• uptake
  • In insulin resistant tissues, a threshold concentration of insulin is reached causing the cells to uptake glucose and therefore decreases blood glucose levels. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because of its role in adipocyte differentiation and glucose uptake, chemerin is classified as an adipokine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Interestingly, it was found incubation of 3T3-L1 cells with recombinant human chemerin protein facilitated insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. (wikipedia.org)
  • It was hypothesized that the extracellular hyperglycemia leads to an intracellular hyperglycemia in cells unable to regulate their glucose uptake, most predominantly, endothelial cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • renal
  • Insulin clearance may be reduced in patients with impaired renal function. (drugs.com)
  • Epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) are involved in regulation of renal blood flow and long-term arterial blood pressure. (hindawi.com)
  • If renal glycosuria (sugar excreted in the urine despite normal levels in the blood) is suspected, urine samples may also be collected for testing along with the fasting and 2 hour blood tests. (wikipedia.org)
  • continuous
  • In the fasting state, this is due to the continuous release of insulin from the pancreas, which results in steady plasma insulin, thus restraining hepatic glucose production and thereby preventing fasting hyperglycemia. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The Paradigm RT (Real Time) series adds the ability to receive data from a mated continuous blood-glucose monitor. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Minimed Paradigm REAL-Time and Continuous Glucose Monitoring (CGM) system, which received FDA clearance in 2006, uses tubing and a reservoir with rapid-acting insulin. (wikipedia.org)
  • This type of continuous treatment is in contrast to traditional multiple daily injections (MDI) that use slower-acting insulin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Continuous treatment reduces glucose variability. (wikipedia.org)
  • Continuous blood glucose monitoring is the preferred method to detect and prevent the Somogyi rebound, but this technology is not yet widely used. (wikipedia.org)
  • hyperglycemia
  • Also called the Somogyi effect and posthypoglycemic hyperglycemia, it is a rebounding high blood sugar that is a response to low blood sugar. (wikipedia.org)
  • The appropriate response is to take a correction dose of insulin to reduce the blood sugar level and to consider adjusting the insulin regimen to deliver additional insulin in the future to prevent hyperglycemia. (wikipedia.org)
  • Testing occasionally during the middle of the night is also important, particularly when high waking blood sugars are found, to determine if more insulin is needed to prevent hyperglycemia or if less insulin is needed to prevent such a rebound. (wikipedia.org)
  • While it has been evident for a long time that the complications seen in diabetes are related to the hyperglycemia associated to it, several factors have been implicated in the pathogenesis of the disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • treatment
  • It is an experimental treatment for type 1 diabetes mellitus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many patients with type 2 diabetes will eventually need to have insulin added to their treatment regimens because of β-cell failure. (acpjc.org)
  • Due to its novel twin action, GLP-1 and exendin-4 have therapeutic potential for the treatment of diabetic peripheral neuropathy and these central nervous system disorders. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Other uses include treatment of headache , low blood pressure , obesity , and attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder ( ADHD ). (webmd.com)
  • The effect of intensive treatment of diabetes on the development and progression of long-term complications in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. (springer.com)
  • Other goals of diabetes management are to prevent or treat the many complications that can result from the disease itself and from its treatment. (wikipedia.org)
  • The treatment goals are related to effective control of blood glucose, blood pressure and lipids, to minimize the risk of long-term consequences associated with diabetes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Diabetes U.K. have also predicted that the National Health Service could be spending as much as 16.9 billion pounds on diabetes mellitus by 2035, a figure that means the NHS could be spending as much as 17% of its budget on diabetes treatment by 2035. (wikipedia.org)
  • Metformin, marketed under the trade name Glucophage among others, is the first-line medication for the treatment of type 2 diabetes, particularly in people who are overweight. (wikipedia.org)
  • Treatment guidelines for major professional associations including the European Association for the Study of Diabetes, the European Society for Cardiology and the American Diabetes Association, now describe evidence for the cardiovascular benefits of metformin as equivocal. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2017, the American College of Physicians's guidelines were updated to recognize metformin as the first-line treatment for type-2 diabetes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Metformin treatment of people at a prediabetes stage of risk for type 2 diabetes may decrease their chances of developing the disease, although intensive physical exercise and dieting work significantly better for this purpose. (wikipedia.org)
  • This study examined whether intensive treatment with the goal of maintaining blood glucose concentrations close to the normal range could decrease the frequency and severity of those complications. (wikipedia.org)
  • Changes were subsequently made in the eligibility criteria for the full-scale trial to exclude anyone with this very common short-term complication of diabetes treatment, which also raises questions about exactly how "random" the selection process really was. (wikipedia.org)
  • This theoretical phenomenon was named after Michael Somogyi, a Hungarian-born professor of biochemistry at the Washington University and Jewish Hospital of St. Louis, who prepared the first insulin treatment given to a child with diabetes in the USA in October 1922. (wikipedia.org)
  • RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
  • RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS -Medicare beneficiaries with diabetes, aged 18-75 years, were identified from 1997 to 1999 claims data. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We searched The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, Embase, Science Citation Index Expanded, Social Sciences Citation Index, PsycINFO, and CINAHL from inception until 1 October 2014. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • doses of glucose
  • Many variations of the GTT have been devised over the years for various purposes, with different standard doses of glucose, different routes of administration, different intervals and durations of sampling, and various substances measured in addition to blood glucose. (wikipedia.org)
  • concentration
