• flocks
  • While Europe stepped up biosecurity measures and installed early detection systems along the migratory paths of birds to prevent contamination of domestic flocks, there are concerns that Europe lacks sufficient stockpiles of vaccines and anti-virals. (onlineathens.com)
  • Panama depends on imported corn to feed its flocks and thereby the competitiveness of its poultry production is dependent on the world price of feed grains. (wikipedia.org)
  • Outbreaks have become more common due to the high density and frequent movement of flocks from intensive poultry production. (wikipedia.org)
  • Farm flocks tended to be small because the hens largely fed themselves through foraging, with some supplementation of grain, scraps, and waste products from other farm ventures. (wikipedia.org)
  • humans
  • The disease, which threatens the state's $3 billion poultry industry, is harmless to humans but fatal to birds. (washingtontimes.com)
  • It was not immediately clear, however, if the swan was infected with deadly H5N1 bird flu strain that has swept poultry populations in large swaths of Asia since 2003, jumping to humans and killing 60 people and resulting in the deaths of tens of millions of birds. (onlineathens.com)
  • Experts are warning, however, that the virus could change in a manner that would allow it to be more efficiently transmitted from birds to humans, and then from person to person. (breakingtravelnews.com)
  • Two humans, both poultry workers, were infected and had symptoms including conjunctivitis and mild influenza-like illness. (wikipedia.org)
  • A risk factor for contracting the virus is handling of infected poultry, but transmission of the virus from infected birds to humans has been characterized as inefficient. (wikipedia.org)
  • H5N1 may cause more than one influenza pandemic, as it is expected to continue mutating in birds regardless of whether humans develop herd immunity to a future pandemic strain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Surveillance of H5N1 in humans, poultry, wild birds, cats and other animals remains very weak in many parts of Asia and Africa. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Asian H5N1 virus was first detected in Guangdong Province, China, in 1996, when it killed some geese, but it received little attention until it spread through live-poultry markets in Hong Kong to humans in May 1997, killing 6 of 18 infected people. (wikipedia.org)
  • The intermittent spread to humans will continue, and the virus will continue to evolve.Map As of the July 25, 2008 FAO Avian Influenza Disease Emergency Situation Update, H5N1 pathogenicity is continuing to gradually rise in endemic areas but the avian influenza disease situation in farmed birds is being held in check by vaccination. (wikipedia.org)
  • After the strain of the bird flu was confirmed to be H5N6 which can be transmitted to humans, it was reported on August 25, that Department of Health is monitoring 34 farm workers in Nueva Ecija and Pampanga as suspected human cases of the disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • an AI-free nation AI outbreak in poultry AI transmission from poultry to humans AI transmission among humans The Philippines has been under stage 1 until the bird flu situation in the country was raised to stage 2 following the confirmation of the outbreak which started in Pampanga. (wikipedia.org)
  • Humans have very few cells with the bird sugar on its cell surface. (wikipedia.org)
  • farmers
  • The California Poultry Federation, which represents about 160 poultry farmers, was lobbying for the bans to be modified to include only six quarantined counties in Southern California. (washingtontimes.com)
  • Jeremy Hamish Kerr, a businessman who produced a cyanide-based poison (Feratox) for killing possums in New Zealand, threatened dairy producer Fonterra and Federated Farmers that infant formula and other dairy products would be poisoned with 1080 (monofluoroacetate) if they did not persuade the New Zealand government to halt the use of 1080 which is widely used by the Department of Conservation to control possums in New Zealand. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the late 1950s, egg prices had fallen so dramatically that farmers typically tripled the number of hens they kept, putting three hens into what had been a single-bird cage or converting their floor-confinement houses from a single deck of roosts to triple-decker roosts. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ranch & Pet Supply is a program offered by United Hardware Distributing Co. that provides products and services to retailers that market their business to hobby farmers and pet owners. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because of the highly infectious nature of AI virus and the devastating economic impact of outbreaks, poultry farmers should consider carcass disposal techniques that do not require off-farm movement, such as burial, composting, or incineration. (wikipedia.org)
