• analogs
  • We report on the effects of GLP-1 and two of its long-acting analogs, exendin-4 and exendin-4 WOT, on neuronal proliferation and differentiation, and on the metabolism of two neuronal proteins in the rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cell line, which has been shown to express the GLP-1 receptor. (aspetjournals.org)
  • We have synthesized a number of novel GLP-1 analogs, which bind at the GLP-1 receptor and combine some of the best features of GLP-1 and exendin-4. (aspetjournals.org)
  • 1990s
  • Yet despite continued procedural improvements, only about 10% of islet recipients in the late 1990s achieved euglycemia (normal blood glucose). (wikipedia.org)
  • Three diabetes quality of care measures (HbA 1c tests, eye examinations, and lipid profiles) were selected as the focus of CMS quality improvement efforts in the late 1990s. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • It significantly changed the management principles of diabetes mellitus from the 1990s onwards. (wikipedia.org)
  • uptake
  • Because of its role in adipocyte differentiation and glucose uptake, chemerin is classified as an adipokine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Interestingly, it was found incubation of 3T3-L1 cells with recombinant human chemerin protein facilitated insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. (wikipedia.org)
  • people with diabetes
  • 1.8 million people with diabetes use the product. (wikipedia.org)
  • Between the two studies, the treatment of people with diabetes was significantly changed. (wikipedia.org)
  • People with diabetes are also encouraged to eat small frequent meals a day. (wikipedia.org)
  • Likewise, people with diabetes may be encouraged to reduce their intake of carbohydrates that have a high glycemic index (GI), although this is also controversial. (wikipedia.org)
  • More modern history of the diabetic diet may begin with Frederick Madison Allen and Elliott Joslin, who, in the early 20th century, before insulin was discovered, recommended that people with diabetes eat only a low-calorie and nearly zero-carbohydrate diet to prevent ketoacidosis from killing them. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is still recommended that people with diabetes consume a diet that is high in dietary fiber. (wikipedia.org)
  • A study at UCLA in 2005 showed that it brought dramatic improvement to a group of people with diabetes or pre-diabetes in three weeks, so that about half no longer met the criteria for the disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • On the other hand, in 1983, Richard K. Bernstein began treating people with diabetes and pre-diabetes successfully with a very low-carbohydrate diet, avoiding fruit, added sugar, and starch. (wikipedia.org)
  • levels
  • In patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, does metformin increase the risk for fatal and nonfatal lactic acidosis or increase blood lactate levels compared with placebo or other hypoglycemic therapies? (acpjc.org)
  • The doctor will order many tests to check blood glucose levels after the transplant, and insulin may be needed until control is achieved. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nevertheless, this study provides insight into a practical, safe, and effective method for adjusting insulin by self-monitoring blood glucose levels. (acpjc.org)
  • It is focused on improving recognition and management of extreme blood glucose levels, and is the best documented American psycho-educational program for this purpose. (springer.com)
  • Sometimes, in type 2 diabetes and in combination with a short acting sulfonylurea (drugs which stimulate the pancreas to make more insulin), it can offer moderate control of serum glucose levels. (wikipedia.org)
  • Glycosylated hemoglobin levels exceeding 10% appear to predispose patients to gingivitis. (pharmacytimes.com)
  • The Atlanta researchers reviewed several earlier studies that focused mostly on patients in primary care settings and found that significant percentages of patients had HbA 1c levels above 8 percent. (ahrq.gov)
  • This results in high blood sugar levels in the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the most commonly performed version of the test, an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), a standard dose of glucose is ingested by mouth and blood levels are checked two hours later. (wikipedia.org)
  • Blood is drawn at intervals for measurement of glucose (blood sugar), and sometimes insulin levels. (wikipedia.org)
  • If renal glycosuria (sugar excreted in the urine despite normal levels in the blood) is suspected, urine samples may also be collected for testing along with the fasting and 2 hour blood tests. (wikipedia.org)
  • In practice, the difficulty for a diabetic person to aggressively dose insulin to keep blood sugars levels close to normal and at the same time constantly adjust the insulin regimen to the dynamic demands of exercise, stress, and wellness can practically assure occasional hyperinsulinemia. (wikipedia.org)
  • If the mother of the infant is a diabetic, and does not properly control her blood glucose levels, the hyperglycemic maternal blood can create a hyperglycemic environment in the fetus. (wikipedia.org)
  • To compensate for the increased blood glucose levels, fetal pancreatic beta cells can undergo hyperplasia. (wikipedia.org)
  • Following birth, the hyperglycemic maternal blood is no longer accessible to the neonate resulting in a rapid drop in the newborn's blood glucose levels. (wikipedia.org)
  • The study demonstrated that when these microencapsulated islets were implanted into diabetic rats, the cells remained viable and controlled glucose levels for several weeks. (wikipedia.org)
  • Non-diabetics have much tighter control of their blood sugar levels than diabetics, as the normal pancreas can react to blood sugar in a way that twice-daily injections cannot. (wikipedia.org)
