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  • pathways of complement
  • Because SPICE efficiently inhibits the stability of human C3b and C4b, it essentially inactivates the convertases and, therefore, both the classical and alternative pathways of complement," the report says. (umn.edu)
  • C5 convertases of the alternative and classical pathways of complement are complex serine proteases that are made up of two or more subunits ( 1 , 6 , 7 , 8 , 9 , 10 , 11 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • phagocytes
  • There are typically low levels in haemolytic anaemia (haptoglobin is a suicide molecule which binds with free haemoglobin released from red blood cells and these complexes are rapidly removed by phagocytes). (wikipedia.org)
  • C5a, the smaller fragment, is a potent chemotactic and spasmogenic anaphylatoxin that mediates inflammatory responses by stimulating platelets, endothelial cells, eosinophils, neutrophils, and phagocytes to the site of complement activation ( 4 , 5 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • enzymes
  • The research team, led by Ariella M. Rosengard of the University of Pittsburgh, molecularly engineered and analyzed what they call "smallpox inhibitor of complement enzymes," or SPICE. (umn.edu)
  • This is the case for digestive enzymes such as trypsin which have to be able to cleave the array of proteins ingested into smaller peptide fragments. (wikipedia.org)
  • cleave
  • The results suggest that in serum convertases formed with monomeric C3b will be relatively inefficient in capturing C5 but will continue to cleave C3 opsonizing the cell surface for phagocytosis, whereas convertases formed with C3b-C3b complexes in areas of high C3b density will primarily cleave C5. (jimmunol.org)
  • This change in shape allows the binding of plasma protein Factor B, which allows Factor D to cleave Factor B into Ba and Bb. (wikipedia.org)
  • This convertase, the alternative pathway C3-convertase, although only produced in small amounts, can cleave multiple C3 proteins into C3a and C3b. (wikipedia.org)
  • bacteria
  • By definition, prebiotics are non-digestible components of feed that stimulate the growth and/or activity of beneficial bacteria in the digestive system and promote the gut and general health of the host [ 1 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • The complement system has proven so effective at neutralizing microorganisms, such as bacteria, that the system has been conserved across hundreds of millions of years of evolution, and there are clear similarities between complement proteins found in sponges and humans (reviewed by Leslie, 2012). (wildimmunity.com)
  • In the late 1800s it was discovered that blood serum could kill bacteria. (wildimmunity.com)
  • In addition to its important task of killing bacteria, it also helps neutralize viruses and parasitic worms, clears dead host cells, form new blood vessels, generate new tissue following injury, and direct formation of new neuronal synapses (Ricklin et al. (wildimmunity.com)
  • Nevertheless, the heat-inactivated serum, when injected into guinea pigs exposed to the cholera bacteria, maintained its ability to protect the animals from illness. (wikipedia.org)
  • pathway
  • Individual complement components can be quantified however this does not provide any information as to the activity of the pathway. (jove.com)
  • The CH 50 is a screening assay for the activation of the classical complement pathway (Fig 1) and it is sensitive to the reduction, absence and/or inactivity of any component of the pathway. (jove.com)
  • The CH 50 tests the functional capability of serum complement components of the classical pathway to lyse sheep red blood cells (SRBC) pre-coated with rabbit anti-sheep red blood cell antibody (haemolysin). (jove.com)
  • When antibody-coated SRBC are incubated with test serum, the classical pathway of complement is activated and haemolysis results. (jove.com)
  • The pathway is triggered when the C3b protein directly binds a microbe. (wikipedia.org)
  • After the creation of C5 convertase (either as (C3b)2BbP or C4b2b3b from the classical pathway), the complement system follows the same path regardless of the means of activation (alternative, classical, or lectin). (wikipedia.org)
  • Classical complement pathway Lectin pathway Conrad DH, Carlo JR, Ruddy S (June 1978). (wikipedia.org)
  • rabbit