  • 9 The third factor is an increased glucose concentration in the saliva. (pharmacytimes.com)
  • The consequences of increased intracellular glucose concentration are fourfold, all resulting from increasing concentration of glycolytic intermediates upstream of the rate-limiting glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate reaction which is inhibited by mechanisms activated by increased free radical formation, common in diabetes. (wikipedia.org)
  • diabetic patients
  • However, there are major variations in usage: in some countries, such as the U.K., there are only a few hundred pump users but growing pressure from diabetic patients to increase its availability. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • 4 Diabetic patients between 40 and 50 years old have been shown to have more sites of advanced periodontitis and bone loss than healthy individuals in that age group. (pharmacytimes.com)
  • The diabetic patients' genome sequences differ from the controls' genome in specific loci along and around numerous genes, and these differences in the nucleotide sequences alter phenotypic traits that exhibit increased susceptibility to the diabetes. (wikipedia.org)
  • levels
  • In patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, does metformin increase the risk for fatal and nonfatal lactic acidosis or increase blood lactate levels compared with placebo or other hypoglycemic therapies? (acpjc.org)
  • The doctor will order many tests to check blood glucose levels after the transplant, and insulin may be needed until control is achieved. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nevertheless, this study provides insight into a practical, safe, and effective method for adjusting insulin by self-monitoring blood glucose levels. (acpjc.org)
  • It is focused on improving recognition and management of extreme blood glucose levels, and is the best documented American psycho-educational program for this purpose. (springer.com)
  • Significant association between rs751141 and homocysteine (Hcy) level on the risk of DN was observed, indicating that in patients with the highest Hcy levels, the A allele showed marked association with lower risk of DN in all three genetic models. (hindawi.com)
  • Glycosylated hemoglobin levels exceeding 10% appear to predispose patients to gingivitis. (pharmacytimes.com)
  • Sometimes, in type 2 diabetes and in combination with a short acting sulfonylurea (drugs which stimulate the pancreas to make more insulin), it can offer moderate control of serum glucose levels. (wikipedia.org)
  • This results in high blood sugar levels in the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the most commonly performed version of the test, an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), a standard dose of glucose is ingested by mouth and blood levels are checked two hours later. (wikipedia.org)
  • Blood is drawn at intervals for measurement of glucose (blood sugar), and sometimes insulin levels. (wikipedia.org)
  • The study demonstrated that when these microencapsulated islets were implanted into diabetic rats, the cells remained viable and controlled glucose levels for several weeks. (wikipedia.org)
  • The report identified factors linked to better outcomes for recipients, including age-35 years or older lower pre-transplant [serum] triglyceride, or blood fat, levels lower pre-transplant insulin use The report noted that even partial function of the transplanted islets can improve blood glucose control and reduce the amount of insulin needed after loss of insulin independence. (wikipedia.org)
  • If the mother of the infant is a diabetic, and does not properly control her blood glucose levels, the hyperglycemic maternal blood can create a hyperglycemic environment in the fetus. (wikipedia.org)
  • To compensate for the increased blood glucose levels, fetal pancreatic beta cells can undergo hyperplasia. (wikipedia.org)
  • Following birth, the hyperglycemic maternal blood is no longer accessible to the neonate resulting in a rapid drop in the newborn's blood glucose levels. (wikipedia.org)
  • In practice, the difficulty for a diabetic person to aggressively dose insulin to keep blood sugars levels close to normal and at the same time constantly adjust the insulin regimen to the dynamic demands of exercise, stress, and wellness can practically assure occasional hyperinsulinemia. (wikipedia.org)
  • In humans, chemerin levels are significantly different between individuals with normal glucose tolerance and individuals with type II diabetes and first degree relatives. (wikipedia.org)
  • Moreover, chemerin levels show a significant correlation with body mass index, plasma triglyceride levels and blood pressure. (wikipedia.org)
  • pancreatic islet
  • A webpage maintained by the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) of the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH) indicates that the Collaborative Islet Transplant Registry's 2010 annual report presented data on 571 patients who received pancreatic islet allo-transplants between 1999 and 2009. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1997
  • Over $27 billion was spent on diabetes care for individuals aged ≥65 years in the U.S. in 1997 ( 4 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Initial analysis of the 1997-1999 claims data, from which these measures were generated, demonstrated both a significant opportunity for improvement and wide variability among states ( 7 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • patient's
  • citation needed] The test should not be done during an illness, as results may not reflect the patient's glucose metabolism when healthy. (wikipedia.org)
  • The islets are infused into the patient's portal vein, and are then kept from being destroyed by the recipient's immune system through the use of two immunosuppressants, sirolimus and tacrolimus as well as a monoclonal antibody drug used in transplant patients called daclizumab. (wikipedia.org)
  • progression
  • Baker IDI's teams comprising medical specialists, scientists and public health experts are focussed on bringing their knowledge and expertise to bear on these areas: Metabolism and Inflammation: What is the role of inflammation in the initiation and progression of heart disease, diabetes, chronic kidney disease and heart failure? (wikipedia.org)
  • Diabetic Complications: How to prevent the progression of diabetes to complications affecting arteries, the heart, the kidneys and the eyes? (wikipedia.org)
  • Mechanisms
  • However, single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) is one of many mechanisms that leads to increased risk for type 2 diabetes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Indeed, while hepatocytes and myocytes have mechanisms allowing them to internalize their glucose transporter, endothelial cells do not possess this ability. (wikipedia.org)
  • fatty
  • Obesity is characterized by an excess of adipose tissue - insulin increases the synthesis of fatty acids from glucose, facilitates the entry of glucose into adipocytes and inhibits breakdown of fat in adipocytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • APOM is partly responsible for producing pre beta-high-density lipoprotein and cholesterol, and APM1 is responsible for regulating glucose level in blood and fatty acid. (wikipedia.org)