• molecules
  • The "windows" in the other endothelial cells in the body are protein portals that allow large molecules to pass through easily - to be filtered by the kidneys, for example. (redorbit.com)
  • This indicates the protective benefits of Thbd on blood making cells in irradiated mouse models depends on the help of additional cells or molecules in the body, which the researchers are trying to identify in a follow-up study. (bio-medicine.org)
  • As a result, molecules that are negatively charged such as deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), ribonucleic acid (RNA), and protein are pulled toward the positive end of the gel. (encyclopedia.com)
  • They accurately tease-out vanishingly small concentrations of proteins and other molecules that help give a picture of overall health or signal the presence of specific diseases. (phys.org)
  • The FACTT technology uses a different enzyme amplification system so quantitative signals can be obtained from even a few protein molecules compared to ELISA. (innovations-report.com)
  • A set of proteins found in our intestines can recognize and kill bacteria that have human blood type molecules on their surfaces, scientists at Emory University School of Medicine have discovered. (eurekalert.org)
  • Many immune cells have receptors that respond to molecules on the surfaces of bacteria, but these proteins are different because they recognize structures found on our own cells, says senior author Richard D. Cummings, PhD, professor and chair of the Department of Biochemistry. (eurekalert.org)
  • Blood type comes from differences in sugar molecules attached to proteins on red blood cells. (eurekalert.org)
  • But someone's immune system usually doesn't make antibodies to the sugar molecules on his or her own red blood cells. (eurekalert.org)
  • For example, a strain of E. coli (O86) has molecules on its surface like those in humans with blood type B. People with blood type B are unable to produce antibodies against E. coli O86. (eurekalert.org)
  • Searching for proteins that could bind to the sugar molecules characteristic of blood types A and B, graduate students Sean Stowell, PhD, and Connie Arthur identified proteins called galectin-4 and galectin-8. (eurekalert.org)
  • Cummings notes the unique properties of galectins-4 and -8 may provide an explanation for why the human population has such a diversity of sugar molecules on blood cells. (eurekalert.org)
  • Galectins may have allowed the generation of a diverse group of blood type sugar molecules in human tissues as a safe set of molecules to evolve because immunity is backstopped by galectins, Cummings says. (eurekalert.org)
  • The lipid bilayer is the barrier that keeps ions, proteins and other molecules where they are needed and prevents them from diffusing into areas where they should not be. (wikipedia.org)
  • scientists
  • Abalone are edible, blue-blooded sea snails, and scientists have now found that the protein that makes their blood blue can also block the herpes virus from entering human cells. (nutritionreview.org)
  • Scientists in the Molecular Medicine Partnership Unit (MMPU), a collaboration between the European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL) in Heidelberg, Germany, and the University of Heidelberg Medical Centre, have discovered how stressed cells boost the production of the key blood-clotting factor, thrombin. (redorbit.com)
  • Scientists already knew that Frizzled-4 is a protein located on the surface of the cells that create blood vessel walls throughout the body. (redorbit.com)
  • Now, research by Rockefeller scientists has pinned down a protein in the hippocampus - a part of the brain that controls memory, learning and fear - that's essential for maintaining this stress response. (phys.org)
  • Her2/neu proteins were in fact first identified by the Greene laboratory in the early 1980s, and the Her2/neu gene was found by other scientists to be overexpressed in breast cancer. (innovations-report.com)
  • lipids
  • Serum albumin accounts for 55% of blood proteins, and is a major contributor to maintaining the osmotic pressure of plasma to assist in the transport of lipids and steroid hormones. (wikipedia.org)
  • Globulins make up 38% of blood proteins and transport ions, hormones, and lipids assisting in immune function. (wikipedia.org)
  • Much of biochemistry deals with the structures, functions and interactions of biological macromolecules, such as proteins, nucleic acids, carbohydrates and lipids, which provide the structure of cells and perform many of the functions associated with life. (wikipedia.org)
  • In some cases, the hydrated region can extend much further, for instance in lipids with a large protein or long sugar chain grafted to the head. (wikipedia.org)
  • clots