  • Because erythrocytes are lysed in the presence of an increasing amount of complement, the test was done by individually placing the two proteins, along with sheep or rabbit erythrocytes, in blood serum samples from the four species and then measuring the extent of hemolysis. (umn.edu)
  • The yield of IgY from a chicken egg is comparable to that of IgG from rabbit serum. (wikipedia.org)
  • inhibitor
  • However, the isolates lack various genomic regions seen in B. burgdorferi such as the region that code for CspZ (complement inhibitor) and BB_K32 (fibronectin binding protein). (wikipedia.org)
  • Type I and II are caused by a mutation in the SERPING1 gene that makes the C1 inhibitor protein while type III is often due to a mutation of the factor XII gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • human serum
  • The test gives results in 25 minutes with a sensitivity down to 0.04 mg/L. The risk of developing cardiovascular disease is quantified as follows: low: hs-CRP level under 1.0 mg/L average: between 1.0 and 3.0 mg/L high: above 3.0 mg/L Normal concentration in healthy human serum is between 5 and 10 mg/L, increasing with aging. (wikipedia.org)
  • antigens
  • ABO) or autoantibodies to RBC antigens (as seen in autoimmune hemolytic anemia, AIHA) leading to complement activation are potentially harmful and can be - especially when leading to intravascular lysis - fatal 1 . (jove.com)
  • Polysaccharide antigens tend to induce more IgA2 than protein antigens. (wikipedia.org)
  • binds
  • The complex is believed to be unstable until it binds properdin, a serum protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • Complement factor H preferentially binds to vertebrate cells (because of affinity for sialic acid residues), allowing preferential protection of host (as opposed to bacterial) cells from complement-mediated damage. (wikipedia.org)
  • assay
  • This is due in large part to the fact that IgY cannot be bound with Protein A and Protein G. Thus, it cannot be separated from other components of the assay, for example from other proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Serum concentration of autoantibodies against 60-kDa heat-shock protein (anti-hsp60) was measured by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method. (ahajournals.org)
  • pathogen
  • These results show that P. pneumotropica has evolved mechanisms to evade the human complement system that may increase the efficiency by which this pathogen is able to gain access to and colonize inner tissues where it may cause severe infections. (jove.com)
  • antimicrobial
  • The heat-stable component was responsible for immunity against specific microorganisms, whereas the heat-sensitive component was responsible for the non-specific antimicrobial activity conferred by all normal sera. (wikipedia.org)
  • microorganisms
  • Both fragments play a vital role in killing microorganisms and in eliminating targets of complement action. (jimmunol.org)
  • In 1890 he described alexins, or "protective substances", which exist in the blood serum and other bodily fluid and are capable of killing microorganisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • receptor
  • C-reactive protein was the first pattern recognition receptor (PRR) to be identified. (wikipedia.org)
  • see B-cell receptor) It is also possible to distinguish forms of IgA based upon their location - serum IgA vs. secretory IgA. (wikipedia.org)
  • proteases
  • Basic proteases (or alkaline proteases) Proteases are involved in digesting long protein chains into shorter fragments by splitting the peptide bonds that link amino acid residues. (wikipedia.org)
  • spirochetes
  • Moreover, ectopic expression of HcpA in a B. burgdorferi B313 strain, deficient in Factor H binding proteins, protected the transformed spirochetes from complement-mediated killing. (jove.com)
  • Mayonii spirochetes in blood smears indicate a positive infection for Lyme disease caused by B. mayonii. (wikipedia.org)
  • infections
  • This repertoire of immunoglobulins is crucial for the newborns who are very sensitive to infections above all for the respiratory and digestive systems. (wikipedia.org)
  • cells
  • Therefore, the purpose of SPICE may be to create a microenvironment around variola-infected cells to protect them from complement-mediated attack while they serve as a site of viral replication. (umn.edu)
  • Contrary to popular belief, haemoglobin is not a blood protein, as it is carried within red blood cells, rather than in the blood serum. (wikipedia.org)
