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  • hemoglobin
  • One unit brings up hemoglobin levels by about 10 g/L. Repeated transfusions may be required in people receiving cancer chemotherapy or who have hemoglobin disorders. (wikipedia.org)
  • The administration of a single unit of blood is the standard for hospitalized people who are not bleeding, with this treatment then followed with re-assessment and consideration of symptoms and hemoglobin concentration. (wikipedia.org)
  • These contain hemoglobin, an iron-containing protein, which facilitates oxygen transport by reversibly binding to this respiratory gas and greatly increasing its solubility in blood. (wikipedia.org)
  • Vertebrate blood is bright red when its hemoglobin is oxygenated and dark red when it is deoxygenated. (wikipedia.org)
  • In most insects, this "blood" does not contain oxygen-carrying molecules such as hemoglobin because their bodies are small enough for their tracheal system to suffice for supplying oxygen. (wikipedia.org)
  • Right tube: Freshly drawn blood One microliter of blood contains: 4.7 to 6.1 million (male), 4.2 to 5.4 million (female) erythrocytes: Red blood cells contain the blood's hemoglobin and distribute oxygen. (wikipedia.org)
  • donors
  • This adds a level of protection for those receiving the transfusion product against viruses that donors are screened for (and may be at a level too low to be detected- window period) as well as those that they are not screened for at the time of their donation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Today in the developed world, most blood donors are unpaid volunteers who donate blood for a community supply. (wikipedia.org)
  • In poorer countries, established supplies are limited and donors usually give blood when family or friends need a transfusion (directed donation). (wikipedia.org)
  • Potential donors are evaluated for anything that might make their blood unsafe to use. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, in the United States, donors must wait eight weeks (56 days) between whole blood donations but only seven days between plateletpheresis donations and twice per seven-day period in plasmapheresis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Clinical
  • The development of hypoxemia will not distinguish between hydrostatic edema and TRALI, but investigators believe a significant change in oxygenation is clinically relevant and a more sensitive outcome variable for all transfusion-related pulmonary complications and therefore appropriate for use in this clinical trial. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The module will introduce elements of the 19 core knowledge sets and basic science components identified in the System, focusing specifically on clinical assessment, stabilisation, immediate and ongoing management and subsequent discharge of the critically ill adult. (swan.ac.uk)
  • The use of exogenous erythropoetin (EPO) to reduce the need for transfusion in preterm infants has been the subject of many clinical trials. (adhb.govt.nz)
  • Systematic review of these trials shows that early (before 8 days of age) or late EPO reduces the need for one or more transfusions and the number of transfusions per baby however, the small reductions are likely to be of limited clinical importance. (adhb.govt.nz)
  • The Rh blood group system consists of nearly around 50 different antigens, but the one of the greatest clinical interest is the "D" antigen, though it has other names and is commonly just called "negative" or "positive. (wikipedia.org)
  • Blood poses the greatest threat to health in a laboratory or clinical setting due to needlestick injuries (e.g., lack of proper needle disposal techniques and/or safety syringes). (wikipedia.org)
  • suitable
  • Donated blood is usually subjected to processing after it is collected, to make it suitable for use in specific patient populations. (wikipedia.org)
  • infections
  • The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends that all donated blood be tested for transfusion transmissible infections. (wikipedia.org)
  • These include HIV, Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C, Treponema pallidum (syphilis) and, where relevant, other infections that pose a risk to the safety of the blood supply, such as Trypanosoma cruzi (Chagas disease) and Plasmodium species (malaria). (wikipedia.org)
  • However the prevalence of transfusion-transmitted infections is much higher in low income countries compared to middle and high income countries. (wikipedia.org)
  • White blood cells help to resist infections and parasites. (wikipedia.org)
  • viruses
  • In this way the process prevents viruses, bacteria, parasites and white blood cells, from replicating and causing disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • inactivation
