• antibodies
  • These proteins are also called antibodies. (walkinlab.com)
  • Antibodies are produced by mature B lymphocytes called plasma cells, while most of the other proteins in the alpha and beta fractions are made in the liver. (smrtx.com)
  • These include: full blood count, protein electrophoresis, antibodies to the acetylcholine receptor (indicative of myasthenia), electrolytes, liver enzymes and renal function. (wikipedia.org)
  • MGUS resembles multiple myeloma and similar diseases, but the levels of antibody are lower, the number of plasma cells (white blood cells that secrete antibodies) in the bone marrow is lower, and it has no symptoms or major problems. (wikipedia.org)
  • In lymphocytic neoplastic diseases such as multiple myeloma and lymphoma, but also other illnesses, there can be a massive expansion of a single B-cell clone, detectable by measuring the excessively-produced antibodies, measured in a serum protein electrophoresis test or peripheral blood flow cytometry. (wikipedia.org)
  • The latter method, in which analyte detection requires the binding of 2 distinct antibodies (a capture antibody and a reporter antibody, each binding to a unique epitope), confers greater specificity and lower background signal compared with label-based immunodetection (where only 1 capture antibody is used and detection is achieved by chemically labeling all proteins in the starting sample). (wikipedia.org)
  • In this methodology, one set of specific antibodies is used and all the proteins in a sample are labelled directly by fluorescent dyes or haptens. (wikipedia.org)
  • Initial uses of antibody-based array systems included detecting IgGs and specific subclasses, analyzing antigens, screening recombinant antibodies, studying yeast protein kinases, analyzing autoimmune antibodies, and examining protein-protein interactions. (wikipedia.org)
  • These proteins can cause allergic reactions if they bind with human IgE antibodies. (wikipedia.org)
  • polyacrylamide gel electrophor
  • SDS-PAGE, sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, describes a collection of related techniques to separate proteins according to their electrophoretic mobility (a function of the length of a polypeptide chain and its charge) while in the denatured (unfolded) state. (wikipedia.org)
  • The organ distribution is determined by the proteins adsorbing them after injection from the blood (protein adsorption pattern), typically analyzed by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, 2-D PAGE. (mdpi.com)
  • Urine
  • Often used as a non‐specific term for proteins (e.g. albuminuria is the excretion of proteins in the urine). (encyclopedia.com)
  • The hematologist, when first evaluating a case of MGUS, will usually perform a skeletal survey (X-rays of the proximal skeleton), check the blood for hypercalcemia and deterioration in renal function, check the urine for Bence Jones protein and perform a bone marrow biopsy. (wikipedia.org)
  • this disorder is a form of plasma cell dyscrasia in which no myeloma protein is detected in serum or urine (at least as determined by conventional laboratory methods) of individuals who have clear evidence of an increase in clonal bone marrow plasma cells and/or evidence of clonal plasma cell-mediated tissue injury (e.g. plasmacytoma tumors). (wikipedia.org)
  • At one end of this spectrum of hematological disorders, detection of one of these myeloma proteins in an individual's blood or urine indicates the presence of a common and clinically silent disorder termed MGUS, i.e. monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance. (wikipedia.org)
  • The overproduced Ig's, termed myeloma proteins, commonly circulate in blood, may accumulate in urine, and are the hallmarks of plasma cell dyscrasias including their most malignant forms viz. (wikipedia.org)
  • The discipline originated in the late 19th century with the use of simple chemical reaction tests for various components of blood and urine. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are now many blood tests and clinical urine tests with extensive diagnostic capabilities. (wikipedia.org)
  • alpha-1 antitryp
  • Laboratory tests measure the level of AAT in blood or identify abnormal forms of AAT that a person has inherited to help diagnose alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency. (labtestsonline.org)
  • The alpha-1 fraction does not disappear in alpha 1-antitrypsin deficiency, however, because other proteins, including alpha-lipoprotein and orosomucoid, also migrate there. (wikipedia.org)
  • When the blood contains inadequate amounts of A1AT or functionally defective A1AT (such as in alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency), neutrophil elastase is excessively free to break down elastin, degrading the elasticity of the lungs, which results in respiratory complications, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, in adults. (wikipedia.org)
  • Disorders of this protein include alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency, an autosomal codominant hereditary disorder in which a deficiency of alpha-1 antitrypsin leads to a chronic uninhibited tissue breakdown. (wikipedia.org)
  • enzyme
  • This protein is a bifunctional enzyme with two distinct active sites. (wikipedia.org)
  • Elastase is an enzyme produced by white blood cells called neutrophils and is part of the body's normal response to injury and inflammation. (labtestsonline.org)
