• sodium
  • The main functions of the urinary system and it's components are to Regulate blood volume and composition (e.g. sodium, potassium and calcium) Regulate blood pressure. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nevertheless, they can be associated with low sodium levels, volume depletion, and low blood pressure, among other adverse effects. (wikipedia.org)
  • ions
  • Hyperchloremia is an electrolyte disturbance in which there is an elevated level of the chloride ions in the blood. (wikipedia.org)
  • receptors
  • Altered expression of these receptors can result in elevated blood glucose levels and affect lipid and carbohydrate metabolism. (wikipedia.org)
  • secretion
  • The functions of the kidney can be divided into three groups: secretion of hormones, gluconeogenesis and extracellular homeostasis of pH and blood components. (wikipedia.org)
  • Secretion of erythropoietin, which regulates red blood cell production in the bone marrow. (wikipedia.org)
  • afferent
  • To test this hypothesis, afferent arteriolar autoregulatory responses to increases in RPP were assessed under conditions of normal and inhibited COX-2 activity with the blood-perfused juxtamedullary nephron technique combined with videomicroscopy. (ahajournals.org)
  • The macula densa cell can also increase the blood pressure of the afferent arterioles by decreasing the synthesis of adenosine or ATP. (wikipedia.org)
  • diseases
  • Fetal developmental plastic responses can cause changes in lean body mass, endocrinology, blood flow and vascular loading, and lead to increased risk of various diseases in adulthood. (wikipedia.org)
  • serum
  • Biochemical blood tests determine the amount of typical markers of renal function in the blood serum, for instance serum urea and serum creatinine. (wikipedia.org)
  • glucose
  • Some people, especially children and pregnant women, may have a low RTG (less than ~7 mmol/L glucose in blood to have glucosuria). (wikipedia.org)
  • If the RTG is so low that even normal blood glucose levels produce the condition, it is referred to as renal glycosuria. (wikipedia.org)
  • arterial
  • Special biochemical tests (arterial blood gas) can determine the amount of dissolved gases in the blood, indicating if pH imbalances are acute or chronic. (wikipedia.org)
  • form
  • The term "onion-skin" is sometimes used to describe this form of blood vessel with thickened concentric smooth muscle cell layer and thickened, duplicated basement membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • decrease
  • Hyperchloremia should not be mistaken for hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis as hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis is characterized by two major changes: a decrease in blood pH and bicarbonate levels, as well as an increase in blood chloride levels. (wikipedia.org)
  • single
  • In both amphibians and zebrafish the pronephros has a single nephron attached to a nephric duct, which in turn is linked to the cloaca. (wikipedia.org)