.com)
  • Chytridiomycota
  • This grouping, approximately synonymous with the loose term 'lower fungi', is no longer used because it includes taxa not now thought to be related to each other (chiefly Oomycota, Chytridiomycota, Zygomycota). (istudy.pk)
  • Fungal fossils do not become common and uncontroversial until the early Devonian (416-359.2 Ma), when they are abundant in the Rhynie chert, mostly as Zygomycota and Chytridiomycota. (wikipedia.org)
  • fossils
  • 5 billion years old-but the earliest fungal fossils are from the Ordovician, 460 to 455 million years old (Redecker et al. (apsnet.org)
  • Since the fungi form a sister group to the animals, the two lineages must have diverged before the first animal lineages, which are known from fossils as early as the Ediacaran. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fungal fossils are difficult to distinguish from those of other microbes, and are most easily identified when they resemble extant fungi. (wikipedia.org)
  • interwoven
  • The spore reticulations have purpose: they become entangled and interwoven with nurse cells and scaly hyphae, the net effect of which is to prevent the spores from being blown away simultaneously. (wikipedia.org)
  • ascospores
  • Most bitunicate fungi release their ascospores by the extension of the inner ascus wall and the rupture of the outer wall, similar to a 'jack-in-the-box' (fissitunicate), but variations are numerous. (tolweb.org)
  • The structures that produce the ascospores are called asci. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ordovician
  • Fossilized hyphae and spores recovered from the Ordovician of Wisconsin (460 Ma) resemble modern-day Glomerales, and existed at a time when the land flora likely consisted of only non-vascular bryophyte-like plants. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first evidence of plants on land comes from spores of mid-Ordovician age (early Llanvirn, ~470 million years ago). (wikipedia.org)
  • Trilete spores similar to those of vascular plants appear soon afterwards, in Upper Ordovician rocks. (wikipedia.org)
  • organism
  • The antibacterial drugs provide a holding action, keeping the growth and reproduction of the infectious agent in check until the interaction between the organism and the immune bodies of the host can subdue the invaders. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • funiculus
  • It distinguished from Nidula by the presence of a funiculus, a cord of hyphae attaching the peridiole to the endoperidium. (wikipedia.org)
  • Peridioles are often attached to the fruiting body by a funiculus, a structure of hyphae that is differentiated into three regions: the basal piece, which attaches it to the inner wall of the peridium, the middle piece, and an upper sheath, called the purse, connected to the lower surface of the peridiole. (wikipedia.org)
  • form
  • form): a mat of hyphae giving rise to short conidiophores closely packed together forD1ing a bedlike mass. (ucr.edu)
  • Apothecia (small mushroom like structures) form on mummies lying on the ground. (wikipedia.org)
  • A. nidulans is a homothallic fungus, meaning it is able to self-fertilize and form fruiting bodies in the absence of a mating partner. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cyathus
  • Species of Cyathus are also known as splash cups, which refers to the fact that falling raindrops can knock the peridioles out of the open-cup fruit body. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because the basic fruit body structure in all genera of the Nidulariaceae family is essentially similar, Cyathus may be readily confused with species of Nidula or Crucibulum, especially older, weathered specimens of Cyathus that may have the hairy ectoperidium worn off. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cyathus olla has ovate-shaped spores with dimensions of 10-14 × 6-8 µm. (wikipedia.org)
  • punctate
  • The spores have an elongated ellipsoid shape with a finely punctate (studded with punctures) to almost smooth surface, and measure 8.5-10 by 4.4 μm. (wikipedia.org)
  • resembles
  • These spores, known as cryptospores, were produced either singly (monads), in pairs (dyads) or groups of four (tetrads), and their microstructure resembles that of modern liverwort spores, suggesting they share an equivalent grade of organisation. (wikipedia.org)
  • resistant
  • The hyphae usually contain chitin, a very resistant nitrogenous substance. (essortment.com)
  • Spores are resistant to desiccation and may still be viable for germination when they are several years old. (wikipedia.org)
  • Keeping in mind, hybrid selection may be resistant to leaf blight but they are not necessary resistant to other fungal diseases such as stalk rot. (wikipedia.org)
  • This resistance is closely associated with having a desiccation-resistant outer wall-a trait only of use when spores must survive out of water. (wikipedia.org)
  • outer
  • After separating from the basidia the outer wall of the spores may thicken, although they generally do not increase in size. (wikipedia.org)
  • produce
  • The fruiting body will produce millions of rust brown spores. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is not until the fungus moves to the teleomorph phase of the lifecycle and begins to produce fruiting bodies that host plants will begin to exhibit symptoms, often on plants depleted in energy after the stress of pollination. (wikipedia.org)
  • The green colour of wild-type colonies is due to pigmentation of the spores, while mutations in the pigmentation pathway can produce other spore colours. (wikipedia.org)