  • As a type of enzyme inhibitor, it protects tissues from enzymes of inflammatory cells, especially neutrophil elastase, and has a reference range in blood of 0.9-2.3 g/L (in the US the reference range is expressed as mg/dL or micromoles), but the concentration can rise manyfold upon acute inflammation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The protein was initially named "antitrypsin" because of its ability to bind and irreversibly inactivate the enzyme trypsin in vitro covalently. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the many decades since, other techniques have been applied as science and technology have advanced, including the use and measurement of enzyme activities, spectrophotometry, electrophoresis, and immunoassay. (wikipedia.org)
  • liver
  • Mutations in these areas can lead to non-functional proteins that can polymerise and accumulate in the liver (infantile hepatic cirrhosis). (wikipedia.org)
  • Because A1AT is expressed in the liver, certain mutations in the gene encoding the protein can cause misfolding and impaired secretion, which can lead to liver cirrhosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • This large array of tests can be categorised into sub-specialities of: General or routine chemistry - commonly ordered blood chemistries (e.g., liver and kidney function tests). (wikipedia.org)
  • Protein electrophoresis (general technique-not a specific test) Western blot (general technique-not a specific test) Liver function tests Polymerase chain reaction (DNA). (wikipedia.org)
  • Proteome
  • Identification of novel lysosomal matrix proteins by proteome analysis. (naver.com)
  • Characterization of the human blood plasma proteome. (naver.com)
  • The discovery of isoforms could explain the discrepancy between the small number of protein coding regions genes revealed by the human genome project and the large diversity of proteins seen in an organism: different proteins encoded by the same gene could increase the diversity of the proteome. (wikipedia.org)
  • All these proteins are different both in structure and composition and this process is regulated by alternative splicing of mRNA and have a large impact in proteome diversity. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1970s
  • These efforts started with two-dimensional gel electrophoresis efforts in the 1970s and in more recent times this research has been performed using LC-tandem MS based proteomics. (wikipedia.org)
  • concentration
  • Next to this layer is another solvation layer that is less rigid and, as one moves away from the protein surface, contains a decreasing concentration of counterions and an increasing concentration of co-ions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Water establishes a concentration gradient around the protein, with the highest concentration at the protein surface. (wikipedia.org)
  • As the salt concentration of a solution is increased, the charges on the surface of the protein interact with the salt, not the water, thereby exposing hydrophobic patches on the protein surface and causing the protein to fall out of solution (aggregate and precipitate). (wikipedia.org)
  • Northern blot (RNA) Sexually transmitted diseases Full blood count (or "complete blood count") Hematocrit MCV ("mean corpuscular volume") Mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) Cross-matching. (wikipedia.org)
  • cells
  • In turn proteins are the building blocks of all cells and body tissues. (smrtx.com)
  • The encoded protein may play an antioxidant protective role in cells, and may contribute to the antiviral activity of CD8(+) T-cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are typically low levels in haemolytic anaemia (haptoglobin is a suicide molecule which binds with free haemoglobin released from red blood cells and these complexes are rapidly removed by phagocytes). (wikipedia.org)
  • Contrary to popular belief, haemoglobin is not a blood protein, as it is carried within red blood cells, rather than in the blood serum. (wikipedia.org)
  • Their first product in development was an assay, termed "immunosorbent cytometry", which could be employed to monitor the immune status, i.e., the concentrations and ratios of CD3+, CD4+, and CD8+ T cells, in the blood of HIV-infected individuals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Serum is the yellow watery part of blood that is left after blood has been allowed to clot and all blood cells have been removed. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is most easily done by centrifugation, which packs the denser blood cells and platelets to the bottom of the centrifuge tube, leaving the liquid serum fraction resting above the packed cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • It uses tiny trenches to separate blood cells from plasma (99 percent of blood cells were captured during experiments). (wikipedia.org)
  • samples
  • CE analysis of plasma proteins can now be fully automated and also includes bar-code identification of samples, preseparation steps, and direct post-separation quantitation of individual peaks, which permits short assay times and high throughput. (diva-portal.org)
  • Therefore, plasma samples from 156 healthy blood donors (79 females and 77 males) have been analyzed with the Capillarys instrument and the new high resolution buffer, which yields higher resolution than the b1-b2+ buffer. (diva-portal.org)
  • 133 CNS isolates from whole blood samples from September 2015 to May 2016 were analyzed. (jbpml.org.br)
  • A method of in situ electrophoresis of biological samples has the steps of preparing a sample plate and a gel plate, applying reagent onto the gel plate, moving an applicator to the sample plate so as to receive a sample onto the applicator, moving the applicator toward the gel plate such that at least. (google.ca)
  • However, he was effective in persuading others to provide him with the blood, tissue, and egg white samples which were the key to his work. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chemistry
