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  • Disorders
  • Disorders of this protein include alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency, an autosomal codominant hereditary disorder in which a deficiency of alpha-1 antitrypsin leads to a chronic uninhibited tissue breakdown. (wikipedia.org)
  • DNA profiling is today possible with even very small quantities of blood: this is commonly used in forensic science, but is now also part of the diagnostic process of many disorders. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1970s
  • These efforts started with two-dimensional gel electrophoresis efforts in the 1970s and in more recent times this research has been performed using LC-tandem MS based proteomics. (wikipedia.org)
  • alpha 1-antitryp
  • The alpha-1 fraction does not disappear in alpha 1-antitrypsin deficiency, however, because other proteins, including alpha-lipoprotein and orosomucoid, also migrate there. (wikipedia.org)
  • When the blood contains inadequate amounts of A1AT or functionally defective A1AT (such as in alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency), neutrophil elastase is excessively free to break down elastin, degrading the elasticity of the lungs, which results in respiratory complications, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, in adults. (wikipedia.org)
  • concentration
  • As a type of enzyme inhibitor, it protects tissues from enzymes of inflammatory cells, especially neutrophil elastase, and has a reference range in blood of 0.9-2.3 g/L (in the US the reference range is expressed as mg/dL or micromoles), but the concentration can rise manyfold upon acute inflammation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Next to this layer is another solvation layer that is less rigid and, as one moves away from the protein surface, contains a decreasing concentration of counterions and an increasing concentration of co-ions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Water establishes a concentration gradient around the protein, with the highest concentration at the protein surface. (wikipedia.org)
  • As the salt concentration of a solution is increased, the charges on the surface of the protein interact with the salt, not the water, thereby exposing hydrophobic patches on the protein surface and causing the protein to fall out of solution (aggregate and precipitate). (wikipedia.org)
  • Northern blot (RNA) Sexually transmitted diseases Full blood count (or "complete blood count") Hematocrit MCV ("mean corpuscular volume") Mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) Cross-matching. (wikipedia.org)
  • enzyme
  • This protein is a bifunctional enzyme with two distinct active sites. (wikipedia.org)
  • The protein was initially named "antitrypsin" because of its ability to bind and irreversibly inactivate the enzyme trypsin in vitro covalently. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the many decades since, other techniques have been applied as science and technology have advanced, including the use and measurement of enzyme activities, spectrophotometry, electrophoresis, and immunoassay. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecules
  • As a result, molecules that are negatively charged such as deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), ribonucleic acid (RNA), and protein are pulled toward the positive end of the gel. (encyclopedia.com)
  • After electrophoresis, the pieces of DNA appear as bands (composed of similar length DNA molecules) in the electrophoresis matrix. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Once the particles reach a critical size (0.1 µm to 10 µm for high and low shear fields, respectively), by diffusive addition of individual protein molecules to it, they continue to grow by colliding into each other and sticking or flocculating. (wikipedia.org)
  • liver
  • Mutations in these areas can lead to non-functional proteins that can polymerise and accumulate in the liver (infantile hepatic cirrhosis). (wikipedia.org)
  • Because A1AT is expressed in the liver, certain mutations in the gene encoding the protein can cause misfolding and impaired secretion, which can lead to liver cirrhosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • This large array of tests can be categorised into sub-specialities of: General or routine chemistry - commonly ordered blood chemistries (e.g., liver and kidney function tests). (wikipedia.org)
  • electrophoretic
  • SDS-PAGE, sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, describes a collection of related techniques to separate proteins according to their electrophoretic mobility (a function of the length of a polypeptide chain and its charge) while in the denatured (unfolded) state. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus, the electrophoretic mobility depends not only on the charge-to-mass ratio, but also on the physical shape and size of the protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • BN-PAGE is a native PAGE technique, where the Coomassie Brilliant Blue dye provides the necessary charges to the protein complexes for the electrophoretic separation. (wikipedia.org)
  • It uses no charged dye so the electrophoretic mobility of proteins in CN-PAGE (in contrast to the charge shift technique BN-PAGE) is related to the intrinsic charge of the proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gene
