• electrolytes
  • The disposable sensor can be used for monitoring blood gases and electrolytes over a 72 hour period as many times as required. (technologynetworks.com)
  • The sampled matter can be analyzed for various components, for example: Electrolytes Proteins cells, such as white blood cells in blood sampling Microbiological agents, such as bacteria or fungi Microbiological sampling include: Blood sampling for blood cultures, performed similarly as that for tests on the fluid itself above Throat swab for throat culture. (wikipedia.org)
  • fetal
  • In 1958, James et al recognised that umbilical cord blood gas analysis can give an indication of preceding fetal hypoxic stress. (bmj.com)
  • Cord blood gas analysis is indicated for high-risk pregnancies, in cases where C-sections occurred due to fetal compromise, if there were abnormal fetal heart rate patterns, Apgar scores of 3 or lower, intrapartum fever, or multifetal gestation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Percutaneous umbilical cord blood sampling (PUBS), also called cordocentesis, fetal blood sampling, or umbilical vein sampling is a diagnostic genetic test that examines blood from the fetal umbilical cord to detect fetal abnormalities. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fetal and maternal blood supply are typically connected in utero with one vein and two arteries to the fetus. (wikipedia.org)
  • PUBS is a type of fetal blood sampling which was originally developed to determine the presence of hereditary abnormalities. (wikipedia.org)
  • fetoscopy was used and refined between 1974 and 1983 as a prenatal test to determine fetal status as well as obtain fetal blood and perform transfusions in some cases. (wikipedia.org)
  • The mother's blood is drawn for comparison against fetal blood, and intravenous access is established in the mother in order to supply medications as needed. (wikipedia.org)
  • Once the umbilical cord is reached and the correct position of the needle is confirmed, the fetal blood is drawn. (wikipedia.org)
  • transfusions
  • Another study from Cairo University showed that SpHb monitoring helped clinicians reduce blood transfusions in high blood loss surgery by an average of 0.9 units per patient. (wikipedia.org)
  • ARDS may be seen in the setting of severe pulmonary (pneumonia) or systemic infection (sepsis), following trauma, multiple blood transfusions (TRALI), severe burns, severe inflammation of the pancreas (pancreatitis), near-drowning or other aspiration events, drug reactions, or inhalation injuries. (wikipedia.org)
  • acid-base
  • Umbilical cord blood analysis is assumed to give a picture of the acid-base balance of the infant at the moment of birth when the umbilical circulation was arrested by clamping of the cord. (bmj.com)
  • However, from this moment onwards the umbilical cord blood, if it remains in continuity with placenta, will demonstrate progressive change in acid-base status due to ongoing placental metabolism and gas exchange. (bmj.com)
  • This 60 minute online vet nurse CPD discusses how acid base and blood gas analyses are frequently used in the veterinary hospital to aid diagnosis, monitor therapy, and assess ventilation and oxygenation. (wcea.education)
  • paO2
  • Conclusions: Our study suggests that blood gas analysis, particularly paO2, may help in predicting the presence of lung opacities in patients aged less than 2 years. (univr.it)
  • photocells
  • Various types of photocells were considered: vacuum, gas-discharge, photovoltaic and photoresistive, but the industry favored slow yet cheap selenium devices. (wikipedia.org)
  • carbon monoxide
  • the most common gas tensions measured are oxygen tension (PxO2), the carbon dioxide tension (PxCO2) and carbon monoxide tension (PxCO). (wikipedia.org)
  • Arterial carbon monoxide tension (normal) PaCO - Partial pressure of CO at sea level (765 mmHg) in arterial blood is approximately 0.02. (wikipedia.org)
  • Carbon monoxide (CO) is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless gas that is slightly less dense than air. (wikipedia.org)
  • During World War II, a gas mixture including carbon monoxide was used to keep motor vehicles running in parts of the world where gasoline and diesel fuel were scarce. (wikipedia.org)
  • Carbon monoxide was also used on a large scale during the Holocaust at some Nazi German extermination camps, the most notable by gas vans in Chełmno, and in the Action T4 "euthanasia" program. (wikipedia.org)
  • Coal gas, which was widely used before the 1960s for domestic lighting, cooking, and heating, had carbon monoxide as a significant fuel constituent. (wikipedia.org)
  • Following the first report that carbon monoxide is a normal neurotransmitter in 1993, as well as one of three gases that naturally modulate inflammatory responses in the body (the other two being nitric oxide and hydrogen sulfide), carbon monoxide has received a great deal of clinical attention as a biological regulator. (wikipedia.org)
  • Carbon monoxide has a molar mass of 28.0, which, according to the ideal gas law, makes it slightly less dense than air, whose average molar mass is 28.8. (wikipedia.org)
  • cord
  • 1 It has since become widely accepted that umbilical cord blood gas analysis can provide important information about the past, present and possibly the future condition of the infant. (bmj.com)
  • Umbilical cord blood gas analysis is now recommended in all high-risk deliveries by both the British and American Colleges of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, 2 3 and in some centres it is practised routinely following all deliveries. (bmj.com)
  • It is therefore of increasing clinical and medicolegal importance that clinicians caring for newborn infants are familiar with the principles and practice of obtaining and interpreting cord blood gas values, and with the underlying evidence base. (bmj.com)
