• 2000
  • In 2000, Dr. James Shapiro and colleagues published a report describing seven consecutive patients who achieved euglycemia following islet transplantation using a steroid-free protocol and large numbers of donor islets, since referred to as the Edmonton protocol. (wikipedia.org)
  • As the 6th leading cause of death by disease in 2000, diabetes is costing the US health care system an estimated $132 billion annually. (google.com)
  • Dietary treatment of diabetes mellitus was used in Egypt since 3,500 BC and was used in India by Sushruta and Charaka more than 2000 years ago. (wikipedia.org)
  • An approach that has been popular with some people with type 1 diabetes mellitus since 2000 is known as DAFNE (Dose Adjustment for Normal Eating). (wikipedia.org)
  • "Since 2000, Several hundred people have received islet transplants, by a year after transplant, 50 - 68% of patients do not need to receive additional insulin, but by five years after the procedure, fewer than 10% of total patients are free of daily insulin supplementation. (wikipedia.org)
  • serum
  • Sometimes, in type 2 diabetes and in combination with a short acting sulfonylurea (drugs which stimulate the pancreas to make more insulin), it can offer moderate control of serum glucose levels. (wikipedia.org)
  • Serum glucose is measured at baseline and at 2 hours post dextrose administration by the glucose hexokinase method. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The report identified factors linked to better outcomes for recipients, including age-35 years or older lower pre-transplant [serum] triglyceride, or blood fat, levels lower pre-transplant insulin use The report noted that even partial function of the transplanted islets can improve blood glucose control and reduce the amount of insulin needed after loss of insulin independence. (wikipedia.org)
  • concentration
  • 9 The third factor is an increased glucose concentration in the saliva. (pharmacytimes.com)
  • To treat the condition, high concentration doses of glucose are given to the neonate as required maintaining normal blood glucose levels. (wikipedia.org)
  • The consequences of increased intracellular glucose concentration are fourfold, all resulting from increasing concentration of glycolytic intermediates upstream of the rate-limiting glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate reaction which is inhibited by mechanisms activated by increased free radical formation, common in diabetes. (wikipedia.org)
  • A glucose meter is a medical device for determining the approximate concentration of glucose in the blood. (wikipedia.org)
  • therapeutic
  • Due to its novel twin action, GLP-1 and exendin-4 have therapeutic potential for the treatment of diabetic peripheral neuropathy and these central nervous system disorders. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Specifically exemplified herein is the concurrent administration of a cysteamine compound with at least one additional therapeutic agent to prevent and/or treat diabetes as well as prevent and/or treat complications associated with diabetes. (google.com)
  • Microencapsulation is a valuable technique for local, regional and oral delivery of therapeutic products as it can be implanted into numerous tissue types and organs. (wikipedia.org)
  • This suggests chemerin plays a role in insulin sensitivity and may be a potential therapeutic target for treating type II diabetes. (wikipedia.org)
  • symptoms
  • The results of this study suggest that pasireotide may help patients achieve biochemical control of their Cushing's disease and its symptoms by directly targeting the pituitary tumor that triggers excess cortisol production. (bio-medicine.org)
  • There are often no visible symptoms of hyperinsulinemia unless hypoglycaemia (low blood sugar) is present. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] Some patients may experience a variety of symptoms when hypoglycaemia is present, including: Temporary muscle weakness Brain fog Fatigue Temporary thought disorder, or inability to concentrate Visual problems such as blurred vision or double vision Headaches Shaking/Trembling Thirst If a person experiences any of these symptoms, a visit to a qualified medical practitioner is advised, and diagnostic blood testing may be required. (wikipedia.org)
  • A diabetic diet is a diet that is used by people with diabetes mellitus or high blood glucose to minimize symptoms and dangerous consequences of the disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Prediabetes typically has no distinct signs or symptoms except the sole sign of high blood sugar. (wikipedia.org)