  • A set of protein isoforms may be formed from alternative splicings or other post-translational modifications of a single gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Through RNA splicing mechanisms, mRNA has the ability to select different protein-coding segments (exons) of a gene, or even different parts of exons from RNA to form different mRNA sequences. (wikipedia.org)
  • A set of protein isoforms may also result from a set of closely related genes that evolved from a single gene in the past. (wikipedia.org)
  • The discovery of isoforms could explain the discrepancy between the small number of protein coding regions genes revealed by the human genome project and the large diversity of proteins seen in an organism: different proteins encoded by the same gene could increase the diversity of the proteome. (wikipedia.org)
  • One single gene has the ability to produce multiple proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are three main components of a common alternative splicing mechanism: cis-acting regulatory sequences RNA-binding protein splicing factors RNA-RNA base pairing In short, during the transcription process, mRNA may include (enhance) or exclude (silent) one or multiple exons of a gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • These mutations are made in an effort to make a gene encoding a protein that binds the instigating antigen. (wikipedia.org)
  • haptoglobin
  • A protein called haptoglobin, that binds with hemoglobin, is included in the alpha-2 globulin fraction. (walkinlab.com)
  • There are typically low levels in haemolytic anaemia (haptoglobin is a suicide molecule which binds with free haemoglobin released from red blood cells and these complexes are rapidly removed by phagocytes). (wikipedia.org)
  • ions
  • The formation of the ion gradient is achieved by choosing a pH value at which the ions of the buffer are only moderately charged compared to the SDS-coated proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, solvation by ions in an electrolytic solution or water will decrease protein-protein attractive forces. (wikipedia.org)
  • Separation
  • CE analysis of plasma proteins can now be fully automated and also includes bar-code identification of samples, preseparation steps, and direct post-separation quantitation of individual peaks, which permits short assay times and high throughput. (diva-portal.org)
  • Tiselius studied the separation of serum proteins in a tube (subsequently named a Tiselius tube) that contained a solution subjected to an electric field. (encyclopedia.com)
  • assays
  • Another drawback is the potential quenching of chemoluminescence (e.g. in subsequent western blot detection or activity assays) or fluorescence of proteins with prosthetic groups (e.g. heme or chlorophyll) or labelled with fluorescent dyes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The theoretical background for protein microarray-based ligand binding assays was further developed by Roger Ekins and colleagues in the late 1980s. (wikipedia.org)
  • inflammation
  • Lastly, very high protein count can also be due to chronic inflammation in the body due to viral infections or even atypical bacterial infections which is why blood cultures etc should also be done here. (justanswer.com)
  • These bands fuse and intensify in early inflammation due to an increase in alpha-1 antichymotrypsin, an acute phase protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chemistry
  • The 2.5 and 97.5 percentiles for both the percentages of different peaks and the protein concentrations in the peaks are calculated according to the recommendations of the International Federation of Clinical Chemistry on the statistical treatment of reference values. (diva-portal.org)
  • Special chemistry - elaborate techniques such as electrophoresis, and manual testing methods. (wikipedia.org)
  • gene
  • Apolipoprotein C-IV, also known as apolipoprotein C4, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the APOC4 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Heart-type fatty acid binding protein (hFABP) also known as mammary-derived growth inhibitor is a protein that in humans is encoded by the FABP3 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fatty acid-binding protein 3 gene contains four exons and its function is to arrest growth of mammary epithelial cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because A1AT is expressed in the liver, certain mutations in the gene encoding the protein can cause misfolding and impaired secretion, which can lead to liver cirrhosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • 40S ribosomal protein S29 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the RPS29 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • As is typical for genes encoding ribosomal proteins, there are multiple processed pseudogenes of this gene dispersed through the genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • These mutations are made in an effort to make a gene encoding a protein that binds the instigating antigen. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lymphocyte-specific protein 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the LSP1 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • In squamous cell carcinoma, a protein from the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene is often overexpressed in conjunction with polysomy of chromosome 7, so chromosome 7 can be used to predict the presence of EGFR in squamous cell carcinoma. (wikipedia.org)