  • feathers
  • The Commission has adopted an EU ban on all imports of Turkish live birds and untreated feathers, following the confirmed presence of avian influenza (AI) virus in Turkey over the weekend. (europa.eu)
  • Feathers are epidermal growths that form the distinctive outer covering, or plumage, on birds and other, extinct species' of dinosaurs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although feathers cover most parts of the body of birds, they arise only from certain well-defined tracts on the skin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hatchling birds of some species have a special kind of natal down feathers (neossoptiles) which are pushed out when the normal feathers (teleoptiles) emerge. (wikipedia.org)
  • It has been observed that the orientation pattern of β-keratin fibers in the feathers of flying birds differs from that in flightless birds: the fibers are better aligned along the shaft axis direction towards the tip, and the lateral walls of rachis region show structure of crossed fibers. (wikipedia.org)
  • Feathers insulate birds from water and cold temperatures. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some birds have a supply of powder down feathers which grow continuously, with small particles regularly breaking off from the ends of the barbules. (wikipedia.org)
  • outbreaks
  • The CFIA responds to all cases of highly pathogenic avian influenza and low pathogenicity H5 and H7 viruses by establishing quarantines, ordering the humane destruction of poultry, conducting trace-out activities, overseeing the cleaning and disinfection of premises, verifying that the affected farms remain free of avian influenza according to OIE standards, and reporting disease outbreaks to the OIE . (canada.ca)
  • A CDC study following outbreaks of H7N2 in commercial poultry farms in western Virginia in 2002 concluded: An important factor contributing to rapid early spread of AI virus infection among commercial poultry farms during this outbreak was disposal of dead birds via rendering off-farm. (wikipedia.org)
  • strain
  • Poultry that are infected with this strain or other low pathogenicity avian influenza viruses may show limited or no evidence of disease. (canada.ca)
  • Many references to "bird flu" and H5N1 in the popular media refer to this strain. (wikipedia.org)
  • The H5N1 strain is a fast-mutating, highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAI) found in multiple bird species. (wikipedia.org)
  • The presence of highly pathogenic (deadly) H5N1 around the world in both birds in the wild (swans, magpies, ducks, geese, pigeons, eagles, etc.) and in chickens and turkeys on farms has been demonstrated in millions of cases with the virus isolate actually sequenced in hundreds of cases yielding definitive proof of the evolution of this strain of this subtype of the species Influenzavirus A (bird flu virus). (wikipedia.org)
  • Evolution by reassortment of H5N1 from 1999 to 2002 created the Z genotype which became the dominant strain of highly pathogenic H5N1 in 2004 and is now spreading across the entire world in both wild and domestic birds. (wikipedia.org)
  • The strain of the avian influenza virus is not of the H5N1 strain according to the Research Institute for Tropical Medicine which conducted testings on samples of the virus from infected birds. (wikipedia.org)
  • H5N1
  • The high pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza virus has been endemic in South East Asia since 2003, resulting in the death or destruction of over 140 million birds. (europa.eu)
  • According to the World Health Organization and United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, H5N1 pathogenicity is gradually continuing to rise in endemic areas, but the avian influenza disease situation in farmed birds is being held in check by vaccination, and so far there is "no evidence of sustained human-to-human transmission" of the virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • The global spread of highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza in birds is considered a significant pandemic threat. (wikipedia.org)
  • H5N1 has a highly pathogenic variety that is endemic in dozens of species of birds throughout south Asia and parts of Africa. (wikipedia.org)
  • From 1997 to May 2005, H5N1 viruses were largely confined to Southeast Asia, but after they had infected wild birds in Qinghai Lake, China, they rapidly spread westward. (wikipedia.org)
  • avian influenza viruses
  • Among the measures agreed upon were increased surveillance (particularly of wild birds), mandatory reporting to national veterinary authorities of abnormal wild bird deaths, and the release of almost 900 000 euro from the EU budget to co-finance extended monitoring of birds for the avian influenza viruses. (europa.eu)