  • Patients should monitor for signs and symptoms of type 2 diabetes mellitus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Symptoms and effects can be mild, moderate or severe, depending on how low the glucose falls and a variety of other factors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sometimes a person with diabetes will experience the Somogyi rebound when awake and notice symptoms of the initial low blood sugar or symptoms of the rebound. (wikipedia.org)
  • doses of glucose
  • Many variations of the GTT have been devised over the years for various purposes, with different standard doses of glucose, different routes of administration, different intervals and durations of sampling, and various substances measured in addition to blood glucose. (wikipedia.org)
  • treatment
  • It is an experimental treatment for type 1 diabetes mellitus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many patients with type 2 diabetes will eventually need to have insulin added to their treatment regimens because of β-cell failure. (acpjc.org)
  • To investigate the possibility that glucagon-like peptide-1 (7-36)-amide (GLP-1) receptor agonism may influence axonal structure and function through neuroprotection neurotrophic support, effects of GLP-1 and its long acting analog, Exendin-4 (Ex4) treatment on pyridoxine-induced peripheral neuropathy were examined in rats using behavioral and morphometric techniques. (scribd.com)
  • Our findings suggest a potential role for these peptides in the treatment of neuropathies, including that associated with type II diabetes mellitus. (scribd.com)
  • The WHO recommends that the terms Type 1 and Type 2 should be reintroduced, because they classify the patients on the basis of the pathogenesis and not on the basis of treatment. (scielo.br)
  • However, significant advancements are still necessary in order for islet cell treatment to become a comprehensive cure for diabetes mellitus type 1, in which insulin production is absent. (podiatrytoday.com)
  • After 12 months of treatment, results confirmed the durability of the effect(1). (bio-medicine.org)
  • There is a critical need for a medical treatment for people with Cushing's disease because currently available options, such as surgery or radiotherapy, are ultimately not effective for many of the patients who suffer from this debilitating disease," said William H. Ludlam, MD, PhD, Director, Seattle Pituitary Center at the Swedish Neuroscience Institute in Seattle, WA. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Patients were allocated to either intensive multifactorial intervention in a specialized diabetes center ( n = 80) or standard treatment by a general practitioner ( n = 80). (acpjc.org)
  • Some patients may also respond to oral sulfonylurea treatment. (cags.org.ae)
  • Interestingly, patients with mutations in these two genes seem to respond better to treatment with sulfonylurea. (cags.org.ae)
  • This type of continuous treatment is in contrast to traditional multiple daily injections (MDI) that use slower-acting insulin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Continuous treatment reduces glucose variability. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT) study showed that CSII patients achieved an A1c of 7.3% (much better than the 9.1% achieved for conventional treatment). (wikipedia.org)
  • There has been long history of dietary treatment of diabetes mellitus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Between the two studies, the treatment of people with diabetes was significantly changed. (wikipedia.org)
  • This study examined whether intensive treatment with the goal of maintaining blood glucose concentrations close to the normal range could decrease the frequency and severity of those complications. (wikipedia.org)
  • Changes were subsequently made in the eligibility criteria for the full-scale trial to exclude anyone with this very common short-term complication of diabetes treatment, which also raises questions about exactly how "random" the selection process really was. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other goals of diabetes management are to prevent or treat the many complications that can result from the disease itself and from its treatment. (wikipedia.org)
  • It limits the achievability of normal glucoses with current treatment methods. (wikipedia.org)
  • On the other hand, since the excess of insulin over the amount required to normalize blood sugar may continue to reduce blood sugar levels after treatment has produced an initial normalization, continued monitoring is required to determine if further treatment is necessary. (wikipedia.org)
  • This theoretical phenomenon was named after Michael Somogyi, a Hungarian-born professor of biochemistry at the Washington University and Jewish Hospital of St. Louis, who prepared the first insulin treatment given to a child with diabetes in the USA in October 1922. (wikipedia.org)
  • baseline
