• stimulation
  • In studies performed in isolated hepatocytes and rat skeletal muscles, they demonstrate that metformin leads to AMPK activation, accompanied by an inhibition of lipogenesis (due to inactivation of acetyl-CoA carboxylase and suppression of lipogenic enzyme expression), suppression of the expression of SREBP-1 (a central lipogenic transcription factor), and a modest stimulation of skeletal muscle glucose uptake. (jci.org)
  • Indeed, it has been reported that glucose utilization in BAT is markedly enhanced in parallel with heat production after cold exposure, sympathetic nerve stimulation, and β-adrenergic agonist administration in vivo ( 4 - 10 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Insulin stimulation of lipogenesis also occurs through the promotion of glucose uptake by adipose tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • increases
  • factors related to stress, socio-economic status and history have been shown to activate the stress response, which increases the production of glucose and insulin resistance, as well as inhibiting pancreatic function and thus might be of importance, although it is not fully corroborated by the scientific evidence. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, a recent study suggests that adipose tissue within bone marrow, which increases during caloric restriction, contributes to elevated circulating adiponectin in this context. (wikipedia.org)
  • Our results, together with reports that the activation of AMP kinase increases glucose transport in myocytes, suggest that the sympathetically stimulated glucose utilization in BAT is due to the serial activation of UCP1 and AMP kinase. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • For example, exposure of rats to a cold environment for several hours promptly increases 2-deoxyglucose (2-DG) uptake into BAT but not into WAT and skeletal muscle, while it decreases plasma insulin levels ( 8 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Glucose in the body increases after food consumption. (wikipedia.org)
  • As activity increases and it begins to pump faster, the cardiac muscles begin to oxidize glucose at a higher rate. (wikipedia.org)
  • As the vesicles fuse with the plasma membrane, GLUT4 transporters are inserted and become available for transporting glucose, and glucose absorption increases. (wikipedia.org)
  • Therefore
  • It is therefore an anabolic hormone, promoting the conversion of small molecules in the blood into large molecules inside the cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • peripheral tissues
  • This has the effect of increasing the half-life of the hormone and decreasing the rate at which it is taken up by peripheral tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • VLDL particles are secreted directly into blood, where they mature and function to deliver the endogenously derived lipids to peripheral tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • type 2 diabet
  • Those with type 2 diabetes who are appropriately managed by diet and exercise alone usually experience a reduction in blood glucose with low to moderate exercise. (humankinetics.com)
  • The pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes is not well understood but patients exhibit a reduced population of islet beta-cells, reduced secretory function of islet beta-cells that survive and peripheral tissue insulin resistance. (wikipedia.org)
  • concentrations
  • This pathway is part of a closed-loop feedback process: Elevated concentrations of T3, and T4 in the blood plasma inhibit the production of TSH in the anterior pituitary gland. (wikipedia.org)
  • Their neighboring alpha cells, by taking their cues from the beta cells, secrete glucagon into the blood in the opposite manner: increased secretion when blood glucose is low, and decreased secretion when glucose concentrations are high. (wikipedia.org)
  • This results in type 1 diabetes mellitus, which is characterized by abnormally high blood glucose concentrations, and generalized body wasting. (wikipedia.org)
  • This also means that muscle cells are able to take in more glucose as its intracellular concentrations decrease. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecule
  • The energy released in this process is captured in the form of 1 GTP and 11 ATP molecules per acetyl group (or acetic acid molecule) oxidized. (wikipedia.org)
  • First, glucose is converted to an intermediate molecule called pyruvate via a process called glycolosis . (nutritionwonderland.com)
  • Once inside the cell long-chain-fatty-acid-CoA ligase catalyzes the reaction between a fatty acid molecule with ATP (which is broken down to AMP and inorganic pyrophosphate) to give a fatty acyl-adenylate, which then reacts with free coenzyme A to give a fatty acyl-CoA molecule. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sucrose is a compound with one molecule of glucose covalently linked to one molecule of fructose. (wikipedia.org)
  • intake
  • An imbalance in glucose intake and energy expenditure has been shown to lead to both adipose cell hypertrophy and hyperplasia, which lead to obesity. (wikipedia.org)
  • obesity
  • Metabolic syndrome is associated with abdominal obesity, blood lipid disorders, inflammation, insulin resistance, full-blown diabetes, and increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • hormone
  • The hormone glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) is secreted from the earlier (proximal) part of the small intestine in lower amounts after isomaltulose than for sucrose ingestion, whereas the hormone glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is secreted from later (distal) parts of the small intestine in higher amounts with isomaltulose compared with sucrose. (wikipedia.org)