  • However, avian influenza viruses are known to circulate in the wild bird population and can be transmitted to domestic poultry. (canada.ca)
  • Do not allow poultry or their feed and water to have contact with wild birds -- particularly ducks and other wild waterfowl, which are known to be reservoirs for avian influenza viruses. (canada.ca)
  • quarantine
  • All live poultry and other bird species imported into the US (except from Canada) are required to have a USDA issued import permit, a health certificate issued by a government veterinarian in the country of origin, and be quarantined for 30 days in a USDA animal import quarantine facility. (usda.gov)
  • During the quarantine period, the birds are tested for various infectious pathogens. (usda.gov)
  • Where applicable, maintain fences and gates to areas housing birds-all birds should be housed indoors while the quarantine is in place. (gc.ca)
  • Within the quarantine zone a total of 200 thousand birds wild or domesticated will be culled during a three-day period. (wikipedia.org)
  • After consulting with biosecurity experts, the ban was partially lifted by August 23 but the transport of poultry from within the quarantine areas centered on affected towns in Pampanga and Nueva Ecija remains. (wikipedia.org)
  • suspected of being in
  • The CFIA takes immediate disease control actions in response to all situations where domestic birds are suspected of being infected with NAI . (gc.ca)
  • If you are a producer of a flock of birds that is suspected of being infected with NAI , CFIA staff members will come to your farm to begin an investigation. (gc.ca)
  • live
  • Only one live avian, a pet bird, was imported from Finland during 2004 to date. (usda.gov)
  • Canada does not import raw poultry products or live birds from China. (canada.ca)
  • Through a circular dated on August 11, 2017, the Department of Agriculture imposed a temporary ban against transporting birds and poultry products from Pampanga to other parts of Luzon as well as banned the transfer of live poultry and poultry products from Luzon to Visayas and Mindanao to prevent the spread of the disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • On 9 January 2017, the National Health and Family Planning Commission of China reported to WHO 106 cases of H7N9 which occurred from late November through late December, including 35 deaths, 2 potential cases of human-to-human transmission, and 80 of these 106 persons stating that they have visited live poultry markets. (wikipedia.org)
  • In end of April 2013, during the H7N9 flu virus outbreak, Chen encouraged vendors offering live poultry slaughtering at traditional markets to sign contracts with legal slaughterhouses and change their selling practices. (wikipedia.org)
  • Poultry was shipped live or killed, plucked, and packed on ice (but not eviscerated). (wikipedia.org)
  • Inspection Act
  • On January 7, 2015, U.S. District Judge Stephen V. Wilson held that the portion of California's law banning the sale of foie gras within the state (California Health and Safety Code § 25982) was preempted by the federal Poultry Products Inspection Act, and enjoined the California Attorney General from enforcing it. (wikipedia.org)
  • On January 7, 2015, U.S. District Judge Stephen V. Wilson held on remand that the portion of California's law banning the sale of foie gras within the state (California Health and Safety Code § 25982) was preempted by the federal Poultry Products Inspection Act (PPIA), and enjoined the California Attorney General from enforcing it. (wikipedia.org)
  • bans
  • The European ministers urged international cooperation to contain the virus and called on the EU Executive Commission to accelerate steps to draft stronger rules against bird flu, which in recent days has been discovered in Greece, Romania and Turkey, leading to bans on poultry from those countries. (onlineathens.com)
  • CFIA
  • The Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) initiates disease response actions when birds are suspected to be infected with highly pathogenic AI and low pathogenicity AI subtypes H5 and H7. (gc.ca)
  • Request CFIA permission to move birds, bird products, bird by-products and poultry related equipment on or off the property. (gc.ca)
  • The CFIA veterinarian will start the investigation by asking a series of questions about the health of your birds and the management practices you use. (gc.ca)
  • If you suspect your birds are sick, you should immediately contact a veterinarian, the provincial ministry of agriculture, or a local CFIA office. (canada.ca)
  • The CFIA monitors for the presence of H5 and H7 subtypes of avian influenza in both wild birds and domestic poultry in Canada. (canada.ca)
