• antimicrobial
  • The heat-stable component was responsible for immunity against specific microorganisms, whereas the heat-sensitive component was responsible for the non-specific antimicrobial activity conferred by all normal sera. (wikipedia.org)
  • human complement system
  • Jun 10, 2002 (CIDRAP News) The smallpox virus has a protein that inhibits the human complement system far more effectively than does its counterpart protein in the closely related vaccinia virus, used in smallpox vaccine, according to researchers who compared the two proteins. (umn.edu)
  • Here, we show for the first time that P. pneumotropica is able to survive the bactericidal activity of the human complement system. (jove.com)
  • These results show that P. pneumotropica has evolved mechanisms to evade the human complement system that may increase the efficiency by which this pathogen is able to gain access to and colonize inner tissues where it may cause severe infections. (jove.com)
  • pathways of complement
  • Because SPICE efficiently inhibits the stability of human C3b and C4b, it essentially inactivates the convertases and, therefore, both the classical and alternative pathways of complement," the report says. (umn.edu)
  • C5 convertases of the alternative and classical pathways of complement are complex serine proteases that are made up of two or more subunits ( 1 , 6 , 7 , 8 , 9 , 10 , 11 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • macrophages
  • Here, we describe methods for distinguishing macrophages from microglia in the CNS using an irradiation bone marrow chimera to obtain animals in which only macrophages or microglia are labeled with a genetically encoded green fluorescent protein. (jove.com)
  • It is an acute-phase protein of hepatic origin that increases following interleukin-6 secretion by macrophages and T cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is thought to assist in complement binding to foreign and damaged cells and enhances phagocytosis by macrophages (opsonin-mediated phagocytosis), which express a receptor for CRP. (wikipedia.org)
  • But significant amounts are also produced by tissue macrophages, blood monocytes, and epithelial cells of the genitourinary system and gastrointestinal tract. (wikipedia.org)
  • C5a interact with receptor protein C5aR (CD88) on the surface of target cells such as macrophages, neutrophils and endothelial cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • enzymes
  • The research team, led by Ariella M. Rosengard of the University of Pittsburgh, molecularly engineered and analyzed what they call "smallpox inhibitor of complement enzymes," or SPICE. (umn.edu)
  • This is the case for digestive enzymes such as trypsin which have to be able to cleave the array of proteins ingested into smaller peptide fragments. (wikipedia.org)
  • cleave
  • The results suggest that in serum convertases formed with monomeric C3b will be relatively inefficient in capturing C5 but will continue to cleave C3 opsonizing the cell surface for phagocytosis, whereas convertases formed with C3b-C3b complexes in areas of high C3b density will primarily cleave C5. (jimmunol.org)
  • This change in shape allows the binding of plasma protein Factor B, which allows Factor D to cleave Factor B into Ba and Bb. (wikipedia.org)
  • rabbit
  • Because erythrocytes are lysed in the presence of an increasing amount of complement, the test was done by individually placing the two proteins, along with sheep or rabbit erythrocytes, in blood serum samples from the four species and then measuring the extent of hemolysis. (umn.edu)
  • The yield of IgY from a chicken egg is comparable to that of IgG from rabbit serum. (wikipedia.org)
  • fixation
  • MAb with a high efficiency for complement fixation typically deplete 95-100% of the targeted cell population. (jove.com)
  • COMPLEMENT FIXATION meaning in English, значение слова. (slovar-vocab.com)
  • Еще значения слова и перевод COMPLEMENT FIXATION с английского на русский язык в англо-русских словарях. (slovar-vocab.com)
  • Перевод COMPLEMENT FIXATION с русского на английский язык в русско-английских словарях. (slovar-vocab.com)
  • More meanings of this word and English-Russian, Russian-English translations for COMPLEMENT FIXATION in dictionaries. (slovar-vocab.com)
  • inhibitor
  • Variola virus immune evasion design: expression of a highly efficient inhibitor of human complement. (umn.edu)
  • Type I and II are caused by a mutation in the SERPING1 gene that makes the C1 inhibitor protein while type III is often due to a mutation of the factor XII gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, the isolates lack various genomic regions seen in B. burgdorferi such as the region that code for CspZ (complement inhibitor) and BB_K32 (fibronectin binding protein). (wikipedia.org)
  • immunology
  • Basic immunology Functions and Disorders of the Immune System (4th ed., p. 40). (wikipedia.org)
  • The study of the molecular and cellular components that form the immune system, including their function and interaction, is the central science of immunology. (wikipedia.org)
  • The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to immunology: Immunology is the study of all aspects of the immune system in all organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Online lectures in immunology University of South Carolina BRT-Burleson Research Technologies Tests the effects of pharmaceuticals in the developmental stage on the immune system. (wikipedia.org)
  • lysis
  • ABO) or autoantibodies to RBC antigens (as seen in autoimmune hemolytic anemia, AIHA) leading to complement activation are potentially harmful and can be - especially when leading to intravascular lysis - fatal 1 . (jove.com)
  • receptor
  • C-reactive protein was the first pattern recognition receptor (PRR) to be identified. (wikipedia.org)
  • see B-cell receptor) It is also possible to distinguish forms of IgA based upon their location - serum IgA vs. secretory IgA. (wikipedia.org)
  • C5aR is a member of the G-protein-coupled receptor superfamily of proteins, predicted to have seven transmembrane helical domains of largely hydrophobic amino acid residues, forming three intra- and three extra-cellular loops, with an extracellular N-terminus and an intracellular C-terminus. (wikipedia.org)