  • The report identified factors linked to better outcomes for recipients, including age-35 years or older lower pre-transplant [serum] triglyceride, or blood fat, levels lower pre-transplant insulin use The report noted that even partial function of the transplanted islets can improve blood glucose control and reduce the amount of insulin needed after loss of insulin independence. (wikipedia.org)
  • In humans, chemerin levels are significantly different between individuals with normal glucose tolerance and individuals with type II diabetes and first degree relatives. (wikipedia.org)
  • Moreover, chemerin levels show a significant correlation with body mass index, plasma triglyceride levels and blood pressure. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since carbohydrate is the macronutrient that raises blood glucose levels most significantly, the greatest debate is how low in carbohydrates the diet should be. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is because although lowering carbohydrate intake will help reduce blood glucose levels, a low-carbohydrate diet conflicts with the traditional establishment view that carbohydrates should be the main source of calories. (wikipedia.org)
  • treatment
  • It is an experimental treatment for type 1 diabetes mellitus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many patients with type 2 diabetes will eventually need to have insulin added to their treatment regimens because of β-cell failure. (acpjc.org)
  • Due to its novel twin action, GLP-1 and exendin-4 have therapeutic potential for the treatment of diabetic peripheral neuropathy and these central nervous system disorders. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Other uses include treatment of headache , low blood pressure , obesity , and attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder ( ADHD ). (webmd.com)
  • The effect of intensive treatment of diabetes on the development and progression of long-term complications in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. (springer.com)
  • Intensive blood-glucose control with sulphonylureas or insulin compared with conventional treatment and risk of complications in patients with type 2 diabetes (UKPDS 33). (springer.com)
  • 87 percent achieved good control of blood sugar (8 percent or less HbA 1c ) by the use of complex treatment regimens, 78 percent were managed with more than diet alone or a single oral agent, and many patients received either two oral hypoglycemics or one oral hypoglycemic plus insulin injections. (ahrq.gov)
  • Other goals of diabetes management are to prevent or treat the many complications that can result from the disease itself and from its treatment. (wikipedia.org)
  • Diabetes U.K. have also predicted that the National Health Service could be spending as much as 16.9 billion pounds on diabetes mellitus by 2035, a figure that means the NHS could be spending as much as 17% of its budget on diabetes treatment by 2035. (wikipedia.org)
  • This theoretical phenomenon was named after Michael Somogyi, a Hungarian-born professor of biochemistry at the Washington University and Jewish Hospital of St. Louis, who prepared the first insulin treatment given to a child with diabetes in the USA in October 1922. (wikipedia.org)
  • Metformin, marketed under the trade name Glucophage among others, is the first-line medication for the treatment of type 2 diabetes, particularly in people who are overweight. (wikipedia.org)
  • Treatment guidelines for major professional associations including the European Association for the Study of Diabetes, the European Society for Cardiology and the American Diabetes Association, now describe evidence for the cardiovascular benefits of metformin as equivocal. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2017, the American College of Physicians's guidelines were updated to recognize metformin as the first-line treatment for type-2 diabetes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Metformin treatment of people at a prediabetes stage of risk for type 2 diabetes may decrease their chances of developing the disease, although intensive physical exercise and dieting work significantly better for this purpose. (wikipedia.org)
  • This study examined whether intensive treatment with the goal of maintaining blood glucose concentrations close to the normal range could decrease the frequency and severity of those complications. (wikipedia.org)
  • Changes were subsequently made in the eligibility criteria for the full-scale trial to exclude anyone with this very common short-term complication of diabetes treatment, which also raises questions about exactly how "random" the selection process really was. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Edmonton Protocol is a method of implantation of pancreatic islets for the treatment of type 1 diabetes mellitus, specifically "brittle" type 1 diabetics prone to hypoglycemic unawareness. (wikipedia.org)
  • There has been long history of dietary treatment of diabetes mellitus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dietary treatment of diabetes mellitus was used in Egypt since 3,500 BC and was used in India by Sushruta and Charaka more than 2000 years ago. (wikipedia.org)
  • obese
  • Increases in the overall diabetes prevalence rates largely reflect an increase in risk factors for type 2, notably greater longevity and being overweight or obese. (wikipedia.org)
  • For overweight and obese people with Type 2 diabetes, any weight-loss diet that the person will adhere to and achieve weight loss on is at least partly effective. (wikipedia.org)
  • frequency
  • The Paradigm uses a one-way wireless radio frequency link to receive blood sugar measurements from select glucose meters. (wikipedia.org)