  • If H7N9 is detected in either wild birds or domestic poultry in Canada, the CFIA will notify the public and industry and take appropriate action to protect animal and human health in collaboration with public health authorities. (canada.ca)
  • pathogenicity
  • The World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) has noted that the H7N9 virus currently circulating in China is a low pathogenicity virus in poultry that has been linked to human illness. (canada.ca)
  • species
  • H7N3 is a subtype of the species Influenza A virus (sometimes called bird flu virus). (wikipedia.org)
  • The other genes can and have been reassorted from other subtypes of the bird flu species (their ease at exchanging genes is part of what makes them all one species). (wikipedia.org)
  • Striking differences in feather patterns and colors are part of the sexual dimorphism of many bird species and are particularly important in selection of mating pairs. (wikipedia.org)
  • farms
  • By that time a total of 116,000 birds in farms has been identified to have the virus with 37,000 birds already dead due to the disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • With approximately 40 shrimp farms covering an area of 9,000 hectares, combined with efficient high technology and good management practices, the Panamanian shrimp farming industry is responsible for 80% of fish products exports. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the United States, chickens were raised primarily on family farms or in some cases, in poultry colonies, such as Judge Emery's Poultry Colony until about 1960. (wikipedia.org)
  • Large farms and packing plants could grow birds by the tens of thousands, radically impacting labor practices alongside farming techniques. (wikipedia.org)
  • spread
  • Europe sounds alarm, calls bird flu worldwide threat101905 news31Athens Banner-HeraldLUXEMBOURG - European Union foreign ministers Tuesday declared the spread of bird flu from Asia to Europe a global threat, as the Swiss manufacturer of one of the only available anti-flu drugs announced it was building a new U.S. plant to increase production amid fears of a major outbreak. (onlineathens.com)
  • In early June it was discovered that the virus had spread to a poultry farm 70 miles (113 km) away near St. Helens in north-west England. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chickens
  • A statewide outbreak of the disease in the 1970s threatened the entire U.S. poultry and egg supply and led authorities to destroy nearly 12 million chickens. (washingtontimes.com)
  • During an event held by the Poultry Association of the Republic of China in early May 2013, Chen said that food processing practice in Taiwan conformed with international standards, from feeding to slaughtering and shipping, and that he also guaranteed the food safety of all of the local chickens. (wikipedia.org)
  • The major milestone in 20th century poultry production was the discovery of Vitamin-D (named in 1922), which made it possible to keep chickens in confinement year-round. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chickens could be sent to slaughterhouses for butchering and processing into prepackaged commercial products to be frozen or shipped fresh to markets or wholesalers. (wikipedia.org)
  • On 24 May 2007, an outbreak of H7N2 was confirmed at a poultry farm near Corwen, in Wales from tests on chickens that died from H7N2. (wikipedia.org)
  • H7N9
  • April 19, 2013, Ottawa: The H7N9 avian influenza virus that has been linked to human illnesses in the People's Republic of China has not been identified in either birds or people in Canada to date. (canada.ca)
  • swine
  • not in citation given] These feed are now commercially produced for the livestock, poultry, swine, and fish industries. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, livestock animals are fed on a diet that consists mainly of roughages, while poultry, swine, and fish are fed with concentrates. (wikipedia.org)
  • The FDA regulates human food and animal feed for poultry, livestock, swine, and fish. (wikipedia.org)
  • Distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS), which are rich in energy and protein, have been used in place of corn and soybean meal in some livestock and poultry feeds, and corn DDGS have become the most popular, economical, and widely available alternative feed ingredient for use in U.S. swine diets in all phases of production. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bird flu is similar to swine flu, dog flu, horse flu and human flu as an illness caused by strains of influenza viruses that have adapted to a specific host. (wikipedia.org)
  • pathogens
  • Program 1 - Health and Welfare - aims to maintain a sustainable, healthy and welfare conscious supply of poultry products despite newly emerging pathogens, increasing environmental concerns about production and changing consumer demands. (wikipedia.org)
  • virus
