• antimicrobial
  • The heat-stable component was responsible for immunity against specific microorganisms, whereas the heat-sensitive component was responsible for the non-specific antimicrobial activity conferred by all normal sera. (wikipedia.org)
  • enzymes
  • The research team, led by Ariella M. Rosengard of the University of Pittsburgh, molecularly engineered and analyzed what they call "smallpox inhibitor of complement enzymes," or SPICE. (umn.edu)
  • This is the case for digestive enzymes such as trypsin which have to be able to cleave the array of proteins ingested into smaller peptide fragments. (wikipedia.org)
  • cascade
  • When stimulated by one of several triggers, proteases in the system cleave specific proteins to release cytokines and initiate an amplifying cascade of further cleavages. (wikipedia.org)
  • cleave
  • This change in shape allows the binding of plasma protein Factor B, which allows Factor D to cleave Factor B into Ba and Bb. (wikipedia.org)
  • This convertase, the alternative pathway C3-convertase, although only produced in small amounts, can cleave multiple C3 proteins into C3a and C3b. (wikipedia.org)
  • rabbit
  • Because erythrocytes are lysed in the presence of an increasing amount of complement, the test was done by individually placing the two proteins, along with sheep or rabbit erythrocytes, in blood serum samples from the four species and then measuring the extent of hemolysis. (umn.edu)
  • The yield of IgY from a chicken egg is comparable to that of IgG from rabbit serum. (wikipedia.org)
  • fixation
  • MAb with a high efficiency for complement fixation typically deplete 95-100% of the targeted cell population. (jove.com)
  • COMPLEMENT FIXATION meaning in English, значение слова. (slovar-vocab.com)
  • Еще значения слова и перевод COMPLEMENT FIXATION с английского на русский язык в англо-русских словарях. (slovar-vocab.com)
  • Перевод COMPLEMENT FIXATION с русского на английский язык в русско-английских словарях. (slovar-vocab.com)
  • More meanings of this word and English-Russian, Russian-English translations for COMPLEMENT FIXATION in dictionaries. (slovar-vocab.com)
  • inhibitor
  • Variola virus immune evasion design: expression of a highly efficient inhibitor of human complement. (umn.edu)
  • Type I and II are caused by a mutation in the SERPING1 gene that makes the C1 inhibitor protein while type III is often due to a mutation of the factor XII gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, the isolates lack various genomic regions seen in B. burgdorferi such as the region that code for CspZ (complement inhibitor) and BB_K32 (fibronectin binding protein). (wikipedia.org)
  • immunology
  • COMPLEMENT - in immunology, a complex system of more than 30 proteins that act in concert to help eliminate infectious microorganisms. (slovar-vocab.com)
  • Basic immunology Functions and Disorders of the Immune System (4th ed., p. 40). (wikipedia.org)
  • The study of the molecular and cellular components that form the immune system, including their function and interaction, is the central science of immunology. (wikipedia.org)
  • The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to immunology: Immunology is the study of all aspects of the immune system in all organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Online lectures in immunology University of South Carolina BRT-Burleson Research Technologies Tests the effects of pharmaceuticals in the developmental stage on the immune system. (wikipedia.org)
  • lysis
  • ABO) or autoantibodies to RBC antigens (as seen in autoimmune hemolytic anemia, AIHA) leading to complement activation are potentially harmful and can be - especially when leading to intravascular lysis - fatal 1 . (jove.com)
  • human serum
  • The test gives results in 25 minutes with a sensitivity down to 0.04 mg/L. The risk of developing cardiovascular disease is quantified as follows: low: hs-CRP level under 1.0 mg/L average: between 1.0 and 3.0 mg/L high: above 3.0 mg/L Normal concentration in healthy human serum is between 5 and 10 mg/L, increasing with aging. (wikipedia.org)
  • assay
  • Serum concentration of autoantibodies against 60-kDa heat-shock protein (anti-hsp60) was measured by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method. (ahajournals.org)
  • This is due in large part to the fact that IgY cannot be bound with Protein A and Protein G. Thus, it cannot be separated from other components of the assay, for example from other proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • pathogen
  • These results show that P. pneumotropica has evolved mechanisms to evade the human complement system that may increase the efficiency by which this pathogen is able to gain access to and colonize inner tissues where it may cause severe infections. (jove.com)
  • binds
  • The complex is believed to be unstable until it binds properdin, a serum protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • Complement factor H preferentially binds to vertebrate cells (because of affinity for sialic acid residues), allowing preferential protection of host (as opposed to bacterial) cells from complement-mediated damage. (wikipedia.org)
  • receptor
  • C-reactive protein was the first pattern recognition receptor (PRR) to be identified. (wikipedia.org)
  • see B-cell receptor) It is also possible to distinguish forms of IgA based upon their location - serum IgA vs. secretory IgA. (wikipedia.org)