  • Of the three strategies, complement depletion offers the advantages of being fast, inexpensive, gentle on the cells and a high cell yield. (jove.com)
  • Here, it is released by mast cells and causes activation of complement and kinins. (wikipedia.org)
  • the ratio of IgA1 and IgA2 secreting cells varies in the different lymphoid tissues of the human body: IgA1 is the predominant IgA subclass found in serum. (wikipedia.org)
  • substrate
  • Then after treatment of Ag-Ab complex modified substrate by guinea-pig blood serum containing highly active complement system proteins for 3 minutes and 30 minutes features 2-3 times and 5-8 times higher in diameter and in height if compared with those observed after formation of Ag-Ab complex, were observed respectively on the surface of SiO2. (edu.pl)
  • complexes
  • Henoch-Schönlein purpura is a small-vessel vasculitis in which complexes of immunoglobulin A (IgA) and complement component 3 (C3) are deposited on arterioles, capillaries, and venules. (wikipedia.org)
  • antibody
  • The shape and size of complement system C1 components assembled on a SiO2 surface after classical activation by antigen-antibody complex was determined by tapping mode atomic force microscopy (AFM). (edu.pl)
  • J.W Goers, V.N. Schumaker, M.M. Glovsky, J. Rebek and H.J. Muller-Eberhard: "Complement activation by a univalent hapten-antibody complex", J. Biol. (edu.pl)
  • Immunoglobulin Y (abbreviated as IgY) is a type of immunoglobulin which is the major antibody in bird, reptile, and lungfish blood. (wikipedia.org)
  • Antibody-containing blood serums, on the other hand, can sometimes be directly used in bioanalysis, i.e., without complicated isolation steps. (wikipedia.org)
  • IgG is the main type of antibody found in blood and extracellular fluid allowing it to control infection of body tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • vitro
  • By 1884, several laboratories had demonstrated that serum from guinea pigs that had recovered from cholera killed the cholera bacterium in vitro. (wikipedia.org)
  • variola
  • The fact that SPICE functions better against human complement quantitatively and qualitatively demonstrates that variola exhibits human preference at the protein level, a concept previously suggested, but not shown," the report states. (umn.edu)
  • The report concludes, "Assuming that complement is as critical to orthopoxvirus containment in humans as it is in rodents, SPICE seems to be a virulence factor for variola virus. (umn.edu)
  • humans
  • To study whether the effect of SPICE is specific to human complement, the experimenters also compared the ability of SPICE and VCP to inhibit complement from humans, dogs, guinea pigs, and baboons. (umn.edu)
  • Serum sickness in humans is a reaction to proteins in antiserum derived from a non-human animal source, occurring 5-10 days after exposure. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are four IgG subclasses (IgG1, 2, 3, and 4) in humans, named in order of their abundance in serum (IgG1 being the most abundant). (wikipedia.org)
  • component
  • Previously we have found a highly significant association between the morbidity and mortality of myocardial infarction and C4B*Q0, the silent allele of 1 of the 2 genes encoding C4, a component of the complement system. (ahajournals.org)
  • vessels
  • Alongside these primary and secondary lymphoid organs, there is also the lymphatic circulatory system of vessels and capillaries that communicate with the blood supply and transport the lymph fluid throughout the bird's body. (wikipedia.org)
  • Furthermore
  • Furthermore, thirty-five strains and their corresponding serum samples were used to analyze the cross-protections and antigenic diversities among different subgenogroups (C4a, C5, B4, B5b, B5c, and C2-like) of EV-71. (jove.com)
  • Furthermore BacMam viruses are inactivated by human complement, which reduces risk to researchers. (wikipedia.org)
  • capsid
  • The virions (virus particles) themselves contain their genome in a protein capsid 700 Å in diameter. (wikipedia.org)
  • A mature virion has cubic symmetry, two or three capsid proteins, a diameter of approximately 20 nm, 32 capsomeres, no envelope or essential lipids, and a weight of 5.3 × 106 daltons. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cells
  • Cotransfection of an episome that expresses enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) allows for easy identification of transfected cells. (jove.com)
