• donors
  • This adds a level of protection for those receiving the transfusion product against viruses that donors are screened for (and may be at a level too low to be detected- window period) as well as those that they are not screened for at the time of their donation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Today in the developed world, most blood donors are unpaid volunteers who donate blood for a community supply. (wikipedia.org)
  • In poorer countries, established supplies are limited and donors usually give blood when family or friends need a transfusion (directed donation). (wikipedia.org)
  • Potential donors are evaluated for anything that might make their blood unsafe to use. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, in the United States, donors must wait eight weeks (56 days) between whole blood donations but only seven days between plateletpheresis donations and twice per seven-day period in plasmapheresis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Adult
  • The module will introduce elements of the 19 core knowledge sets and basic science components identified in the System, focusing specifically on clinical assessment, stabilisation, immediate and ongoing management and subsequent discharge of the critically ill adult. (swan.ac.uk)
  • The average adult has a blood volume of roughly 5 litres (11 US pt), which is composed of plasma and several kinds of cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • risks
  • Additionally, propensity score analysis suggested possible associations of RBC transfusion with increased risks for composite morbidity outcome and in-hospital mortality, renal morbidity, pneumonia, and mediastinitis. (springer.com)
  • plasma
  • Results After introduction of the MTP, there was a significant decrease in packed red blood cells, plasma, and platelet use. (wright.edu)
  • 6 , 7 Both military and civilian data suggest that a ratio of 1:1 to 1:2 of fresh frozen plasma to PRBCs is needed to adequately treat coagulopathy in patients undergoing massive transfusions. (wright.edu)
  • The optimal plasma transfusion strategy for bleeding patients with liver disease is unknown and the investigators will evaluate this clinical question in a small pilot randomized controlled trial. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • In vertebrates, it is composed of blood cells suspended in blood plasma. (wikipedia.org)
  • Plasma, which constitutes 55% of blood fluid, is mostly water (92% by volume), and contains dissipated proteins, glucose, mineral ions, hormones, carbon dioxide (plasma being the main medium for excretory product transportation), and blood cells themselves. (wikipedia.org)
  • Albumin is the main protein in plasma, and it functions to regulate the colloidal osmotic pressure of blood. (wikipedia.org)
  • Whole blood (plasma and cells) exhibits non-Newtonian fluid dynamics. (wikipedia.org)
  • About 55% of blood is blood plasma, a fluid that is the blood's liquid medium, which by itself is straw-yellow in color. (wikipedia.org)
  • infections
  • The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends that all donated blood be tested for transfusion transmissible infections. (wikipedia.org)
  • These include HIV, Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C, Treponema pallidum (syphilis) and, where relevant, other infections that pose a risk to the safety of the blood supply, such as Trypanosoma cruzi (Chagas disease) and Plasmodium species (malaria). (wikipedia.org)
  • However the prevalence of transfusion-transmitted infections is much higher in low income countries compared to middle and high income countries. (wikipedia.org)
  • White blood cells help to resist infections and parasites. (wikipedia.org)
  • viruses
  • In this way the process prevents viruses, bacteria, parasites and white blood cells, from replicating and causing disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • infection
  • Leal-Noval SR, Rincon-Ferrari MD, Garcia-Curiel A, Herruzo-Aviles A, Camacho-Larana P, Garnacho-Montero J, Amaya-Villar R (2001) Transfusion of blood components and postoperative infection in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. (springer.com)
  • Blood and Body Fluid precautions are a type of infection control practice that seeks to minimize this sort of disease transmission. (wikipedia.org)
  • patients
  • 3 There is increasing evidence that the early coagulopathy seen in trauma patients should be treated aggressively during the initial resuscitation, particularly in those patients requiring massive transfusion. (wright.edu)
  • We developed and instituted a massive transfusion protocol (MTP) at Parkland Health and Hospital System, Dallas, Texas, which was mainly designed for trauma patients with severe, active hemorrhage. (wright.edu)
  • To evaluate postoperative red blood cell (RBC) transfusion and its association with postoperative cardiac events and multiorgan morbidity in uncomplicated cardiac surgery patients. (springer.com)
  • Vamvakas E, Carven J (2000) RBC transfusion and postoperative length of stay in the hospital or the intensive care unit among patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery: the effects of confounding factors. (springer.com)
  • Patients with poor oxygen saturation may need more blood. (wikipedia.org)
  • cells
  • Massive transfusion is loosely defined as the transfusion of more than 10 units of packed red blood cells (PRBCs) in a 24-hour period. (wright.edu)
  • Vamvakas E, Carven J (1999) Transfusion and postoperative pneumonia in coronary artery bypass graft surgery: effect of the length of storage of transfused red cells. (springer.com)
  • Packed red blood cells, also known as red cell concentrate and packed cells, are red blood cells that have been separated for blood transfusion. (wikipedia.org)
  • The widespread use of packed red blood cells began in the 1960s. (wikipedia.org)
