• vessels
  • We found that a]…super family domain containing 2a ( Mfsd2a ) is selectively expressed in BBB-containing blood vessels in the CNS. (genengnews.com)
  • Active transport of sodium and potassium across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) has been suspected, but until quite recently, there has been no direct evidence that the blood vessels of the central nervous system (CNS) are even capable of this kind of transport. (springer.com)
  • Interpretation of these experiments, however, is complicated by the difficulty in assigning specific transport properties to the walls of the blood vessels when the effects of choroid plexus and glia cannot be excluded (2). (springer.com)
  • Among the blood vessels, venoles, capillaries, and arteriols (the microcapillary system) have the smallest diameter but they are of greatest significance for the well function of any tissue. (springer.com)
  • Whereas the large blood vessels transport the above mentioned compounds to the organs, the microcapillary system penetrates through every tissue and supplies the individual cells with the nutrients necessary. (springer.com)
  • Working with mice, Johns Hopkins researchers have shed light on the activity of a protein pair found in cells that form the walls of blood vessels in the brain and retina, experiments that could lead to therapeutic control of the blood-brain barrier and of blood vessel growth in the eye. (redorbit.com)
  • The Hopkins researchers say results of the study, published online in Cell on Dec. 7, could have treatment implications for disorders of the retinal blood vessels caused by diabetes, and age-related loss of central vision. (redorbit.com)
  • Therefore, three networked layers of blood vessels are required to fulfill its oxygen needs. (redorbit.com)
  • And in mice missing either Norrin or Frizzled-4, retinal blood vessels grew radially, but they grew slowly and failed to create the second and third networked layers. (redorbit.com)
  • The team also found that mice missing just Frizzled-4, besides having major structural defects in their retinal blood vessels, showed signs of a leaky blood-brain barrier and, similarly, a leaky blood-retina barrier. (redorbit.com)
  • This is an image of an adult zebrafish brain showing fluorescent granular perithelial cells (green) atop blood vessels (green). (eurekalert.org)
  • The blood-brain barrier is the layer of cells that line the blood vessels of the brain. (eurekalert.org)
  • The inner cell layer that lines vessels, known as the endothelium, is present in all the blood vessels of the body. (eurekalert.org)
  • Although their function is not completely understood, a special population of cells covering the blood vessels on the brain's surface is thought to contribute to the organ's protection. (eurekalert.org)
  • In another series of experiments, they inserted a green fluorescent protein into the tissues that give rise to blood and lymph vessels in embryonic zebrafish. (eurekalert.org)
  • The researchers hope to conduct further studies of how FGPs interact with blood vessels and the blood-brain barrier. (eurekalert.org)
  • There are also suggestions that CLDN14 plays a role in tumour angiogenesis (blood vessel formation), as deletion of a single copy of this gene leads to tight junction defects and leaky blood vessels in a mouse model. (wikipedia.org)
  • It has been shown that S100B is only expressed by a subtype of mature astrocytes that ensheath blood vessels and by NG2-expressing cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • diseases
  • Conversely, because researchers have begun to link blood-brain barrier degradation to several brain diseases, boosting Mfsd2a (the gene) or Mfsd2a (the protein) could allow doctors to strengthen the barrier and perhaps alleviate diseases such as Alzheimer's, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and multiple sclerosis. (genengnews.com)
  • The breakdown of the blood-brain barrier is implicated in several diseases , including meningitis, epilepsy, and multiple sclerosis . (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Diseases of the brain- from cancers to neurodegenerative disorders-are notoriously difficult to treat. (dana.org)
  • Today, such vectors are being used in dozens of gene therapy trials for diseases ranging from cancer (see " Viral Treatment May Offer Hope to Brain Tumor Patients ") to orphan diseases. (dana.org)
  • But AAV has been more challenging to harness for brain diseases and disorders because of the difficulty of crossing the BBB. (dana.org)
  • The treatment of central nervous system (CNS) diseases can be particularly challenging because many of the therapeutic agents such as recombinant proteins and gene medicines are not easily transported across the blood-brain barrier (BBB). (newswise.com)
  • The high prevalence of these diseases is expected to drive the global blood-brain barrier technologies market. (sbwire.com)
  • The growing pool of the geriatric population is also expected to propel this market, as the elderly are more prone to brain diseases than younger demographics. (sbwire.com)
  • National Institutes of Health researchers studying zebrafish have determined that a population of cells that protect the brain against diseases and harmful substances are not immune cells, as had previously been thought, but instead likely arise from the lining of the circulatory system. (eurekalert.org)