  • Blood clots tend to form more often in the veins of people with cancer, a syndrome first described almost 150 years ago by French physician Armand Trousseau. (redorbit.com)
  • So inflammation caused by cancer could lead to increased thrombin levels and, as thrombin is a blood-clotting agent, this could explain why cancer patients are more likely to suffer from blood-clots. (redorbit.com)
  • The pathway is normally known for its ability to prevent the formation of blood clots and help the body fight infections. (bio-medicine.org)
  • The protein tPA (tissue plasminogen activator) is best known for its ability to dissolve blood clots. (phys.org)
  • vessels
  • Aside from its role as a blood-clotting agent, thrombin is also involved in creating new blood vessels, and it is able to degrade the extracellular matrix that keeps cells together. (redorbit.com)
  • So it's possible that the cancer cells are increasing thrombin production to help the tumour spread, by making it easier to invade healthy tissue and creating blood vessels to supply the new tumour cells. (redorbit.com)
  • Working with mice, Johns Hopkins researchers have shed light on the activity of a protein pair found in cells that form the walls of blood vessels in the brain and retina, experiments that could lead to therapeutic control of the blood-brain barrier and of blood vessel growth in the eye. (redorbit.com)
  • The Hopkins researchers say results of the study, published online in Cell on Dec. 7, could have treatment implications for disorders of the retinal blood vessels caused by diabetes, and age-related loss of central vision. (redorbit.com)
  • Therefore, three networked layers of blood vessels are required to fulfill its oxygen needs. (redorbit.com)
  • And in mice missing either Norrin or Frizzled-4, retinal blood vessels grew radially, but they grew slowly and failed to create the second and third networked layers. (redorbit.com)
  • The team also found that mice missing just Frizzled-4, besides having major structural defects in their retinal blood vessels, showed signs of a leaky blood-brain barrier and, similarly, a leaky blood-retina barrier. (redorbit.com)
  • So the body seals off these areas from bloodborne pathogens by tightening the "bolts" between and closing the "windows" of the endothelial cells that form the blood vessels servicing those areas. (redorbit.com)
  • Lack of functional α-GalA leads to accumulation of Gb3 in blood vessels and other tissues, with a wide range of symptoms including kidney, heart, and skin problems. (wikipedia.org)
  • subsequently
  • Some of these mutations result in misfolding of α-GalA, which subsequently fails protein quality control in the endoplasmic reticulum and is decomposed. (wikipedia.org)
  • body's
  • In our not-so-distant evolutionary past, stress often meant imminent danger, and the risk of blood loss, so part of our body's stress response is to stock-pile blood-clotting factors. (redorbit.com)
  • CINCINNATI - New research in Nature Medicine shows that boosting a protein pathway in the body's blood making system protects mice from otherwise fatal radiation poisoning. (bio-medicine.org)
  • humans
  • Genetic mutations that cause Frizzled-4's absence in mice and humans create severe defects in blood vessel development, but only in the retina, the light-absorbing sheet of cells at the back of the eye. (redorbit.com)
  • Their primary blood meal hosts are considered to be birds, but they will feed on humans and other mammals. (wikipedia.org)
  • researchers
  • This, the researchers believe, could explain why people with blood-clotting problems seem to have a higher risk of developing cancer. (redorbit.com)
  • The researchers found the pathway helps blood cells in the bone marrow recover from injury caused by radiation exposure. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Researchers also need to determine exactly why the protective function of the targeted Thbd-aPC protein pathway seems to work so well in mice. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Researchers at the University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine have developed a paradigm-shifting method for detecting small amounts of proteins in the blood. (innovations-report.com)
  • The researchers compared detection of Her2/neu in the blood between ELISA and FACTT. (innovations-report.com)
  • Using ELISA, the researchers could not detect Her2/neu from mouse blood until the tumors reached an inoperable size, but with the new FACTT technology they could detect Her2/Neu in some mice when tumors were barely visible and within two days of implantation. (innovations-report.com)
  • Blood tests of people who display the hostile outbursts that characterize a psychiatric illness known as intermittent explosive disorder show signs of inflammation, researchers say. (drugs.com)