  • 6 These changes are not observed if the cord is doubly clamped at birth, isolating a segment of cord blood from both the placenta and the environment. (bmj.com)
  • heparin
  • Too much heparin: possible source of error in blood gas analysis. (bmj.com)
  • Hutchison A S , Ralston S H , Dryburgh F J , Small M , Fogelman I . Too much heparin: possible source of error in blood gas analysis. (bmj.com)
  • Heparin, also known as unfractionated heparin (UFH), is medication which is used as an anticoagulant (blood thinner). (wikipedia.org)
  • Heparin is contraindicated in those with risk of bleeding (especially in people with uncontrolled blood pressure, liver disease, and stroke), severe liver disease, or severe hypertension. (wikipedia.org)
  • umbilical
  • the umbilical arteries are responsible for removing oxygen poor blood from the fetus. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first documented use of PUBS came in 1983 by Daffos and colleagues who sampled blood from an umbilical vein with a needle and monitored its maneuvers with an ultrasound. (wikipedia.org)
  • nitrogen
  • Blood gas analysis index, urea nitrogen, creatinine and heart rhythm index were recorded before and after CRRT and serum BNP, IL-34 and hs-CRP were measured after 12 h, 24 h and 48 h respectively. (alliedacademies.org)
  • widely
  • In addition, it is observed across a number of widely different species, including some invertebrates that do not have a similar blood coagulation system. (wikipedia.org)
  • acute
  • To study the effect of Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy (CRRT) on serum BNP, IL-34, hs-CRP and blood gas analysis index in acute myocardial infarction patients with cardiac insufficiency. (alliedacademies.org)
  • In addition to generally broadening the diagnostic thresholds, other notable changes from the prior 1994 consensus criteria include discouraging the term "acute lung injury," and defining grades of ARDS severity according to degree of decrease in the oxygen content of the blood. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is typically provoked by an acute injury to the lungs that results in flooding of the lungs' microscopic air sacs responsible for the exchange of gases such as oxygen and carbon dioxide with capillaries in the lungs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Typically
  • Ischemic priapism is typically treated with a nerve block of the penis followed by aspiration of blood from the corpora cavernosa. (wikipedia.org)
  • If the low flow type of priapism is present the blood typically has a low pH while if the high flow type is present the pH is typically normal. (wikipedia.org)
  • For those with ischemic priapism the initial treatment is typically aspiration of blood from the corpus cavernosum. (wikipedia.org)
  • Metabolic
  • The pH-stat method may result in loss of autoregulation in the brain (coupling of the cerebral blood flow with the metabolic rate in the brain). (wikipedia.org)
  • By increasing the cerebral blood flow beyond the metabolic requirements, the pH-stat method may lead to cerebral microembolisation and intracranial hypertension. (wikipedia.org)
  • patients
  • It can not only stabilize internal environment, improve cardiac failure and blood gas analysis index in a short time, but also decrease serum BNP, IL-34, hs-CRP, so as to help patients pass dangerous period and improve the prognosis. (alliedacademies.org)
  • Since frequent arterial blood sampling is necessary, a key aspect of infection prevention and control with such patients is the strict management of their blood samples. (japractice.co.uk)
  • Two methods have been used in medicine in the management of blood gases of patients in hypothermia: pH-stat method and alpha-stat method. (wikipedia.org)
  • PROCEDURE
  • Pre-analytical processes are often more error prone than those later in the testing process because currently blood sampling is a manual procedure, whilst analytical and post-analytical phases are often automated and subject to computer checks. (technologynetworks.com)
  • Lactate
  • When used alongside the pH balance of the blood, the PaCO2 and HCO3 (and Lactate) suggest to the health care practitioner which interventions, if any, should be made. (wikipedia.org)
  • results
  • Trained medical staff is able to interpret parameters in the results of an ABG analysis and relate them to different medical conditions. (convergent-technologies.de)
  • Once the sample is obtained, care is taken to eliminate visible gas bubbles, as these bubbles can dissolve into the sample and cause inaccurate results. (wikipedia.org)
  • drawn
  • An ABG test requires that a small volume of blood be drawn from the radial artery with a syringe and a thin needle , but sometimes the femoral artery in the groin or another site is used. (wikipedia.org)
  • The blood can also be drawn from an arterial catheter. (wikipedia.org)
  • Blood is most commonly drawn from the radial artery because it is easily accessible, can be compressed to control bleeding, and has less risk for occlusion. (wikipedia.org)
  • If prolonged time delays are expected (i.e., greater than 30 min) prior to analysis, the sample should be drawn in a glass syringe and immediately placed on ice. (wikipedia.org)
  • membrane
  • the membrane is permeable to molecular oxygen and allows this gas to reach the cathode, where it is electrolytically reduced. (wikipedia.org)
  • At this point, the reaction is diffusion-limited and depends only on the permeability properties of the membrane (which is ideally well characterized, the electrode being calibrated against known standard solutions) and by the oxygen gas concentration, which is the measured quantity. (wikipedia.org)