  • Any of the large phagocytic cells of the reticuloendothelial system. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Macrophages are the single most abundant cell in the human body, more numerous than skin cells or red blood cells. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • See also Kupffer cells , phagocyte , reticuloendothelial system . (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Plasma cell dyscrasias (also termed plasma cell disorders and plasma cell proliferative diseases) are a spectrum of progressively more severe monoclonal gammopathies in which a clone or multiple clones of pre-malignant or malignant plasma cells (sometimes in association with lymphoplasmacytoid cells or B lymphocytes) over-produce and secrete into the blood stream a myeloma protein, i.e. an abnormal monoclonal antibody or portion thereof. (wikipedia.org)
  • this disorder is a form of plasma cell dyscrasia in which no myeloma protein is detected in serum or urine (at least as determined by conventional laboratory methods) of individuals who have clear evidence of an increase in clonal bone marrow plasma cells and/or evidence of clonal plasma cell-mediated tissue injury (e.g. plasmacytoma tumors). (wikipedia.org)
  • These multipotent stem cells live in the marrow sinusoids and are capable of producing all types of blood cells depending on the signals they receive. (wikipedia.org)
  • PBMC layers contain mononuclear cells that have been depleted of red blood cells, leukocytes and granulocytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hematopoietic cells are killed by ionizing radiation, and the hematopoietic system is replaced by transfusion of donor bone marrow or purified hematopoietic stem cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • This had the effect of increasing the speed of cooling of the kidney and removed red cells from the vascular system. (wikipedia.org)
  • differential
  • 290. Mitra S., Ghantasala S., Sameer Kumar GS, Lakshmi BJ, Thakur SS, Kumar S. Absence of Wdr13 gene predisposes mice to mild social isolation - chronic stress, leading to depression-like phenotype associated with differential expression of synaptic proteins. (gov.pl)
  • Differential agglutination of normal and sensitized sheep erythrocytes by sera of patients with rheumatoid arthritis. (springer.com)
  • extracellular
  • Function: The function of this protein domain is to bind to the extracellular matrix of the host, most notably fibronectin, collagen, and laminin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unlike animal PRRs, which associated with intracellular kinases via adaptor proteins (see non-RD kinases below), plant PRRs are composed of an extracellular domain, transmembrane domain, juxtamembrane domain and intracellular kinase domain as part of a single protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • Recognition of extracellular or endosomal pathogen-associated molecular patterns is mediated by transmembrane proteins known as toll-like receptors (TLRs). (wikipedia.org)
  • vectors
  • With this reason, integration-free and/or transgene-free human iPSCs have been developed using several methods, such as adenovirus, the piggyBac system, minicircle vector, episomal vectors, direct protein delivery and synthesized mRNA. (jove.com)
  • antigen
  • A separate replication-deficient plasmid expressing Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen 1 ( EBNA1 ) is also added to the reaction mixture for increased expression of episomal proteins. (jove.com)
  • mRNA
  • As a result, these mRNA molecules are silenced, by one or more of the following processes: Cleavage of the mRNA strand into two pieces, Destabilization of the mRNA through shortening of its poly(A) tail, and Less efficient translation of the mRNA into proteins by ribosomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • isolated the lin-4 gene, they found that instead of producing an mRNA encoding a protein, it produced short non-coding RNAs, one of which was a ~22-nucleotide RNA that contained sequences partially complementary to multiple sequences in the 3' UTR of the lin-14 mRNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • This complementarity was proposed to inhibit the translation of the lin-14 mRNA into the LIN-14 protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • diameter
  • In general, megakaryocytes are 10 to 15 times larger than a typical red blood cell, averaging 50-100 μm in diameter. (wikipedia.org)
  • donor
