• researchers
  • Researchers haven't been able to coax it to open up because they don't know enough about how the barrier forms or functions. (genengnews.com)
  • Researchers in the current study used the new therapeutic procedure to deliver IDUA to brain cells. (prnewswire.com)
  • The researchers also reported that brain cells in the treated mice exhibited normalized levels of the glycosaminoglycans and the lysosomal enzyme b-hexosaminidase. (prnewswire.com)
  • Researchers probing the mechanisms of nerve tissue damage in multiple sclerosis have identified two ways in which white blood cells overcome the blood-brain barrier to wreak havoc in the highly protected environment of the brain and spinal cord. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Using the same approach, the researchers created a second vector that could reach peripheral neurons (those outside the brain and spinal cord). (dana.org)
  • These new vectors can not only help researchers deliver genetic cargo that can help researchers precisely label cells to better visualize specific circuits-in both the central and peripheral nervous systems-but also may pave the way for the delivery of targeted gene therapies to treat disorders brain-based disorders such as Parkinson's disease. (dana.org)
  • However, finding a way to "prop the door open" to allow therapeutics to reach diseased tissue without damaging normal brain tissue is the focus of a new study by a team of researchers at the Institute of Biomedical Engineering at National Taiwan University presenting at the 57th Annual Meeting of the Biophysical Society (BPS), held Feb. 2-6, 2013, in Philadelphia, Pa. (newswise.com)
  • Researchers at the University College London's Department of Chemistry have recently developed a method to carry drugs to the blood brain barrier using chemotactic movement. (azonano.com)
  • Consequently, researchers have been seeking more effective ways to deliver drugs to the central nervous system and the brain itself. (prohealth.com)
  • At the Massachusetts Eye and Ear/Harvard Medical School and Boston University researchers have developed a technique that enabled them to deliver glial derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), a large protein being tested for treatment of Parkinson's disease, into the brains of mice. (medgadget.com)
  • In addition to seeing green lymphatic cells in the zebrafish embryos, the researchers noticed that green cells also covered the surface of the tiny fish's brains. (eurekalert.org)
  • tissues
  • One is the heterogeneity of brain tissues, very different cell types that have different patterning and require different ways to get a genetic handle on them. (dana.org)
  • neurons
  • Past iterations of AAV vectors were not particularly specific, which made it difficult to target peripheral neurons beyond the brain responsible for heart rate, respiration, digestion, and pain. (dana.org)
  • spinal cord
  • These nerve fibers are responsible for sensing odors and chemicals, and according to Dr. Frey, are capable of carrying therapeutic agents directly to the brain and spinal cord. (prohealth.com)
  • mice
  • Genetic mutations that cause Frizzled-4's absence in mice and humans create severe defects in blood vessel development, but only in the retina, the light-absorbing sheet of cells at the back of the eye. (redorbit.com)
  • cells
  • But first they had to successfully engineer the therapy to carry IDUA through the blood-brain barrier to diseased brain cells. (prnewswire.com)
  • But until now, it was not clear how these immune cells managed to get across the blood-brain barrier into the CNS. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • There are many technological difficulties when it comes to accessing brain cells for imaging and control," says Gradinaru. (dana.org)
  • To that end, Gradinaru and colleagues re-engineered a previously developed vector, using high-throughput protein engineering to modify the virus' shell, or capsid, allowing it to efficiently cross the BBB and deliver genes to cells in the brain with a single injection. (dana.org)
  • Scientists already knew that Frizzled-4 is a protein located on the surface of the cells that create blood vessel walls throughout the body. (redorbit.com)
  • This basic science finding may have implications for understanding age-related decline in brain functioning and how HIV infects brain cells. (eurekalert.org)
  • These cells appear to be a major entry point for HIV infection of the brain. (eurekalert.org)
  • tumor
  • Neurosurgeon Todd Mainprize will discuss a history-making procedure using focused ultrasound to non-invasively breach the blood-brain barrier to deliver chemotherapy to a patient's brain tumor. (newswise.com)