  • autoimmune
  • Additionally, this blood test is used to monitor the activity of autoimmune diseases. (walkinlab.com)
  • Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), also known simply as lupus, is an autoimmune disease in which the body's immune system mistakenly attacks healthy tissue in many parts of the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • spirochetes
  • Moreover, ectopic expression of HcpA in a B. burgdorferi B313 strain, deficient in Factor H binding proteins, protected the transformed spirochetes from complement-mediated killing. (jove.com)
  • Mayonii spirochetes in blood smears indicate a positive infection for Lyme disease caused by B. mayonii. (wikipedia.org)
  • complexes
  • Henoch-Schönlein purpura is a small-vessel vasculitis in which complexes of immunoglobulin A (IgA) and complement component 3 (C3) are deposited on arterioles, capillaries, and venules. (wikipedia.org)
  • antibody
  • Immunoglobulin Y (abbreviated as IgY) is a type of immunoglobulin which is the major antibody in bird, reptile, and lungfish blood. (wikipedia.org)
  • Antibody-containing blood serums, on the other hand, can sometimes be directly used in bioanalysis, i.e., without complicated isolation steps. (wikipedia.org)
  • IgG is the main type of antibody found in blood and extracellular fluid allowing it to control infection of body tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • vitro
  • By 1884, several laboratories had demonstrated that serum from guinea pigs that had recovered from cholera killed the cholera bacterium in vitro. (wikipedia.org)
  • the physical, chemical and physiological characteristics of the components of the immune system in vitro, in situ, and in vivo. (wikipedia.org)
  • variola
  • Therefore, the purpose of SPICE may be to create a microenvironment around variola-infected cells to protect them from complement-mediated attack while they serve as a site of viral replication. (umn.edu)
  • The fact that SPICE functions better against human complement quantitatively and qualitatively demonstrates that variola exhibits human preference at the protein level, a concept previously suggested, but not shown," the report states. (umn.edu)
  • The report concludes, "Assuming that complement is as critical to orthopoxvirus containment in humans as it is in rodents, SPICE seems to be a virulence factor for variola virus. (umn.edu)
  • cells
  • Contrary to popular belief, haemoglobin is not a blood protein, as it is carried within red blood cells, rather than in the blood serum. (wikipedia.org)
  • Of the three strategies, complement depletion offers the advantages of being fast, inexpensive, gentle on the cells and a high cell yield. (jove.com)
  • According to the recent hypothesis of Wick et al, 13 different stimuli leading to activation of endothelial cells may increase expression of heat-shock proteins (hsp) in these cells and induce cellular and humoral immune responses against these proteins or enhance preexisting immune responses. (ahajournals.org)
  • This is achieved by white blood cells called lymphocytes, which produce two general types of immune responses. (coursehero.com)
  • the ratio of IgA1 and IgA2 secreting cells varies in the different lymphoid tissues of the human body: IgA1 is the predominant IgA subclass found in serum. (wikipedia.org)
  • Here, it is released by mast cells and causes activation of complement and kinins. (wikipedia.org)
  • fragments
  • Basic proteases (or alkaline proteases) Proteases are involved in digesting long protein chains into shorter fragments by splitting the peptide bonds that link amino acid residues. (wikipedia.org)
  • humans
  • To study whether the effect of SPICE is specific to human complement, the experimenters also compared the ability of SPICE and VCP to inhibit complement from humans, dogs, guinea pigs, and baboons. (umn.edu)
  • Serum sickness in humans is a reaction to proteins in antiserum derived from a non-human animal source, occurring 5-10 days after exposure. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are four IgG subclasses (IgG1, 2, 3, and 4) in humans, named in order of their abundance in serum (IgG1 being the most abundant). (wikipedia.org)
  • vessels
  • Alongside these primary and secondary lymphoid organs, there is also the lymphatic circulatory system of vessels and capillaries that communicate with the blood supply and transport the lymph fluid throughout the bird's body. (wikipedia.org)
  • Furthermore
  • Furthermore, thirty-five strains and their corresponding serum samples were used to analyze the cross-protections and antigenic diversities among different subgenogroups (C4a, C5, B4, B5b, B5c, and C2-like) of EV-71. (jove.com)
  • Furthermore BacMam viruses are inactivated by human complement, which reduces risk to researchers. (wikipedia.org)
  • symptoms
  • They can also cause more reactions resulting in typical symptoms of serum sickness. (wikipedia.org)
  • Females tend to have a greater number of relapses, a low white blood cell count, more arthritis, Raynaud's phenomenon, and psychiatric symptoms. (wikipedia.org)
  • infection
  • These sera or antitoxins are generally administered to prevent or treat an infection or envenomation. (wikipedia.org)
  • To identify infection of B. mayonii, we can use blood smears, slides with blood samples on them for use with a microscope. (wikipedia.org)