  • There are many different strains of the AI virus, and most of these have little or no effect on bird health. (gc.ca)
  • Antibodies were found in over half of 500 people tested according to the final official report by the Dutch government: As at least 50% of the people exposed to infected poultry had H7 antibodies detectable with the modified assay, it was estimated that avian influenza A/H7N7 virus infection occurred in at least 1000, and perhaps as many as 2000 people. (wikipedia.org)
  • Out of the three types of influenza viruses (A, B, and C), influenza A virus is a zoonotic infection with a natural reservoir almost entirely in birds. (wikipedia.org)
  • Companion birds in captivity are unlikely to contract the virus and there has been no report of a companion bird with avian influenza since 2003. (wikipedia.org)
  • He said that the ROC government would reimburse poultry sellers for any birds culled for carrying the virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • This subtype is one of several sometimes called bird flu virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • regulates
  • California's Attorney General, Kamala Harris argued that the PPIA regulates the ingredients of poultry products, but that the manner in which the birds are fed while alive does not constitute an ingredient and so therefore California's foie gras law is not preempted by the PPIA. (wikipedia.org)
  • agricultural
  • As of 1996, the important agricultural product exports included bananas ($96.4 million), shrimp ($29.2 million), sugar ($14.1 million), coffee ($11.3 million), and beef ($2.9 million). (wikipedia.org)
  • He took up job offers to run the shows for the Scottish Kennel Club, and became manager of the poultry section of the shows of the Royal Agricultural Society. (wikipedia.org)
  • Feed manufacturing refers to the process of producing animal feed from raw agricultural products. (wikipedia.org)
  • From the 17th to the 19th century, the city developed as a handicraft, trade and agricultural centre, being famous for its weaving, homespun tailoring, coppersmith's trade, leather-work and agricultural products, such as wheat, linseed, wool and cheese. (wikipedia.org)
  • Poultry farming is a part of the United States's agricultural economy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Soon after poultry keeping gained the attention of agricultural researchers (around 1896), improvements in nutrition and management made poultry keeping more profitable and businesslike. (wikipedia.org)
  • HPAI
  • Between 1959 and 1995, there were 15 recorded occasions of the emergence of HPAI viruses in poultry, but losses were minimal. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2017
  • On August 18, 2017, Agriculture Secretary Manny Piñol confirmed occurrence of bird flu in the towns of Jaen and San Isidro in Nueva Ecija. (wikipedia.org)
  • By September 2017, more than 600 thousand birds have been culled. (wikipedia.org)
  • The original Poultry CRC was established on 1 July 2003, with the current CRC an extension to 2017. (wikipedia.org)
  • On September 15, 2017, the three-judge panel reversed U.S. District Judge Stephen V. Wilson's 7 January 2015 decision, finding that the California foie gras law is not preempted by the federal Poultry Products Inspections Act. (wikipedia.org)
  • foie
  • The California foie gras law, California S.B. 1520, is a California State statute that prohibits the "force feed[ing of] a bird for the purpose of enlarging the bird's liver beyond normal size" (California Health and Safety Code § 25981) as well as the sale of products that are a result of this process (§ 25982). (wikipedia.org)
  • The law included a provision that it would take effect almost eight years after enactment, in order to allow time for techniques to be developed by which foie gras could be produced without force-feeding birds. (wikipedia.org)
  • industry
  • The poultry industry has estimated that it suffered a ₱179 million loss per day. (wikipedia.org)
  • The poultry industry continues growing at a strong pace, covering local demand and allowing exports to Central America and the Caribbean. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition there is a large poultry industry with 70,000 birds registered in 2006. (wikipedia.org)
  • In July 2008, the Poultry CRC won the World's Poultry Science Association (WPSA) Industry/Organisation Award at the World's Poultry Congress in Brisbane in recognition of an outstanding contribution to the development of the poultry industry. (wikipedia.org)
  • Agriculture
  • The latest case, confirmed Wednesday, involved a pet bird, not a commercial flock, said Larry Cooper, spokesman for the state Department of Food and Agriculture. (washingtontimes.com)
  • antibodies
  • In the latest case, Romania announced Tuesday that a swan with bird flu antibodies was discovered near the Ukrainian border. (onlineathens.com)