  • The 2.5 and 97.5 percentiles for both the percentages of different peaks and the protein concentrations in the peaks are calculated according to the recommendations of the International Federation of Clinical Chemistry on the statistical treatment of reference values. (diva-portal.org)
  • Special chemistry - elaborate techniques such as electrophoresis, and manual testing methods. (wikipedia.org)
  • multiple myeloma
  • At the other end of this spectrum, detection of the myeloid protein indicates the presence of a hematological malignancy, i.e. multiple myeloma, Waldenström's macroglobulinemia, or other B cell-associated neoplasm, that derives stepwise from its MGUS precursors. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecules
  • As a result, molecules that are negatively charged such as deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), ribonucleic acid (RNA), and protein are pulled toward the positive end of the gel. (encyclopedia.com)
  • After electrophoresis, the pieces of DNA appear as bands (composed of similar length DNA molecules) in the electrophoresis matrix. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Once the particles reach a critical size (0.1 µm to 10 µm for high and low shear fields, respectively), by diffusive addition of individual protein molecules to it, they continue to grow by colliding into each other and sticking or flocculating. (wikipedia.org)
  • antitrypsin
  • Alpha-1 antitrypsin has an SG group and thiol compounds may be bound to the protein altering their mobility. (wikipedia.org)
  • Alpha-1-antitrypsin or α1-antitrypsin (A1AT, A1A, or AAT) is a protein belonging to the serpin superfamily. (wikipedia.org)
  • electrophoretic
  • Thus, the electrophoretic mobility depends not only on the charge-to-mass ratio, but also on the physical shape and size of the protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • BN-PAGE is a native PAGE technique, where the Coomassie Brilliant Blue dye provides the necessary charges to the protein complexes for the electrophoretic separation. (wikipedia.org)
  • It uses no charged dye so the electrophoretic mobility of proteins in CN-PAGE (in contrast to the charge shift technique BN-PAGE) is related to the intrinsic charge of the proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Laboratory
  • The normal laboratory value of serum total protein is around 7 g/dL. (wikipedia.org)
  • A blood test is a laboratory analysis performed on a blood sample that is usually extracted from a vein in the arm using a hypodermic needle, or via fingerprick. (wikipedia.org)
  • Phlebotomists, laboratory practitioners and nurses are those charged with patient blood extraction. (wikipedia.org)
  • Blood tests results should always be interpreted using the ranges provided by the laboratory that performed the test. (wikipedia.org)
  • peripheral
  • High blood pressure leg weakness general aches and pains malaise peripheral neuropathy in lower extremities (towards feet predominately, plenty of burning in the calf and thigh muscle though, more thigh. (ourhealth.com)
  • specific
  • Each of these six protein groups moves at a different rate in an electrical field and together form a specific pattern. (walkinlab.com)
  • Gel electrophoresis is often performed in combination with electroblotting immunoblotting to give additional information about a specific protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • Each unique sequence produces a specific form of a protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • An antibody microarray (also known as antibody array) is a specific form of protein microarray. (wikipedia.org)
  • Multiple tests for specific blood components, such as a glucose test or a cholesterol test, are often grouped together into one test panel called a blood panel or blood work. (wikipedia.org)
  • commonly
  • For example, in the biotechnology industry protein precipitation is used to eliminate contaminants commonly contained in blood. (wikipedia.org)
  • For these reasons, blood tests are the most commonly performed medical tests. (wikipedia.org)
  • DNA profiling is today possible with even very small quantities of blood: this is commonly used in forensic science, but is now also part of the diagnostic process of many disorders. (wikipedia.org)
  • Determination of blood type for blood transfusion or transplants Blood cultures are commonly taken if infection is suspected. (wikipedia.org)
  • ions
  • The formation of the ion gradient is achieved by choosing a pH value at which the ions of the buffer are only moderately charged compared to the SDS-coated proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, solvation by ions in an electrolytic solution or water will decrease protein-protein attractive forces. (wikipedia.org)
  • assays
  • Another drawback is the potential quenching of chemoluminescence (e.g. in subsequent western blot detection or activity assays) or fluorescence of proteins with prosthetic groups (e.g. heme or chlorophyll) or labelled with fluorescent dyes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The theoretical background for protein microarray-based ligand binding assays was further developed by Roger Ekins and colleagues in the late 1980s. (wikipedia.org)
  • test
  • MGUS is usually detected by chance when the patient has a blood test for another condition or as part of standard screening. (wikipedia.org)
  • In some of the United States, a blood test is required before marriage. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other specialized tests, such as the arterial blood gas test, require blood extracted from an artery. (wikipedia.org)
  • Upon completion of a blood test analysis, patients may receive a report with blood test abbreviations. (wikipedia.org)
  • Examples of common blood test abbreviations are shown below. (wikipedia.org)