  • The ENAs consist of ribonucleoproteins and non-histone proteins, named by either the name of the donor who provided the prototype serum (Sm, Ro, La, Jo), or the name of the disease setting in which the antibodies were found (SS-A, SS-B, Scl-70). (wikipedia.org)
  • Chromosome
  • important interventions will explore receptor on exchange growing, diastolic signal changes, lymphatic implantation systems Chromosome, findings determining on cysts, and acute glomerulosclerosis page. (adams-farm.com)
  • Thrombopoietin (TPO) is a 353-amino acid protein encoded on chromosome 3p27. (wikipedia.org)
  • human
  • Waaler E. On the occurrence of a factor in human serum activating the specific agglutination of sheep blood corpuscles. (springer.com)
  • Here, we present a method to isolate human iPSCs by using Sendai-virus (RNA virus) based reprogramming system. (jove.com)
  • In some cases, the nucleus may contain up to 64N DNA, or 32 copies of the normal complement of DNA in a human cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cytoplasm continues to expand and the DNA complement can increase up to 64N in human and 256N in mouse. (wikipedia.org)
  • commonly
  • The overproduced Ig's, termed myeloma proteins, commonly circulate in blood, may accumulate in urine, and are the hallmarks of plasma cell dyscrasias including their most malignant forms viz. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecules
  • The protein bound nature of the loop diuretic molecules causes it to be secreted via several transporter molecules along luminal wall of the proximal convoluted tubules to be able to exert its function. (wikipedia.org)
  • This cellular filter, separating the central nervous system from the circulatory system, normally prevents larger molecules from entering the brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • vaccines
  • The resources mediating these NPs can accomplish associated to be proteins of the sequence to be dominant settings of the NPs and to know intracellular observations of these vaccines. (adams-farm.com)
  • Some of the drugs associated with serum sickness are: allopurinol barbiturates captopril cephalosporins griseofulvin penicillins phenytoin procainamide quinidine streptokinase sulfonamides rituximab ibuprofen infliximab Allergenic extracts, hormones and vaccines can also cause serum sickness. (wikipedia.org)
  • detection
  • At the other end of this spectrum, detection of the myeloid protein indicates the presence of a hematological malignancy, i.e. multiple myeloma, Waldenström's macroglobulinemia, or other B cell-associated neoplasm, that derives stepwise from its MGUS precursors. (wikipedia.org)
  • prostaglandins
  • A secondary effect of loop diuretics is to increase the production of prostaglandins, which results in vasodilation and increased blood supply to the kidney. (wikipedia.org)
  • diseases
  • Howell DS, Malcolm JM, Pike H. The FII agglutinating factors in the serum of patients with nonrheumatic diseases. (springer.com)
  • urine
  • The second phase consists of the selection of blood, urine, and imaging studies that are needed to investigate the possibilities raised in the first phase. (springer.com)
  • different angiotensin-converting shop Let Us Talk of Many outcomes in 1998 want prior 1,700 for blood, 550 for cardiac Source Survival, 5,100 for rate and 2,000 for urine. (adams-farm.com)
  • Without such a concentrated medulla, water has less of an osmotic driving force to leave the collecting duct system, ultimately resulting in increased urine production. (wikipedia.org)
  • vascular
  • In addition, there are cardiopulmonary and vascular changes, including a significant decrease in red blood cell mass, that affect skeletal muscle function. (wikipedia.org)
  • These methods of surface cooling were improved by the introduction of techniques in which the kidney's vascular system was flushed out with cold fluid prior to storage. (wikipedia.org)
  • nucleus
  • A megakaryocyte (mega- + karyo- + -cyte, "large-nucleus cell") is a large bone marrow cell with a lobulated nucleus responsible for the production of blood thrombocytes (platelets), which are necessary for normal blood clotting. (wikipedia.org)
  • found
  • In molecular biology, trimeric autotransporter adhesins (TAAs), are proteins found on the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • Serum NMDA-receptor antibodies are consistently found at higher concentrations than cerebrospinal fluid antibodies, on average ten times higher. (wikipedia.org)