  • The latter interaction leads to receptor activation, and the transduction of the ligand binding signal across the cell plasma membrane to the cytoplasmic G protein Gi type GNAI2. (wikipedia.org)
  • assay
  • The CH 50 is a screening assay for the activation of the classical complement pathway (Fig 1) and it is sensitive to the reduction, absence and/or inactivity of any component of the pathway. (jove.com)
  • Serum concentration of autoantibodies against 60-kDa heat-shock protein (anti-hsp60) was measured by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method. (ahajournals.org)
  • This is due in large part to the fact that IgY cannot be bound with Protein A and Protein G. Thus, it cannot be separated from other components of the assay, for example from other proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • fragments
  • Basic proteases (or alkaline proteases) Proteases are involved in digesting long protein chains into shorter fragments by splitting the peptide bonds that link amino acid residues. (wikipedia.org)
  • immunoglobulins
  • This repertoire of immunoglobulins is crucial for the newborns who are very sensitive to infections above all for the respiratory and digestive systems. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cryoglobulinemia, cryoglobulinaemia, or cryoglobulinemic disease, is a medical condition in which the blood contains large amounts of cryoglobulins - proteins (mostly immunoglobulins themselves) that become insoluble at reduced temperatures. (wikipedia.org)
  • vessels
  • Alongside these primary and secondary lymphoid organs, there is also the lymphatic circulatory system of vessels and capillaries that communicate with the blood supply and transport the lymph fluid throughout the bird's body. (wikipedia.org)
  • The precipitated clump can block blood vessels and cause toes and fingers to become gangrenous. (wikipedia.org)
  • component
  • Previously we have found a highly significant association between the morbidity and mortality of myocardial infarction and C4B*Q0, the silent allele of 1 of the 2 genes encoding C4, a component of the complement system. (ahajournals.org)
  • typically
  • No fasting is required when preparing for the complement C3 test, and patients typically receive results within two to three days. (walkinlab.com)
  • Cryoglobulins typically precipitate at temperatures below normal body temperature - 37 degrees Celsius (99 degrees Fahrenheit) - and will dissolve again if the blood is heated. (wikipedia.org)
  • spirochetes
  • Moreover, ectopic expression of HcpA in a B. burgdorferi B313 strain, deficient in Factor H binding proteins, protected the transformed spirochetes from complement-mediated killing. (jove.com)
  • Mayonii spirochetes in blood smears indicate a positive infection for Lyme disease caused by B. mayonii. (wikipedia.org)
  • cells
  • Therefore, the purpose of SPICE may be to create a microenvironment around variola-infected cells to protect them from complement-mediated attack while they serve as a site of viral replication. (umn.edu)
  • Contrary to popular belief, haemoglobin is not a blood protein, as it is carried within red blood cells, rather than in the blood serum. (wikipedia.org)
  • Of the three strategies, complement depletion offers the advantages of being fast, inexpensive, gentle on the cells and a high cell yield. (jove.com)
  • According to the recent hypothesis of Wick et al, 13 different stimuli leading to activation of endothelial cells may increase expression of heat-shock proteins (hsp) in these cells and induce cellular and humoral immune responses against these proteins or enhance preexisting immune responses. (ahajournals.org)
  • This is achieved by white blood cells called lymphocytes, which produce two general types of immune responses. (coursehero.com)
  • the ratio of IgA1 and IgA2 secreting cells varies in the different lymphoid tissues of the human body: IgA1 is the predominant IgA subclass found in serum. (wikipedia.org)
  • Here, it is released by mast cells and causes activation of complement and kinins. (wikipedia.org)
  • This should be contrasted with cold agglutinins, which cause agglutination of red blood cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • White blood cells are activated by upregulation of integrin avidity, the lipoxygenase pathway and arachidonic acid metabolism. (wikipedia.org)
  • infection
  • These sera or antitoxins are generally administered to prevent or treat an infection or envenomation. (wikipedia.org)
  • IgG is the main type of antibody found in blood and extracellular fluid allowing it to control infection of body tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • To identify infection of B. mayonii, we can use blood smears, slides with blood samples on them for use with a microscope. (wikipedia.org)
  • antibody
  • Immunoglobulin Y (abbreviated as IgY) is a type of immunoglobulin which is the major antibody in bird, reptile, and lungfish blood. (wikipedia.org)
  • Antibody-containing blood serums, on the other hand, can sometimes be directly used in bioanalysis, i.e., without complicated isolation steps. (wikipedia.org)
  • vitro
  • By 1884, several laboratories had demonstrated that serum from guinea pigs that had recovered from cholera killed the cholera bacterium in vitro. (wikipedia.org)
  • the physical, chemical and physiological characteristics of the components of the immune system in vitro, in situ, and in vivo. (wikipedia.org)
  • variola
  • The fact that SPICE functions better against human complement quantitatively and qualitatively demonstrates that variola exhibits human preference at the protein level, a concept previously suggested, but not shown," the report states. (umn.edu)
  • The report concludes, "Assuming that complement is as critical to orthopoxvirus containment in humans as it is in rodents, SPICE seems to be a virulence factor for variola virus. (umn.edu)
  • humans
  • To study whether the effect of SPICE is specific to human complement, the experimenters also compared the ability of SPICE and VCP to inhibit complement from humans, dogs, guinea pigs, and baboons. (umn.edu)
  • Serum sickness in humans is a reaction to proteins in antiserum derived from a non-human animal source, occurring 5-10 days after exposure. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are four IgG subclasses (IgG1, 2, 3, and 4) in humans, named in order of their abundance in serum (IgG1 being the most abundant). (wikipedia.org)