• multiple myeloma
  • At the other end of this spectrum, detection of the myeloid protein indicates the presence of a hematological malignancy, i.e. multiple myeloma, Waldenström's macroglobulinemia, or other B cell-associated neoplasm, that derives stepwise from its MGUS precursors. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1970s
  • These efforts started with two-dimensional gel electrophoresis efforts in the 1970s and in more recent times this research has been performed using LC-tandem MS based proteomics. (wikipedia.org)
  • alpha 1-antitryp
  • The alpha-1 fraction does not disappear in alpha 1-antitrypsin deficiency, however, because other proteins, including alpha-lipoprotein and orosomucoid, also migrate there. (wikipedia.org)
  • When the blood contains inadequate amounts of A1AT or functionally defective A1AT (such as in alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency), neutrophil elastase is excessively free to break down elastin, degrading the elasticity of the lungs, which results in respiratory complications, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, in adults. (wikipedia.org)
  • Disorders of this protein include alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency, an autosomal codominant hereditary disorder in which a deficiency of alpha-1 antitrypsin leads to a chronic uninhibited tissue breakdown. (wikipedia.org)
  • liver
  • Albumin is synthesized by the liver using dietary protein. (smrtx.com)
  • EPR-HV3HSA elicited less blood loss than constitutively active HV3HSA in murine liver laceration or tail transection but extended bleeding time to the same extent. (springer.com)
  • Mutations in these areas can lead to non-functional proteins that can polymerise and accumulate in the liver (infantile hepatic cirrhosis). (wikipedia.org)
  • Because A1AT is expressed in the liver, certain mutations in the gene encoding the protein can cause misfolding and impaired secretion, which can lead to liver cirrhosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • This large array of tests can be categorised into sub-specialities of: General or routine chemistry - commonly ordered blood chemistries (e.g., liver and kidney function tests). (wikipedia.org)
  • concentration
  • Next to this layer is another solvation layer that is less rigid and, as one moves away from the protein surface, contains a decreasing concentration of counterions and an increasing concentration of co-ions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Water establishes a concentration gradient around the protein, with the highest concentration at the protein surface. (wikipedia.org)
  • As the salt concentration of a solution is increased, the charges on the surface of the protein interact with the salt, not the water, thereby exposing hydrophobic patches on the protein surface and causing the protein to fall out of solution (aggregate and precipitate). (wikipedia.org)
  • Northern blot (RNA) Sexually transmitted diseases Full blood count (or "complete blood count") Hematocrit MCV ("mean corpuscular volume") Mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) Cross-matching. (wikipedia.org)
  • Acute
  • These bands fuse and intensify in early inflammation due to an increase in alpha-1 antichymotrypsin, an acute phase protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • proteome
  • CONCLUSIONS: Malaria-infection in mice results in a wide perturbation of the host serum proteome involving a range of proteins and functions. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The discovery of isoforms could explain the discrepancy between the small number of protein coding regions genes revealed by the human genome project and the large diversity of proteins seen in an organism: different proteins encoded by the same gene could increase the diversity of the proteome. (wikipedia.org)
  • All these proteins are different both in structure and composition and this process is regulated by alternative splicing of mRNA and have a large impact in proteome diversity. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecules
  • As a result, molecules that are negatively charged such as deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), ribonucleic acid (RNA), and protein are pulled toward the positive end of the gel. (encyclopedia.com)
  • After electrophoresis, the pieces of DNA appear as bands (composed of similar length DNA molecules) in the electrophoresis matrix. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Once the particles reach a critical size (0.1 µm to 10 µm for high and low shear fields, respectively), by diffusive addition of individual protein molecules to it, they continue to grow by colliding into each other and sticking or flocculating. (wikipedia.org)
  • antitrypsin
  • Alpha-1 antitrypsin has an SG group and thiol compounds may be bound to the protein altering their mobility. (wikipedia.org)
  • Alpha-1-antitrypsin or α1-antitrypsin (A1AT, A1A, or AAT) is a protein belonging to the serpin superfamily. (wikipedia.org)
  • The protein was initially named "antitrypsin" because of its ability to bind and irreversibly inactivate the enzyme trypsin in vitro covalently. (wikipedia.org)
  • plasma
  • CE analysis of plasma proteins can now be fully automated and also includes bar-code identification of samples, preseparation steps, and direct post-separation quantitation of individual peaks, which permits short assay times and high throughput. (diva-portal.org)
  • Therefore, plasma samples from 156 healthy blood donors (79 females and 77 males) have been analyzed with the Capillarys instrument and the new high resolution buffer, which yields higher resolution than the b1-b2+ buffer. (diva-portal.org)
  • The Capillarys instrument is a reliable system for plasma protein analysis, combining advantages of full automation with high analytical performances and throughput. (diva-portal.org)
  • Global proteomic analysis of plasma from mice infected with Plasmodium berghei ANKA using two dimensional gel electrophoresis and matrix assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Total plasma and albumin depleted plasma samples from infected and control (non-infected) mice were separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE). (ox.ac.uk)