  • A number of other versions also exist including whole blood, leukocyte reduced red blood cells, and washed red blood cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Incompatible red blood cells are sometimes given to recipients who will never become pregnant, such as males or postmenopausal women, as long as they do not have an antibody, since the greatest risk of Rh incompatible blood is to current or future pregnancies. (wikipedia.org)
  • Leukocyte reduction is the removal of white blood cells by filtration. (wikipedia.org)
  • Max Schultze in 1865 described what he called "spherules", which he noted were much smaller than red blood cells, occasionally clumped, and were sometimes found in collections of fibrin material. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thrombocytes are cells found in the blood of non-mammalian vertebrates. (wikipedia.org)
  • Blood is a body fluid in humans and other animals that delivers necessary substances such as nutrients and oxygen to the cells and transports metabolic waste products away from those same cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The most abundant cells in vertebrate blood are red blood cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • In animals with lungs, arterial blood carries oxygen from inhaled air to the tissues of the body, and venous blood carries carbon dioxide, a waste product of metabolism produced by cells, from the tissues to the lungs to be exhaled. (wikipedia.org)
  • Right tube: Freshly drawn blood One microliter of blood contains: 4.7 to 6.1 million (male), 4.2 to 5.4 million (female) erythrocytes: Red blood cells contain the blood's hemoglobin and distribute oxygen. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mature red blood cells lack a nucleus and organelles in mammals. (wikipedia.org)
  • The red blood cells (together with endothelial vessel cells and other cells) are also marked by glycoproteins that define the different blood types. (wikipedia.org)
  • The combined surface area of all red blood cells of the human body would be roughly 2,000 times as great as the body's exterior surface. (wikipedia.org)
  • inactivation
  • This type of approach to increase blood safety is also known as "pathogen inactivation" in the industry. (wikipedia.org)
  • Consequently, the development of pathogen inactivation/reduction technologies for blood products has been an ongoing effort in the field of transfusion medicine. (wikipedia.org)
  • arterial
  • An arterial thrombus may partially obstruct blood flow, causing downstream ischemia, or may completely obstruct it, causing downstream tissue death. (wikipedia.org)
  • Product
  • The rationale of this protocol was to improve turnaround time, ie, the time between when the order for the products was received in the blood bank and when the products left the blood bank, as well as to provide component therapy in a more clearly defined proportion to prevent and treat coagulopathy and to reduce the waste that occurred with random product ordering. (wright.edu)
  • The process of identifying a compatible blood product for transfusion is complicated. (wikipedia.org)
  • risk
  • Inclusion criteria were low to moderate risk profile, postoperative hemoglobin level ≥10 g/dl, minimal postoperative blood loss, and no evidence of any morbid event on the day of surgery. (springer.com)
  • reduction
  • Conclusions The MTP resulted in a reduction in the use of blood components with improved turnaround times and significant savings. (wright.edu)
  • This pathogen reduction process involves adding riboflavin (vitamin B2) to the blood component, which is then placed into an illuminator where it is exposed to UV light for about five to ten minutes. (wikipedia.org)
  • mortality
  • Hypothesis A massive transfusion protocol (MTP) decreases the use of blood components, as well as turnaround times, costs, and mortality. (wright.edu)
  • Main Outcome Measures The amount of each blood component transfused, turnaround times, blood bank and hospital charges, and mortality rates. (wright.edu)
  • We hypothesized that an MTP would improve turnaround times, reduce the use of blood products and associated charges, and possibly decrease mortality. (wright.edu)
  • clinical
  • The development of hypoxemia will not distinguish between hydrostatic edema and TRALI, but investigators believe a significant change in oxygenation is clinically relevant and a more sensitive outcome variable for all transfusion-related pulmonary complications and therefore appropriate for use in this clinical trial. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The Rh blood group system consists of nearly around 50 different antigens, but the one of the greatest clinical interest is the "D" antigen, though it has other names and is commonly just called "negative" or "positive. (wikipedia.org)
  • Blood poses the greatest threat to health in a laboratory or clinical setting due to needlestick injuries (e.g., lack of proper needle disposal techniques and/or safety syringes). (wikipedia.org)
  • given
  • Other blood products are given where appropriate, such as clotting deficiencies. (wikipedia.org)
  • In terms of anatomy and histology, blood is considered a specialized form of connective tissue, given its origin in the bones and the presence of potential molecular fibers in the form of fibrinogen. (wikipedia.org)
  • oxygen
  • In most insects, this "blood" does not contain oxygen-carrying molecules such as hemoglobin because their bodies are small enough for their tracheal system to suffice for supplying oxygen. (wikipedia.org)
  • products
  • Thermo Scientific Jewett blood bank refrigerators provide fast pull-down, rapid temperature recovery and outstanding +4°C temperature uniformity for refrigerated blood and blood products. (selectscience.net)
  • The decreased use of blood products represented a savings of $2270 per patient or an annual savings of $200 000, despite increased costs for recombinant factor VIIa. (wright.edu)
  • Riboflavin and its photoproducts are already present in the human body and do not need to be removed from blood products prior to transfusion. (wikipedia.org)