  • If theHER-2/neu gene does not amplify in the case of polysomy, proteins may be overexpressed and could lead to tumerogenesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • serum
  • Beckman Instruments), using densitometry and the total serum protein value measured by the Vitros 950 analyzer in calculations. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • this disorder is a form of plasma cell dyscrasia in which no myeloma protein is detected in serum or urine (at least as determined by conventional laboratory methods) of individuals who have clear evidence of an increase in clonal bone marrow plasma cells and/or evidence of clonal plasma cell-mediated tissue injury (e.g. plasmacytoma tumors). (wikipedia.org)
  • monoclonal antibody
  • Plasma cell dyscrasias (also termed plasma cell disorders and plasma cell proliferative diseases) are a spectrum of progressively more severe monoclonal gammopathies in which a clone or multiple clones of pre-malignant or malignant plasma cells (sometimes in association with lymphoplasmacytoid cells or B lymphocytes) over-produce and secrete into the blood stream a myeloma protein, i.e. an abnormal monoclonal antibody or portion thereof. (wikipedia.org)
  • interactions
  • The pathway maps illustrate protein interactions and regulation to provide a comprehensive picture of signaling and disease processes. (bio-rad.com)
  • Alkaline phosphatase in E. coli is uncommonly soluble and active within elevated temperature conditions such as 80 °C. Due to the kinetic energy induced by this temperature the weak hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions of common proteins become degraded and therefore coalesce and precipitate. (wikipedia.org)
  • synthesis
  • Telomerase is a ribonucleoprotein complex that consists of an essential RNA molecule, hTR, with a template domain for telomeric DNA synthesis and of a catalytic protein, hTERT, with reverse transcriptase activity. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Ribosomes, the organelles that catalyze protein synthesis, consist of a small 40S subunit and a large 60S subunit. (wikipedia.org)
  • Using amino acids and the process known as protein synthesis, the specific sequencing in DNA of these nucleobase-pairs enables storing and transmitting coded instructions as genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • acute
  • As a type of enzyme inhibitor, it protects tissues from enzymes of inflammatory cells, especially neutrophil elastase, and has a reference range in blood of 0.9-2.3 g/L (in the US the reference range is expressed as mg/dL or micromoles), but the concentration can rise manyfold upon acute inflammation. (wikipedia.org)
  • distinct
  • Genes involved in controlling cell death encode proteins with three distinct functions: "Killer" proteins are required for a cell to begin the apoptotic process "Destruction" proteins do things such as digest DNA in a dying cell "Engulfment" proteins are required for phagocytosis of the dying cell by another cell The cleavage of chromosomal DNA into smaller fragments is an integral part, and biochemical hallmark, of apoptosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Together these subunits are composed of 4 RNA species and approximately 80 structurally distinct proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • myeloid
  • At the other end of this spectrum, detection of the myeloid protein indicates the presence of a hematological malignancy, i.e. multiple myeloma, Waldenström's macroglobulinemia, or other B cell-associated neoplasm, that derives stepwise from its MGUS precursors. (wikipedia.org)
  • cytoplasmic
  • Heart-type Fatty Acid-Binding Protein (H-FABP) is a small cytoplasmic protein (15 kDa) released from cardiac myocytes following an ischemic episode. (wikipedia.org)
  • These inorganic phosphates are then bound to carrier proteins which deliver the inorganic phosphates to a specific high-affinity transport system, known as the Pst system, which transports phosphate across the cytoplasmic membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • tissues
  • In warm blooded creatures, there are two expansive sorts of foundational microorganisms: embryonic undifferentiated organisms, which are confined from the inward cell mass of blastocysts, and grown-up immature microorganisms, which are found in different tissues. (pharmaceuticalconferences.com)
  • neutrophil
  • When the blood contains inadequate amounts of A1AT or functionally defective A1AT (such as in alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency), neutrophil elastase is excessively free to break down elastin, degrading the elasticity of the lungs, which results in respiratory complications, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, in adults. (wikipedia.org)
  • intestinal
  • The most serious effects are manifested in children and women of childbearing age displaying chronic intestinal blood loss which may result in iron deficiency, anaemia and hypoalbuminemia. (wikipedia.org)
  • routine blood
  • When we checked the accuracy of the Vitros "dry chemistry" bromcresol green (BCG) albumin method (Ortho-Clinical Diagnostics), the albumin assay used at our hospital, by analyzing our routine blood bank albumin solution (Octapharma), we found only 70% of the expected value. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • The level of alkaline phosphatase in the blood is checked through the ALP test, which is often part of routine blood tests. (wikipedia.org)
