• receptors
  • Precise localization of synaptic inputs to the cell, and localization of functional receptors in the cell was achieved. (wikipedia.org)
  • Examine the role of D-serine as a coagonist for NMDA receptors in ganglion cells in the rabbit retina. (arvojournals.org)
  • Integrins are the major family of cell surface receptors that mediate cell attachment to the ECM and can also mediate cell-cell interactions (Hynes, 1992 , 1999 ). (wiley.com)
  • In light, however, light strikes the photoreceptor which causes the photoreceptor to be inhibited (hyperpolarized) due to the activation of opsins which activate All trans-Retinal, giving energy to stimulate G-Protein coupled receptors to activate phosphodiesterase (PDE) which cleaves cGMP into 5'-GMP. (wikipedia.org)
  • While it is known that an important cell in the process is the horizontal cell, the exact sequence of receptors and molecules is unknown. (wikipedia.org)
  • Briefly, Wnt signaling proteins bind to their receptors, the Frizzled receptor family, and cause activation of molecular cascades within the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • neuronal
  • Although it has been well studied for its role in reprogramming somatic cells into induced pluripotent stem cells and the repression of axon regeneration of optic nerve injury, whether Krüppel-like factor 4 (KLF4) plays any role in retinal neuronal differentiation and survival into adulthood is still poorly understood. (eneuro.org)
  • optic nerve
  • A mixture of the gap-junction-impermeable dye Lucifer yellow (LY) and the permeable dye neurobiotin (NB) was applied to the optic nerve stump for retrograde labeling of GCs and the cells coupled with them. (arvojournals.org)
  • The bistratified cells project their axons through the optic nerve and optic tract to the koniocellular layers in the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN), synapsing with koniocellular cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The output takes the form of action potentials in retinal ganglion cells whose axons form the optic nerve. (wikipedia.org)
  • The optic nerve is a central tract of many axons of ganglion cells connecting primarily to the lateral geniculate body, a visual relay station in the diencephalon (the rear of the forebrain). (wikipedia.org)
  • receptive
  • They also aid in creating functional subunits in the receptive field of ganglion cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The mechanism for producing the center of a bipolar cell's receptive field is well known: direct innervation of the photoreceptor cell above it, either through a metabotropic (ON) or ionotropic (OFF) receptor. (wikipedia.org)
  • They observed that receptive fields were subdivided into discrete areas, innervated by the different branches of a single cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • outer
  • Autoimmune retinopathies such as Cancer Associated Retinopathy (CAR), Melanoma Associated Retinopathy (MAR), and Acute Zonal Occult Outer Retinopathy (AZOOR) Retinal detachment Assessment of retinal function after trauma, especially in vitreous hemorrhage, dense cataracts, and other conditions where the fundus cannot be visualized. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are two types of hair cells: inner and outer. (wikipedia.org)
  • GABA
  • Between the migratory phases, few differences were observed in the distribution of major neurotransmitters i.e. glutamate, GABA and glycine, but changes in amino acids associated with retinal metabolism i.e. glutamine and aspartate, were evident. (biomedsearch.com)
  • These are widely spreading amacrine cells, and they diffusely release dopamine, while still releasing GABA and carrying out all normal synaptic release. (wikipedia.org)
  • prostheses
  • The focus is specifically on retinal prostheses and electrical stimulation parameters used with these devices. (igi-global.com)
  • Retinal prostheses for restoration of sight to patients blinded by retinal degeneration are being developed by a number of private companies and research institutions worldwide. (wikipedia.org)
  • excitation
  • This causes the ON bipolar cell to lose its inhibition and become active (depolarized), while the OFF bipolar cell loses its excitation (becomes hyperpolarized) and becomes silent. (wikipedia.org)
  • Excitation of retinal ganglion cells results in an increased firing rate while inhibition results in a depressed rate of firing. (wikipedia.org)
  • The protein encoded is a G-protein coupled receptor with embedded 11-cis-retinal, whose light excitation causes a cis-trans conformational change that begins the process of chemical signalling to the brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • whereas
  • Furthermore, overexpression of Channelrhodopsin-2 partially rescued rod bipolar cell development in the TRPM1 −/− retina, whereas the rescue effect by a constitutively closed form of TRPM1 was lower than that by the native form. (jneurosci.org)
  • Finally, analysis of the distribution of different types of RGCs showed that large RGCs are mainly distributed at the periphery (where they represent 65 ± 2.7% of cells), whereas in the visual streak, the majority of RGCs are small or medium-sized (30 ± 1.8% and 51 ± 1.3% of cells, respectively). (arvojournals.org)