  • The new technique relies on nasal mucosal grafting that is normally performed after minimally invasive brain tumor procedures to close the access route. (medgadget.com)
  • vesicles
  • Adrian Joseph and his team utilized this principle to propel tiny vesicle nanoswimmers, known as polymerosomes, which are tiny vesicles filled with chemicals, to transport drugs into the blood brain barrier. (azonano.com)
  • immature
  • Katzman R, Leiderman PH: Brain potassium exchange in normal and immature rats. (springer.com)
  • Originally, experiments in the 1920s seemed to show that the blood-brain barrier (BBB) was still immature in newborns. (wikipedia.org)
  • In contrast to suggestions of an immature barrier in young animals, these studies indicate that a sophisticated, selective BBB is operative at birth. (wikipedia.org)
  • zebrafish
  • Oct. 23, 2012 /PRNewswire-USNewswire/ -- Among thousands of entries, Nikon has awarded its top honor to Jennifer Peters , Ph.D., and Michael Taylor , Ph.D., of St. Jude Children's Research Hospital for their photomicrograph, "The blood-brain barrier of a live zebrafish embryo. (prnewswire.com)
  • The Weinstein lab studies zebrafish to understand how the blood and lymphatic systems develop. (eurekalert.org)
  • normally
  • Water, for example, may not be something you normally think of as a nutrient, but it is critical for proper body and brain function. (livestrong.com)
  • antibodies
  • The blood-brain barrier also restricts the entry of antibodies that help to fight bacterial infections that do occur and makes it difficult for the delivery of water-soluble drugs that have been developed to treat diverse conditions. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • bovine
  • Brendel K, Meezan E, Carlson EL: Isolated brain microvessels: A purified, metabolically active preparation from bovine cerebral cortex. (springer.com)
  • abnormal
  • Being able to open and close the blood-brain barrier also promises to benefit basic research, enabling scientists to investigate how abnormal barrier formation affects brain development and what the relationship may be between barrier deterioration and disease. (genengnews.com)
  • An epileptic seizure, also known as an epileptic fit, is a brief episode of signs or symptoms due to abnormal excessive or synchronous neuronal activity in the brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • protein
  • Their work reveals a dual role for the protein pair, called Norrin/Frizzled-4, in managing the blood vessel network that serves the brain and retina. (redorbit.com)
  • Its potential clinical use in the therapeutic decision making process is substantiated by a vast body of literature validating variations in serum 100B levels with standard modalities for prognosticating the extent of CNS damage: alterations in neuroimaging, cerebrospinal pressure, and other brain molecular markers (neuron specific enolase and glial fibrillary acidic protein). (wikipedia.org)
  • penetration
  • Deltorphin possesses very high affinity and selectivity as an agonist for the δ-opioid receptor, and on account of its unusually high blood-brain-barrier penetration rate, produces centrally-mediated analgesic effects in animals even when administered peripherally. (wikipedia.org)
  • temporarily
  • They also could help clinicians develop a way to temporarily increase the penetrability of the blood-brain barrier, allowing critical drugs to pass through to the brain, says Jeremy Nathans, M.D., Ph.D., a Howard Hughes researcher and professor of molecular biology and genetics at the Institute for Basic Biomedical Sciences at the Johns Hopkins School of Medicine. (redorbit.com)
  • With this information in hand, we hope that someday it may be possible to temporarily loosen the blood-brain barrier, allowing life-saving drugs to pass through," says Nathans. (redorbit.com)
  • drugs
  • The barrier has also been a persistent roadblock to treating brain disease with drugs. (prnewswire.com)
  • A higher acoustic pressure and longer sonication, and/or a higher dose of microbubbles may increase the delivery of drugs or tracers into the sonicated brain tissue," explains Kuo-Wei Lu, a member of the research team, "but side-effects, such as microhemorrhage, can also increase dramatically. (newswise.com)
  • Although the blood brain barrier helps protect individuals from the influence of some endogenous hormones and harmful chemicals, certain drugs such as drugs to treat brain ailments need to enter the brain to show their desired pharmacologic activity 2 . (azonano.com)