  • known
  • FABP3 is known to interact with TNNI3K in the context of interacting with cardiac troponin I. The protein also interacts with, VPS28, KIAA159,NUP62, PLK1, UBC, and Xpo1. (wikipedia.org)
  • The ligand-binding assay methodology quantified the concentration of the hormone in the test material by comparing the effects of the test sample to the results of varying amounts of known protein (ligand). (wikipedia.org)
  • amino acids
  • In HIV, a synthetic peptide corresponding to the immunosuppressive domain (amino acids 574-592) of HIV-1 gp41 downregulates the expression of fatty acid binding protein 3 (FABP3) in peptide-treated PBMCs. (wikipedia.org)
  • abnormal
  • Kidney tumors, infections as well as malnutrition has also shown abnormal level of alkaline phosphatase in blood. (wikipedia.org)
  • contains
  • The protein, which contains a C2-C2 zinc finger-like domain that can bind to zinc, can enhance the tumor suppressor activity of Ras-related protein 1A (KREV1). (wikipedia.org)
  • human
  • The pharmaceutical form is purified from human donor blood and is sold under the nonproprietary name alpha1-proteinase inhibitor (human) and under various trade names (including Aralast NP, Glassia, Prolastin, Prolastin-C, and Zemaira). (wikipedia.org)
  • assay
  • This is the basis of the Bradford assay which is a protein determination method that involves the coomasie brilliant blue dye binding to proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • The foundations for which ligand binding assay have been built are a result of Karl Landsteiner, in 1945, and his work on immunization of animals through the production of antibodies for certain proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • promoter
  • When expressing the Tet-On 3G transactivator protein from the EF-1 alpha promoter, 83% of the Jurkat Tet-On 3G clones showed strong inducible expression and 33% demonstrated very high inducibility (greater than 2,000-fold). (clontech.com)
  • viruses
  • There are four kinds of microorganisms that cause infectious disease: bacteria, fungi, parasites and viruses, and one type of infectious protein called prion. (wikipedia.org)
  • All living cells contain both DNA and RNA (except some cells such as mature red blood cells), while viruses contain either DNA or RNA, but usually not both. (wikipedia.org)
  • diabetes
  • People with diabetes can benefit from education about the disease and treatment, good nutrition to achieve a normal body weight, and exercise, with the goal of keeping both short-term and long-term blood glucose levels within acceptable bounds. (diabeteshelpcare.com)
  • Culturally appropriate education may help people with type 2 diabetes control their blood sugar levels, for up to 24 months. (diabeteshelpcare.com)
  • If changes in lifestyle in those with mild diabetes has not resulted in improved blood sugars within six weeks, medications should then be considered. (diabeteshelpcare.com)
  • small
  • Most blood glucose monitoring devices (glucose meters) use a drop of blood obtained by pricking the tip of the finger with a small lancet. (diabeteshelpcare.com)
  • Ancylostoma ceylanicum attaches itself to capillary beds in the small intestine of a host where it feeds on blood and causes anaemia. (wikipedia.org)
  • process
  • The contribution of enzymes and proteins associated with HDL to its process of generation and maturation have been extensively studied, both in vitro and in vivo. (biomedcentral.com)
  • found
  • These discoveries provided precious information regarding both the sensitivity and specificity of protein hormones found within blood-based fluids. (wikipedia.org)
  • function
  • In addition, there are cardiopulmonary and vascular changes, including a significant decrease in red blood cell mass, that affect skeletal muscle function. (wikipedia.org)
  • forms
  • In RNA, base-pair sequencing provides for manufacturing new proteins that determine the frames and parts and most chemical processes of all life forms. (wikipedia.org)
  • cell
  • However, problems within a cell can sometimes cause fragmentation that results in irregularities such as red blood cell fragmentation and sperm cell DNA fragmentation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Alkaline phosphatase in E. coli is located in the periplasmic space and can thus be released using techniques that weaken the cell wall and release the protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • Experimental infection of hamsters shows increased antibodies, peripheral cellular immune suppression, which is characterized by a reduction in the total white blood cell count, neutropenia and lymphopenia. (wikipedia.org)
  • form
  • The problem with sweetened drinks is that, due to their liquid form, they're among the fastest simple carbs to be digested in the body, causing blood sugar levels to spike even more than a simple carb in solid-food form would. (diabeteshelpcare.com)
  • The first report of the use of the "G" form of the dye to visualise protein bands in polyacrylamide gels came in 1967, where the dye was dissolved in an acetic acid solution containing methanol. (wikipedia.org)
  • type
  • The levels of this enzyme in the blood depend on factors such as age, gender, blood type and whether an individual is pregnant or not. (wikipedia.org)
  • solution
  • The sheet was then soaked in sulfosalicylic acid to fix the protein bands and then transferred to a solution of the dye. (wikipedia.org)