  • The disposable sensor is subcutaneously-placed to make glucose measurements in interstitial fluid every 5 minutes and transmit the reading via low power radio frequency (ISM band) to the pump for realtime display. (wikipedia.org)
  • pancreatic islet
  • A webpage maintained by the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) of the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH) indicates that the Collaborative Islet Transplant Registry's 2010 annual report presented data on 571 patients who received pancreatic islet allo-transplants between 1999 and 2009. (wikipedia.org)
  • incidence
  • RESULTS -No differences in overall incidence of low interstitial glucose (IG) were found. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The incidence of diabetes was 58% lower in the lifestyle group and 31% lower in individuals given metformin. (wikipedia.org)
  • After ten years, the incidence of diabetes was 34% lower in the group of participants given diet and exercise and 18% lower in those given metformin. (wikipedia.org)
  • doses
  • Metformin was given in doses of 1 to 3 g/d. (acpjc.org)
  • Many variations of the GTT have been devised over the years for various purposes, with different standard doses of glucose, different routes of administration, different intervals and durations of sampling, and various substances measured in addition to blood glucose. (wikipedia.org)
  • High blood lactic acid level is a concern if the medication is prescribed inappropriately and in overly large doses. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1997
  • Over $27 billion was spent on diabetes care for individuals aged ≥65 years in the U.S. in 1997 ( 4 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Initial analysis of the 1997-1999 claims data, from which these measures were generated, demonstrated both a significant opportunity for improvement and wide variability among states ( 7 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • 2000
  • In 2000, Dr. James Shapiro and colleagues published a report describing seven consecutive patients who achieved euglycemia following islet transplantation using a steroid-free protocol and large numbers of donor islets, since referred to as the Edmonton protocol. (wikipedia.org)
  • "Since 2000, Several hundred people have received islet transplants, by a year after transplant, 50 - 68% of patients do not need to receive additional insulin, but by five years after the procedure, fewer than 10% of total patients are free of daily insulin supplementation. (wikipedia.org)
  • An approach that has been popular with some people with type 1 diabetes mellitus since 2000 is known as DAFNE (Dose Adjustment for Normal Eating). (wikipedia.org)
  • progression
  • Baker IDI's teams comprising medical specialists, scientists and public health experts are focussed on bringing their knowledge and expertise to bear on these areas: Metabolism and Inflammation: What is the role of inflammation in the initiation and progression of heart disease, diabetes, chronic kidney disease and heart failure? (wikipedia.org)
  • Diabetic Complications: How to prevent the progression of diabetes to complications affecting arteries, the heart, the kidneys and the eyes? (wikipedia.org)
  • hyperglycemia
  • Also called the Somogyi effect and posthypoglycemic hyperglycemia, it is a rebounding high blood sugar that is a response to low blood sugar. (wikipedia.org)
  • The appropriate response is to take a correction dose of insulin to reduce the blood sugar level and to consider adjusting the insulin regimen to deliver additional insulin in the future to prevent hyperglycemia. (wikipedia.org)
  • Testing occasionally during the middle of the night is also important, particularly when high waking blood sugars are found, to determine if more insulin is needed to prevent hyperglycemia or if less insulin is needed to prevent such a rebound. (wikipedia.org)
  • symptoms
  • Play media The classical symptoms of type 1 diabetes include: polyuria (excessive urination), polydipsia (increased thirst), dry mouth, polyphagia (increased hunger), fatigue, and weight loss. (wikipedia.org)
  • Blood goes back into the lungs and that in fact is one of the causes of the symptoms of breathlessness and waking up in the night short of breath. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sometimes a person with diabetes will experience the Somogyi rebound when awake and notice symptoms of the initial low blood sugar or symptoms of the rebound. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are often no visible symptoms of hyperinsulinemia unless hypoglycaemia (low blood sugar) is present. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] Some patients may experience a variety of symptoms when hypoglycaemia is present, including: Temporary muscle weakness Brain fog Fatigue Temporary thought disorder, or inability to concentrate Visual problems such as blurred vision or double vision Headaches Shaking/Trembling Thirst If a person experiences any of these symptoms, a visit to a qualified medical practitioner is advised, and diagnostic blood testing may be required. (wikipedia.org)
  • patient's
  • citation needed] The test should not be done during an illness, as results may not reflect the patient's glucose metabolism when healthy. (wikipedia.org)
  • The islets are infused into the patient's portal vein, and are then kept from being destroyed by the recipient's immune system through the use of two immunosuppressants, sirolimus and tacrolimus as well as a monoclonal antibody drug used in transplant patients called daclizumab. (wikipedia.org)
  • pump
  • The pump operates with a single AAA battery and uses a piston-plunger pump to infuse a programmed amount of insulin into the patient through a length of tubing. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Paradigm system consists of two basic parts: an insulin pump and an optional glucose sensor CGM worn for up to 3 days. (wikipedia.org)