• protein
  • Among the free fatty acid receptor (FFAR) family of G protein-coupled receptors, GPR41 is known to be the G?i/o-coupled receptor for short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) such as propionic acid (C3) and valeric acid (C5). (jove.com)
  • GPR41 protein was also expressed in adipose tissues and skeletal muscle. (jove.com)
  • To clarify the roles of the principal thermogenic molecule mitochondrial uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) in the sympathetically stimulated glucose utilization, we investigated the uptake of 2-deoxyglucose (2-DG) into BAT and some other tissues of UCP1-knockout (KO) mice in vivo. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Insulin binding to the IR results in activation of the insulin receptor substrate (IRS) protein and subsequent signaling to the PI3K/Akt and Erk1/2 pathways, resulting in translocation of Glut4 vesicles, glucose uptake, cell proliferation, and survival. (cellsignal.com)
  • It also regulates the secretion of leptin and expression of leptin and uncoupling protein 2 in adipose tissue. (physiology.org)
  • Adiponectin (also referred to as GBP-28, apM1, AdipoQ and Acrp30) is a protein hormone which is involved in regulating glucose levels as well as fatty acid breakdown. (wikipedia.org)
  • So far, two receptors have been identified with homology to G protein-coupled receptors, and one receptor similar to the cadherin family: Adiponectin receptor 1 (AdipoR1) Adiponectin receptor 2 (AdipoR2) T-cadherin - CDH13 These have distinct tissue specificities within the body and have different affinities to the various forms of adiponectin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Notably, this is not the same as the presence of Myf5 protein, which is involved in the development of many tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • The lipophilicity of T3 and T4 requires their binding to the protein carrier thyroid-binding protein (TBG) (thyroxine-binding globulins, thyroxine binding prealbumins, and albumins) for transport in the blood. (wikipedia.org)
  • Long chain free fatty acids enter the metabolizing cells (i.e. most living cells in the body except red blood cells and neurons in the central nervous system) through specific transport proteins, such as the SLC27 family fatty acid transport protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • Glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT-4), also known as solute carrier family 2, facilitated glucose transporter member 4, is a protein encoded, in humans, by the SLC2A4 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first evidence for this distinct glucose transport protein was provided by David James in 1988. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bacteria such as Clostridium do so by using the enzyme to dissolve collagen and hyaluronic acid, the protein and saccharides, respectively, that hold tissues together. (wikipedia.org)
  • increases
  • Our results, together with reports that the activation of AMP kinase increases glucose transport in myocytes, suggest that the sympathetically stimulated glucose utilization in BAT is due to the serial activation of UCP1 and AMP kinase. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • For example, exposure of rats to a cold environment for several hours promptly increases 2-deoxyglucose (2-DG) uptake into BAT but not into WAT and skeletal muscle, while it decreases plasma insulin levels ( 8 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • factors related to stress, socio-economic status and history have been shown to activate the stress response, which increases the production of glucose and insulin resistance, as well as inhibiting pancreatic function and thus might be of importance, although it is not fully corroborated by the scientific evidence. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, a recent study suggests that adipose tissue within bone marrow, which increases during caloric restriction, contributes to elevated circulating adiponectin in this context. (wikipedia.org)
  • Glucose in the body increases after food consumption. (wikipedia.org)
  • As activity increases and it begins to pump faster, the cardiac muscles begin to oxidize glucose at a higher rate. (wikipedia.org)
  • As the vesicles fuse with the plasma membrane, GLUT4 transporters are inserted and become available for transporting glucose, and glucose absorption increases. (wikipedia.org)
  • Over the next 30 seconds the pulmonary blood flow increases and is oxygenated as it flows through the alveoli of the lungs. (wikipedia.org)
  • As the pulmonary circulation increases there is an equivalent reduction in the placental blood flow which normally ceases completely after about three minutes. (wikipedia.org)
  • stimulation
  • In studies performed in isolated hepatocytes and rat skeletal muscles, they demonstrate that metformin leads to AMPK activation, accompanied by an inhibition of lipogenesis (due to inactivation of acetyl-CoA carboxylase and suppression of lipogenic enzyme expression), suppression of the expression of SREBP-1 (a central lipogenic transcription factor), and a modest stimulation of skeletal muscle glucose uptake. (jci.org)
  • Indeed, it has been reported that glucose utilization in BAT is markedly enhanced in parallel with heat production after cold exposure, sympathetic nerve stimulation, and β-adrenergic agonist administration in vivo ( 4 - 10 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Insulin stimulation of lipogenesis also occurs through the promotion of glucose uptake by adipose tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • pathway
  • Moreover, the NE-induced 2-DG uptake into rat brown adipocyte primary culture is not suppressed by wortmannin, an inhibitor of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, which is indispensably involved in the signaling pathway for insulin-stimulated glucose transport ( 14 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • This pathway is part of a closed-loop feedback process: Elevated concentrations of T3, and T4 in the blood plasma inhibit the production of TSH in the anterior pituitary gland. (wikipedia.org)
  • peripheral tissues
  • VLDL particles are secreted directly into blood, where they mature and function to deliver the endogenously derived lipids to peripheral tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • This has the effect of increasing the half-life of the hormone and decreasing the rate at which it is taken up by peripheral tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • type 2 diabet
  • Those with type 2 diabetes who are appropriately managed by diet and exercise alone usually experience a reduction in blood glucose with low to moderate exercise. (humankinetics.com)
  • The pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes is not well understood but patients exhibit a reduced population of islet beta-cells, reduced secretory function of islet beta-cells that survive and peripheral tissue insulin resistance. (wikipedia.org)
  • cells
  • Both propionic acid and valeric acid increased insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 adipocyte, which did not occur in cells transfected with siRNA for GPR41 (siGPR41). (jove.com)
  • Glucose is the primary energy source for most cells of the body. (cellsignal.com)
  • When the body produces insulin under conditions of insulin resistance, the cells are resistant to the insulin and are unable to use it as effectively, leading to high blood sugar. (wikipedia.org)
  • In all other tissues the fatty acids that enter the metabolizing cells are combined with co-enzyme A to form acyl-CoA chains. (wikipedia.org)
  • ANGPTL4 contributes to tumor growth and protects cells from anoikis, a form of programmed cell death induced when contact-dependent cells detach from the surrounding tissue matrix. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is therefore an anabolic hormone, promoting the conversion of small molecules in the blood into large molecules inside the cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • If beta cells are destroyed by an autoimmune reaction, insulin can no longer be synthesized or be secreted into the blood. (wikipedia.org)
  • The metabolic activity of the exoenzymes allows the bacterium to invade host organisms by breaking down the host cells' defensive outer layers or by necrotizing body tissues of larger organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hemolysins target erythrocytes, or red blood cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • processes
  • When insulin binds to the insulin receptor, it leads to a cascade of cellular processes that promote the usage or, in some cases, the storage of glucose in the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • FGF family members possess broad mitogenic and cell survival activities and are involved in a variety of biological processes including embryonic development, cell growth, morphogenesis, tissue repair, tumor growth and invasion. (wikipedia.org)
  • intake
  • An imbalance in glucose intake and energy expenditure has been shown to lead to both adipose cell hypertrophy and hyperplasia, which lead to obesity. (wikipedia.org)