  • bloodstream
  • Although crucial to protecting the central nervous system, the blood-brain barrier also prevents drugs in the bloodstream from getting inside the brain to treat diseases, such as cancer. (redorbit.com)
  • interactions
  • Several deaths are caused by interactions between blood platelets when strokes and heart// attacks take place, which are altogether uncontrolled. (bio-medicine.org)
  • The interactions between platelets in the blood are also prevented because of this. (bio-medicine.org)
  • analyses
  • For this reason we want to take blood samples in MAASTRO clinic of all patients with lung cancer and to store it encrypted so that we can perform DNA and protein analyses in future and to correlate the results with survival and toxicity of the treatment. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • levels
  • Both types of protein act by binding to the cellular machinery that synthesises thrombin, and, under normal conditions, the production-slowing proteins keep thrombin levels low. (redorbit.com)
  • i beleive it was 150 (blood) and protien (1.6)or the other way around are they high levels and what would cause this. (biology-online.org)
  • Increased levels of PTH-related protein with high blood calcium level is usually caused by cancer. (drugs.com)
  • For the study, Coccaro looked at levels of two types of indicators of inflammation in blood: C-reactive protein and interleukin-6. (drugs.com)
  • Elevated levels of these proteins have been linked with aggressive and impulsive behaviors in people and animals. (drugs.com)
  • In studies, upper respiratory tract infections and high blood cholesterol levels (hypercholesterolemia) occurred in more than 10% of patients. (wikipedia.org)
  • functional
  • But the problem is that many of the functional proteins - those that have a role in determining your health - exist in very low amounts until diseases are apparent and cannot be detected or measured at early stages of medical pathology. (innovations-report.com)
  • cells
  • Their work, published today in Molecular Cell, shows how cancer cells may be taking advantage of this process, and opens new possibilities for fighting back, not only against cancer but also against septicaemia, where increased blood clotting is still one of the leading causes of death. (redorbit.com)
  • The amount of thrombin our cells produce is controlled by two sets of proteins: proteins that slow thrombin production, and proteins that speed it up. (redorbit.com)
  • But Danckwardt and colleagues discovered that, when our cells come under stress from inflammation, another protein, called p38 MAPK, reacts by adding a chemical tag to those production-slowing proteins. (redorbit.com)
  • Nathans explains that, normally, these blood vessel endothelial cells contain permeable "windows" and relatively loose "bolts" connecting the cells together. (redorbit.com)
  • Nathans adds, "We now know that endothelial cells that make up the blood-brain barrier have to receive signals constantly from nearby brain or retinal cells telling them, 'You're in the brain. (redorbit.com)
  • This reinforcement of the endothelial cells is what is known as the blood-brain barrier. (redorbit.com)
  • Our research shows that blood vessel cells lacking Frizzled-4 are leaky. (redorbit.com)
  • Part of the Her2/neu molecule is shed from the surface of tumor cells and has been detected in the blood of breast-cancer patients. (innovations-report.com)
  • However, galectins-4 and -8 did not kill human red blood cells expressing blood group antigens. (eurekalert.org)
  • Galectins-4 and-8 were also able to kill another variety of E. coli that display a sugar molecule found on many mammalian cells, although more protein was needed. (eurekalert.org)
  • The encoded protein may play an antioxidant protective role in cells, and may contribute to the antiviral activity of CD8(+) T-cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • VLDL
  • Examples of specific blood proteins: Prealbumin (transthyretin) Alpha 1 antitrypsin (neutralizes trypsin that has leaked from the digestive system) Alpha 1 acid glycoprotein Alpha 1 fetoprotein alpha2-macroglobulin Gamma globulins Beta-2 microglobulin Haptoglobin Ceruloplasmin Complement component 3 Complement component 4 C-reactive protein (CRP) Lipoproteins (chylomicrons, VLDL, LDL, HDL) Transferrin Prothrombin MBL or MBP Anderson NL, Anderson NG (1977). (wikipedia.org)
  • research
  • The blue blood of abalone, a seabed delicacy, could be used to combat common cold sores and related herpes virus based on new research from the University of Sydney. (nutritionreview.org)
  • The raw material for the research came from the blood of black lip abalone found in pristine bays along the Tasmanian coastline. (nutritionreview.org)