  • This type of approach to increase blood safety is also known as "pathogen inactivation" in the industry. (wikipedia.org)
  • Consequently, the development of pathogen inactivation/reduction technologies for blood products has been an ongoing effort in the field of transfusion medicine. (wikipedia.org)
  • given
  • Using a restrictive (lower) threshold results in a significant reduction in the number of transfusions given. (adhb.govt.nz)
  • Incompatible red blood cells are sometimes given to recipients who will never become pregnant, such as males or postmenopausal women, as long as they do not have an antibody, since the greatest risk of Rh incompatible blood is to current or future pregnancies. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because each unit of blood given carries risks, a trigger level lower than that at 70 to 80 g/L is now usually used as it has been shown to have better patient outcomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other blood products are given where appropriate, such as clotting deficiencies. (wikipedia.org)
  • In terms of anatomy and histology, blood is considered a specialized form of connective tissue, given its origin in the bones and the presence of potential molecular fibers in the form of fibrinogen. (wikipedia.org)
  • proportion
  • The rationale of this protocol was to improve turnaround time, ie, the time between when the order for the products was received in the blood bank and when the products left the blood bank, as well as to provide component therapy in a more clearly defined proportion to prevent and treat coagulopathy and to reduce the waste that occurred with random product ordering. (wright.edu)
  • arterial
  • An arterial thrombus may partially obstruct blood flow, causing downstream ischemia, or may completely obstruct it, causing downstream tissue death. (wikipedia.org)
  • In animals with lungs, arterial blood carries oxygen from inhaled air to the tissues of the body, and venous blood carries carbon dioxide, a waste product of metabolism produced by cells, from the tissues to the lungs to be exhaled. (wikipedia.org)
  • oxygen
  • Patients with poor oxygen saturation may need more blood. (wikipedia.org)
  • Blood is a body fluid in humans and other animals that delivers necessary substances such as nutrients and oxygen to the cells and transports metabolic waste products away from those same cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • fibrin
  • Max Schultze in 1865 described what he called "spherules", which he noted were much smaller than red blood cells, occasionally clumped, and were sometimes found in collections of fibrin material. (wikipedia.org)
  • cells
  • The widespread use of packed red blood cells began in the 1960s. (wikipedia.org)
  • The most abundant cells in vertebrate blood are red blood cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mature red blood cells lack a nucleus and organelles in mammals. (wikipedia.org)
  • The red blood cells (together with endothelial vessel cells and other cells) are also marked by glycoproteins that define the different blood types. (wikipedia.org)
  • The combined surface area of all red blood cells of the human body would be roughly 2,000 times as great as the body's exterior surface. (wikipedia.org)
  • Body Fluid
  • Blood and Body Fluid precautions are a type of infection control practice that seeks to minimize this sort of disease transmission. (wikipedia.org)
  • disease
  • A bloodborne disease is a disease that can be spread through contamination by blood and other body fluids. (wikipedia.org)
  • Diseases that are not usually transmitted directly by blood contact, but rather by insect or other vector, are more usefully classified as vector-borne disease, even though the causative agent can be found in blood. (wikipedia.org)
  • reduction
  • Conclusions The MTP resulted in a reduction in the use of blood components with improved turnaround times and significant savings. (wright.edu)
  • This pathogen reduction process involves adding riboflavin (vitamin B2) to the blood component, which is then placed into an illuminator where it is exposed to UV light for about five to ten minutes. (wikipedia.org)
  • mortality
  • Main Outcome Measures The amount of each blood component transfused, turnaround times, blood bank and hospital charges, and mortality rates. (wright.edu)
  • We hypothesized that an MTP would improve turnaround times, reduce the use of blood products and associated charges, and possibly decrease mortality. (wright.edu)
  • risks
  • Thus the possible benefits of transfusion need to be balanced against the known (and unknown) risks for each individual baby. (adhb.govt.nz)
  • however
  • However, not all blood is tested for CMV because only a certain amount of CMV-negative blood needs to be available to supply patient needs. (wikipedia.org)