  • 0.001) retinal blood flow decreased to 49 ± 15 μl/min ( P = 0.0003 vs. baseline). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • OBJECTIVES: I. Compare growth hormone (GH) levels at baseline and after glucose suppression measured with both a polyclonal radioimmunoassay and a highly sensitive immunoradiometric assay (IRMA) in patients with acromegaly and normal volunteers. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Growth hormone is measured at baseline and 60, 90, and 120 minutes after a 100 g glucose drink. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • At six months, the majority of evaluable patients (91/103) experienced a reduction from baseline in urinary free cortisol (UFC) levels, the main measure of biochemical control of the disease. (bio-medicine.org)
  • The patient is instructed to fast (water is allowed) for 8-12 hours prior to the tests A zero time (baseline) blood sample is drawn. (wikipedia.org)
  • Citation
  • medical citation needed] This may be deduced logically from the huge increase in the occurrence of type 2 diabetes that has correlated with the significant change in western lifestyle and diet. (wikipedia.org)
  • pancreatic islet
  • A webpage maintained by the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) of the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH) indicates that the Collaborative Islet Transplant Registry's 2010 annual report presented data on 571 patients who received pancreatic islet allo-transplants between 1999 and 2009. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1990s
  • Yet despite continued procedural improvements, only about 10% of islet recipients in the late 1990s achieved euglycemia (normal blood glucose). (wikipedia.org)
  • continuous
  • The Paradigm RT (Real Time) series adds the ability to receive data from a mated continuous blood-glucose monitor. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Minimed Paradigm REAL-Time and Continuous Glucose Monitoring (CGM) system, which received FDA clearance in 2006, uses tubing and a reservoir with rapid-acting insulin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Continuous blood glucose monitoring is the preferred method to detect and prevent the Somogyi rebound, but this technology is not yet widely used. (wikipedia.org)
  • metabolism
  • We report on the effects of GLP-1 and two of its long-acting analogs, exendin-4 and exendin-4 WOT, on neuronal proliferation and differentiation, and on the metabolism of two neuronal proteins in the rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cell line, which has been shown to express the GLP-1 receptor. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The main goal of diabetes management is, as far as possible, to restore carbohydrate metabolism to a normal state. (wikipedia.org)
  • Diabetes/metabolism research and reviews. (wikipedia.org)
  • rodents
  • Subsequent studies showed that transplanted islets could reverse diabetes in both rodents and non-human primates. (wikipedia.org)
  • GLP-1 receptors (GLP-1R) are coupled to the cAMP second messenger pathway, and are expressed widely throughout neural tissues of humans and rodents. (scribd.com)
  • It binds at the GLP-1 receptor with greater affinity than GLP-1 (specifically due to the PSS sequence at the beginning of the 9-amino acid tail), is more potent at maintaining plasma insulin levels than GLP-1, and has a half-life of approximately 120 minutes in rodents (Wang et al. (scribd.com)
  • measurements
  • Retinal blood flow was assessed by combining velocity measurements using laser Doppler velocimetry and diameter measurements using a commercially available dynamic vessel analyzer. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The Paradigm uses a one-way wireless radio frequency link to receive blood sugar measurements from select glucose meters. (wikipedia.org)
  • The disposable sensor is subcutaneously-placed to make glucose measurements in interstitial fluid every 5 minutes and transmit the reading via low power radio frequency (ISM band) to the pump for realtime display. (wikipedia.org)
  • hypertension
  • Given that diabetic cardiomyopathy's definition excludes concomitant atherosclerosis or hypertension, there are no changes in perfusion or in atrial natriuretic peptide levels up until the very late stages of the disease, when the hypertrophy and fibrosis become very pronounced. (wikipedia.org)
  • fatty
  • Obesity is characterized by an excess of adipose tissue - insulin increases the synthesis of fatty acids from glucose, facilitates the entry of glucose into adipocytes and inhibits breakdown of fat in adipocytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • APOM is partly responsible for producing pre beta-high-density lipoprotein and cholesterol, and APM1 is responsible for regulating glucose level in blood and fatty acid. (wikipedia.org)