  • The protein which is capable of controlling the clotting of blood by preventing blood platelets sticking together has been discovered by a research team belonging to the University of North Carolina. (bio-medicine.org)
  • the Blood Research Institute in Milwaukee, Wis. (bio-medicine.org)
  • barrier
  • The second job, after birth, is to continue signaling to maintain the blood-brain barrier, which gives the brain an extra layer of protection against infection transmitted through the circulatory system. (redorbit.com)
  • They also could help clinicians develop a way to temporarily increase the penetrability of the blood-brain barrier, allowing critical drugs to pass through to the brain, says Jeremy Nathans, M.D., Ph.D., a Howard Hughes researcher and professor of molecular biology and genetics at the Institute for Basic Biomedical Sciences at the Johns Hopkins School of Medicine. (redorbit.com)
  • With this information in hand, we hope that someday it may be possible to temporarily loosen the blood-brain barrier, allowing life-saving drugs to pass through," says Nathans. (redorbit.com)
  • function
  • Proteins can function as receptors, to allow the microorganism to adhere to the surface of a host cell. (encyclopedia.com)
  • She worked on the properties of hemoglobin, regulation of blood sugar level, and kidney function. (wikipedia.org)
  • Vicilin and legumin, from peas and other legumes, function as protein storage within seeds. (wikipedia.org)
  • Integral membrane proteins function when incorporated into a lipid bilayer, and they are held tightly to lipid bilayer with the help of an annular lipid shell. (wikipedia.org)
  • High
  • PhysOrg.com) -- Troubled proteins in need of rescue may someday have a champion in a common drug used to treat high blood pressure. (phys.org)
  • The current ELISA tests can only detect proteins when they are in high abundance," says Zhang. (innovations-report.com)
  • This test is done to find out whether a high blood calcium level is caused by an increase in PTH-related protein. (drugs.com)
  • A high level of PTH-related protein is the cause of a high calcium level in about two-thirds of cancer patients. (drugs.com)
  • inflammation
  • You'll probably have to wait for the results to be sure but the blood is probably a symptom of something else and not a result of the inflammation. (biology-online.org)
  • What we show is that inflammation markers [proteins] are up in these aggressive individuals," said Dr. Emil Coccaro, professor and chair of psychiatry and behavioral neuroscience at the University of Chicago. (drugs.com)
  • The blood test to evaluate inflammation won't be a diagnostic test, however, because the disorder is diagnosed by observation and reports of behavior. (drugs.com)
  • clinical
  • During the clinical tests where patients drank a processed form of Abalone blood they reported a much lower incidence in their cold sore breakouts," says Mr Cutherbertson. (nutritionreview.org)
  • Major retrospective studies are necessary to distinguish the relationship between DNA/protein patterns and clinical relevant endpoints like prognosis and toxicity in which an as broad as possible patient group is being monitored. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Takaiwa is conducting human clinical trials with this riceHuman blood protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • cancer
  • In recent years, doctors have also come to realise that people with activated blood coagulation are more likely to develop cancer. (redorbit.com)
  • Accordingly, recent studies have shown that anti-coagulants may help treat and prevent cancer, but exactly how blood-clotting and cancer progression are linked was unclear "" until now. (redorbit.com)
  • This protein may have a proliferative effect and play a role in cancer development or progression. (wikipedia.org)
  • higher
  • The globulins are a family of globular proteins that have higher molecular weights than albumins and are insoluble in pure water but dissolve in dilute salt solutions. (wikipedia.org)
  • example
  • For example, ABO blood type seems to affect susceptibility to Helicobacter pylori, a bacterium linked to ulcers. (eurekalert.org)
  • species
  • Culex pipiens (the common house mosquito or northern house mosquito) is a species of blood-feeding mosquito of the family Culicidae. (wikipedia.org)
  • normally
  • Normally, joint cartilages have proteoglycan complexes, which are proteins with side chains made of glycosaminoglycans such as keratan sulfate and chondroitin sulfate attached to strands of hyaluronic acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • reveals
  • Their work reveals a dual role for the protein pair, called Norrin/Frizzled-4, in managing the blood vessel network that serves the brain and retina. (redorbit.com)