  • Aquaporin 4 is found in the astrocytes that surround the blood-brain barrier (BBB), a system responsible for preventing substances in the blood from crossing into the brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • specific
  • PPD ® Laboratories' central lab offers a complete menu of autoimmune, inflammatory and allergy testing, including high throughput of specific IgE blood (sIgE) testing, plasma protein determination and analysis of interleukins (IL). (ppdi.com)
  • normal
  • yvette@adams-farm.com Although shop Let Us Talk of Many Things: The Collected Annals to remove Thromboxanes with normal CHF use called over the unable failure, implantable Cysteine of systems who have nonhormonal pumps for these myocardial Significance forms tends often used physiologically. (adams-farm.com)
  • Prior to this, kidneys had been stored at normal body temperatures using blood or diluted blood perfusates, but no successful reimplantations had been made. (wikipedia.org)
  • type
  • The inflammatory lesions in Devic's disease have been classified as type II lesions (complement-mediated demyelinization), but they differ from MS pattern II lesions in their prominent perivascular distribution. (wikipedia.org)
  • production
  • Other experiments show that a single miRNA species may repress the production of hundreds of proteins, but that this repression often is relatively mild (much less than 2-fold). (wikipedia.org)
  • acute
  • Blood and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid were collected from 35 patients with acute lung injury (ALI)/ARDS, 14 patients at risk from ARDS and 7 ventilated controls at baseline and after 4 days' treatment with placebo or salbutamol (ALI/ARDS group). (bmj.com)
  • During this acute phase, most patients require treatment in an intensive care unit to stabilize breathing, heart rate, and blood pressure. (wikipedia.org)
  • A variety of reasons for such a collapse in integrity have been suggested, with the most likely answer being the effects of acute inflammation of the nervous system. (wikipedia.org)
  • infection
  • If the removed tick was full of blood, a single dose of doxycycline may be used to prevent development of infection, but is not generally recommended since development of infection is rare. (wikipedia.org)
  • These sera or antitoxins are generally administered to prevent or treat an infection or envenomation. (wikipedia.org)
  • plasma
  • 1 For clinical purposes, C-reactive protein (CRP) is gradually gaining acceptance as the most useful inflammatory plasma marker. (ahajournals.org)
  • This experimental model used a storage temperature of 8 °C and a Plasma Protein Fraction (PPF) based perfusate. (wikipedia.org)
  • He used diluted plasma or serum as the perfusate and pointed out the necessity for low perfusate pressures to prevent kidney swelling, but admitted that the optimum values for such variables as perfusate temperature, Po2, and flow, remained unknown. (wikipedia.org)
  • vitro
  • Kiser used this technique to achieve successful 7 hours in vitro storage of a dog kidney, when the kidney had been flushed at 5 °C with a mixture of dextran and diluted blood prior to storage. (wikipedia.org)
  • receptor
  • 12 Evidence from murine atherosclerosis models suggests that initial leukocyte adhesion to the endothelium is mediated via KC, the murine equivalent of IL-8, whereas subsequent interaction between monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and its receptor CCR1 is essential for transendothelial diapedesis and recruitment into the subendothelial space. (ahajournals.org)
  • Achieve
  • Achieve blood alcohol levels of 60 mg% when access to alcohol is restricted to 60 min per day (Le et al, 1994). (spotidoc.com)
  • pressure
  • For example, an increase in blood pressure would force larger proteins, such as antibodies, to extravasate into the cerebrospinal fluid. (wikipedia.org)
  • rashes itching joint pain (arthralgia), especially finger and toe joints fever, as high as 40 °C and usually appears before rash lymphadenopathy (swelling of lymph nodes), particularly near the site of injection, head and neck malaise hypotension (decreased blood pressure) splenomegaly (enlarged spleen) glomerulonephritis proteinuria hematuria shock Diagnosis is based on history given by patient, including recent medications. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cell
  • Ca2+ entrance via turned on TRPC was improved when PUFA had been absent, recommending a double-gating system for Danshensu TRPC which may be involved with MCF breasts cancer tumor cell proliferation and invasion. (cancercurehere.com)