  • Diseases of the brain characterized by an enduring predisposition to generate epileptic seizures are collectively called epilepsy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Quantitative proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) is a non-invasive analytical technique that has been used to study metabolic changes in brain tumors, strokes, seizure disorders, Alzheimer's disease, depression and other diseases affecting the brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Parkinson's
  • These new vectors can not only help researchers deliver genetic cargo that can help researchers precisely label cells to better visualize specific circuits-in both the central and peripheral nervous systems-but also may pave the way for the delivery of targeted gene therapies to treat disorders brain-based disorders such as Parkinson's disease. (dana.org)
  • At the Massachusetts Eye and Ear/Harvard Medical School and Boston University researchers have developed a technique that enabled them to deliver glial derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), a large protein being tested for treatment of Parkinson's disease, into the brains of mice. (medgadget.com)
  • protein
  • There also is lipid/protein bilayer that protects against water-soluble substances, an enzymatic barrier that removes unwanted peptides and other small molecules, and efflux pumps that transport certain molecules back into the blood that have passed into the brain. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • To that end, Gradinaru and colleagues re-engineered a previously developed vector, using high-throughput protein engineering to modify the virus' shell, or capsid, allowing it to efficiently cross the BBB and deliver genes to cells in the brain with a single injection. (dana.org)
  • Protein, fat, carbohydrate, vitamins and minerals provide nutrients that keep your brain functioning, prevent deficiencies and promote the activities of substances known as neurotransmitters -- the chemical messengers in the brain. (livestrong.com)
  • Although carbohydrates normally provide most of the glucose your brain and body need, your body can also manufacture glucose from fat and protein through a process called gluconeogenesis. (livestrong.com)
  • Frey, A. (1993) "Gamma-Glutamyl Transpeptidase: Molecular Cloning and Structural and Functional Features of a Blood-Brain Barrier Marker Protein" in: The Blood-Brain Barrier: Cellular and Molecular Biology (ed. (springer.com)
  • Their work reveals a dual role for the protein pair, called Norrin/Frizzled-4, in managing the blood vessel network that serves the brain and retina. (redorbit.com)
  • Scientists already knew that Frizzled-4 is a protein located on the surface of the cells that create blood vessel walls throughout the body. (redorbit.com)
  • Its potential clinical use in the therapeutic decision making process is substantiated by a vast body of literature validating variations in serum 100B levels with standard modalities for prognosticating the extent of CNS damage: alterations in neuroimaging, cerebrospinal pressure, and other brain molecular markers (neuron specific enolase and glial fibrillary acidic protein). (wikipedia.org)
  • substances
  • However, even when functioning properly, the blood-brain barrier cannot protect against the entry of some harmful substances, such as viruses , which have developed mechanisms to bypass the barrier. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • It was reported that those natural substances such as albumin, α-1-fetoprotein or transferrin with elevated plasma concentration in the newborn could not be detected outside of cells in the brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • researchers
  • Researchers haven't been able to coax it to open up because they don't know enough about how the barrier forms or functions. (genengnews.com)
  • Researchers probing the mechanisms of nerve tissue damage in multiple sclerosis have identified two ways in which white blood cells overcome the blood-brain barrier to wreak havoc in the highly protected environment of the brain and spinal cord. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Using the same approach, the researchers created a second vector that could reach peripheral neurons (those outside the brain and spinal cord). (dana.org)
  • However, finding a way to "prop the door open" to allow therapeutics to reach diseased tissue without damaging normal brain tissue is the focus of a new study by a team of researchers at the Institute of Biomedical Engineering at National Taiwan University presenting at the 57th Annual Meeting of the Biophysical Society (BPS), held Feb. 2-6, 2013, in Philadelphia, Pa. (newswise.com)
  • Researchers at the University College London's Department of Chemistry have recently developed a method to carry drugs to the blood brain barrier using chemotactic movement. (azonano.com)
  • Consequently, researchers have been seeking more effective ways to deliver drugs to the central nervous system and the brain itself. (prohealth.com)
  • In addition to seeing green lymphatic cells in the zebrafish embryos, the researchers noticed that green cells also covered the surface of the tiny fish's brains. (eurekalert.org)
  • spinal cord
  • These nerve fibers are responsible for sensing odors and chemicals, and according to Dr. Frey, are capable of carrying therapeutic agents directly to the brain and spinal cord. (prohealth.com)