  • Blood proteins, also termed plasma proteins or serum proteins, are proteins present in blood plasma. (wikipedia.org)
  • Current research regarding blood plasma proteins is centered on performing proteomics analyses of serum/plasma in the search for biomarkers. (wikipedia.org)
  • Antibody microarrays are often used for detecting protein expression from various biofluids including serum, plasma and cell or tissue lysates. (wikipedia.org)
  • Plasma is in essence the same as serum, but is obtained by centrifuging the blood without clotting. (wikipedia.org)
  • It uses tiny trenches to separate blood cells from plasma (99 percent of blood cells were captured during experiments). (wikipedia.org)
  • electrophoretic
  • SDS-PAGE, sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, describes a collection of related techniques to separate proteins according to their electrophoretic mobility (a function of the length of a polypeptide chain and its charge) while in the denatured (unfolded) state. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus, the electrophoretic mobility depends not only on the charge-to-mass ratio, but also on the physical shape and size of the protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • BN-PAGE is a native PAGE technique, where the Coomassie Brilliant Blue dye provides the necessary charges to the protein complexes for the electrophoretic separation. (wikipedia.org)
  • It uses no charged dye so the electrophoretic mobility of proteins in CN-PAGE (in contrast to the charge shift technique BN-PAGE) is related to the intrinsic charge of the proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • specific
  • Each of these six protein groups moves at a different rate in an electrical field and together form a specific pattern. (walkinlab.com)
  • These blood tests check for specific markers such as CA-125 and the prostate-specific antigen, which can determine diagnosis for ovarian cancer and prostate cancer respectively. (walkinlab.com)
  • Gel electrophoresis is often performed in combination with electroblotting immunoblotting to give additional information about a specific protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • Each unique sequence produces a specific form of a protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • An antibody microarray (also known as antibody array) is a specific form of protein microarray. (wikipedia.org)
  • commonly
  • For example, in the biotechnology industry protein precipitation is used to eliminate contaminants commonly contained in blood. (wikipedia.org)
  • For these reasons, blood tests are the most commonly performed medical tests. (wikipedia.org)
  • DNA profiling is today possible with even very small quantities of blood: this is commonly used in forensic science, but is now also part of the diagnostic process of many disorders. (wikipedia.org)
  • Determination of blood type for blood transfusion or transplants Blood cultures are commonly taken if infection is suspected. (wikipedia.org)
  • haptoglobin
  • There are typically low levels in haemolytic anaemia (haptoglobin is a suicide molecule which binds with free haemoglobin released from red blood cells and these complexes are rapidly removed by phagocytes). (wikipedia.org)
  • ions
  • The formation of the ion gradient is achieved by choosing a pH value at which the ions of the buffer are only moderately charged compared to the SDS-coated proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, solvation by ions in an electrolytic solution or water will decrease protein-protein attractive forces. (wikipedia.org)
  • assays
  • Another drawback is the potential quenching of chemoluminescence (e.g. in subsequent western blot detection or activity assays) or fluorescence of proteins with prosthetic groups (e.g. heme or chlorophyll) or labelled with fluorescent dyes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The theoretical background for protein microarray-based ligand binding assays was further developed by Roger Ekins and colleagues in the late 1980s. (wikipedia.org)
  • gels
  • Native gels, also known as non-denaturing gels, analyze proteins that are still in their folded state. (wikipedia.org)
  • After staining, the gels were imaged and differential protein expression patterns were interrogated using image analysis software. (ox.ac.uk)
  • gene
  • Peroxiredoxin-2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the PRDX2 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Peroxiredoxin-6 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the PRDX6 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • A set of protein isoforms may be formed from alternative splicings or other post-translational modifications of a single gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Through RNA splicing mechanisms, mRNA has the ability to select different protein-coding segments (exons) of a gene, or even different parts of exons from RNA to form different mRNA sequences. (wikipedia.org)
  • A set of protein isoforms may also result from a set of closely related genes that evolved from a single gene in the past. (wikipedia.org)
  • One single gene has the ability to produce multiple proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are three main components of a common alternative splicing mechanism: cis-acting regulatory sequences RNA-binding protein splicing factors RNA-RNA base pairing In short, during the transcription process, mRNA may include (enhance) or exclude (silent) one or multiple exons of a gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • These mutations are made in an effort to make a gene encoding a protein that binds the instigating antigen. (wikipedia.org)
  • saliva
  • This type of antibody is also found in saliva, tears, and blood. (nkch.org)
  • In 2008, scientists announced that the more cost effective saliva testing could eventually replace some blood tests, as saliva contains 20% of the proteins found in blood. (wikipedia.org)