  • proteins
  • Preclinical studies suggest, for example, that intranasal delivery of antioxidants or of natural therapeutic proteins may be able to dramatically reduce brain damage and improve neurologic function after stroke. (prohealth.com)
  • cells
  • But until now, it was not clear how these immune cells managed to get across the blood-brain barrier into the CNS. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • There are many technological difficulties when it comes to accessing brain cells for imaging and control," says Gradinaru. (dana.org)
  • Glucose is the primary fuel for all the body's cells, including the brain cells. (livestrong.com)
  • Genetic mutations that cause Frizzled-4's absence in mice and humans create severe defects in blood vessel development, but only in the retina, the light-absorbing sheet of cells at the back of the eye. (redorbit.com)
  • This basic science finding may have implications for understanding age-related decline in brain functioning and how HIV infects brain cells. (eurekalert.org)
  • These cells appear to be a major entry point for HIV infection of the brain. (eurekalert.org)
  • tumor
  • Neurosurgeon Todd Mainprize will discuss a history-making procedure using focused ultrasound to non-invasively breach the blood-brain barrier to deliver chemotherapy to a patient's brain tumor. (newswise.com)
  • The new technique relies on nasal mucosal grafting that is normally performed after minimally invasive brain tumor procedures to close the access route. (medgadget.com)
  • vesicles
  • Adrian Joseph and his team utilized this principle to propel tiny vesicle nanoswimmers, known as polymerosomes, which are tiny vesicles filled with chemicals, to transport drugs into the blood brain barrier. (azonano.com)
  • disorders
  • The final chapter reviews various models of neurological disorders which can be used to unravel the complexity of the barrier in health and disease. (springer.com)
  • FGPs are thought to be important in a variety of human brain disorders and conditions. (eurekalert.org)
  • immature
  • Katzman R, Leiderman PH: Brain potassium exchange in normal and immature rats. (springer.com)
  • Originally, experiments in the 1920s seemed to show that the blood-brain barrier (BBB) was still immature in newborns. (wikipedia.org)
  • In contrast to suggestions of an immature barrier in young animals, these studies indicate that a sophisticated, selective BBB is operative at birth. (wikipedia.org)
  • retinal
  • All of these results suggest that Norrin and Frizzled-4 play an important role in the proper timing and arrangement of the retinal blood vessel network, Nathans says. (redorbit.com)
  • heterogeneity
  • One is the heterogeneity of brain tissues, very different cell types that have different patterning and require different ways to get a genetic handle on them. (dana.org)
  • antibodies
  • Right now, 98 percent of small molecule drugs and 100 percent of large molecule drugs and antibodies can't get through the blood-brain barrier," said Chenghua Gu, Ph.D., associate professor of neurobiology at HMS and senior author of the study. (genengnews.com)
  • The blood-brain barrier also restricts the entry of antibodies that help to fight bacterial infections that do occur and makes it difficult for the delivery of water-soluble drugs that have been developed to treat diverse conditions. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • peripheral
  • Past iterations of AAV vectors were not particularly specific, which made it difficult to target peripheral neurons beyond the brain responsible for heart rate, respiration, digestion, and pain. (dana.org)
  • therapeutic
  • The group is investigating the feasibility of using heparin, a common anticoagulant, to enhance the delivery of therapeutic macromolecules using ultrasound into the brain. (newswise.com)
  • In bypassing the blood-brain barrier, through these pathways, therapeutic agents can be delivered without being modified and without the need for a carrier. (prohealth.com)
  • abnormal
  • Being able to open and close the blood-brain barrier also promises to benefit basic research, enabling scientists to investigate how abnormal barrier formation affects brain development and what the relationship may be between barrier deterioration and disease. (genengnews.com)
  • An epileptic seizure, also known as an epileptic fit, is a brief episode of signs or symptoms due to abnormal excessive or synchronous neuronal activity in the brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • penetration
  • Deltorphin possesses very high affinity and selectivity as an agonist for the δ-opioid receptor, and on account of its unusually high blood-brain-barrier penetration rate, produces centrally-mediated analgesic effects in animals even when administered peripherally. (wikipedia.org)
  • temporarily
  • They also could help clinicians develop a way to temporarily increase the penetrability of the blood-brain barrier, allowing critical drugs to pass through to the brain, says Jeremy Nathans, M.D., Ph.D., a Howard Hughes researcher and professor of molecular biology and genetics at the Institute for Basic Biomedical Sciences at the Johns Hopkins School of Medicine. (redorbit.com)
  • With this information in hand, we hope that someday it may be possible to temporarily loosen the blood-brain barrier, allowing life-saving drugs to pass through," says Nathans. (redorbit.com)