  • Morphological studies have defined discrete classes of amacrine and bipolar cells, whereas neurochemical and physiological studies have investigated the modulatory action of neurotransmitters and neuropeptides on these cells. (uclahealth.org)
  • potentials
  • In this manner, whole cell patch recording of amacrine neurons in the salamander retina allowed light evoked excitatory post-synaptic currents (EPSCs) to be measured for the first time, as well as their light elicited spiking potentials, and voltage-gated currents. (wikipedia.org)
  • The ERG is composed of electrical potentials contributed by different cell types within the retina, and the stimulus conditions (flash or pattern stimulus, whether a background light is present, and the colors of the stimulus and background) can elicit stronger response from certain components. (wikipedia.org)
  • types
  • Two types of cells have been identified: red-green cells and blue-yellow cells. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • To elaborate a precise topographic map of adult porcine retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), by analyzing the density and distribution of the different types of RGCs, classified on the basis of their soma size. (arvojournals.org)
  • In collaboration with cancer immunologists around the globe, our new 770 gene panel combines markers for 24 different immune cell types, 30 common cancer antigens and genes that represent all categories of immune response including key checkpoint blockade genes. (issuu.com)
  • As mentioned above, there are several different ways to divide the many different types of amacrine cells into subtypes. (wikipedia.org)
  • There was no significant difference in cell number among any of the retinal cell types or in photoreceptor layer thickness with KLF4 deletion during early development. (eneuro.org)
  • In the early stages of retinal development, RPCs generate these different cell types under the regulation of a combination of extrinsic and intrinsic influences ( Livesey and Cepko, 2001 ). (eneuro.org)
  • The ability of RPCs to generate particular progeny is specified by transcription factors that define their competence to differentiate into single or perhaps subsets of retinal cell types ( Cepko, 1999 ). (eneuro.org)
  • Retinal precursor cells are biological cells that differentiate into the various cell types of the retina during development. (wikipedia.org)
  • The differentiation of retinal precursor cells into the mature cell types found in the retina is coordinated in time and space by factors within the cell as well as factors in the environment of the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Three types of retinal implants are currently in clinical trials: epiretinal (on the retina), subretinal (behind the retina), and suprachoroidal (between the choroid and the sclera). (wikipedia.org)
  • There are two main types of retinal implants by placement. (wikipedia.org)
  • In humans, there are three different types of cone cell, distinguished by their pattern of response to different wavelengths of light. (wikipedia.org)
  • The three types of cone cell respond (roughly) to light of short, medium, and long wavelengths. (wikipedia.org)
  • The different responses of the three types of cone cells are determined by the likelihoods that their respective photoreceptor proteins will absorb photons of different wavelengths. (wikipedia.org)
  • In cone cells, there are different types of opsins that combine with retinal to form pigments called photopsins. (wikipedia.org)
  • nerve
  • All eyes underwent retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) imaging with Spectralis SD-OCT (Heidelberg Engineering, Heidelberg, Germany). (arvojournals.org)
  • We compared the numbers of retinal neurons and the thickness of photoreceptor and nerve fiber layers between Chx10-Cre-driven KLF4 deletion mice and wild-type mice. (eneuro.org)
  • When the movement is towards the tallest stereocilia, the K+ cation channels open allowing K+ to flow into cell and the resulting depolarization causes the Ca++ channels to open, thus releasing its neurotransmitter into the afferent auditory nerve. (wikipedia.org)
  • Epiretinal implants are placed on top of the retinal surface, above the nerve fiber layer, directly stimulating ganglion cells and bypassing all other retinal layers. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since the nerve fiber layer has similar stimulation threshold to that of the retinal ganglion cells, axons passing under the epiretinal electrodes are stimulated, creating arcuate percepts, and thereby distorting the retinotopic map. (wikipedia.org)
  • proliferation
  • During retinal development, cell-cell and cell-ECM interactions are necessary for cell adhesion, migration, proliferation, and differentiation and are likely to be critical in establishing the highly organized architecture of the retina. (wiley.com)
  • 1996 ). β 1 integrins have been implicated in mediating neurite outgrowth, cell migration, and proliferation during retinal morphogenesis (Cohen et al. (wiley.com)
  • These factors regulate various biological functions in development and adulthood, including cell growth, apoptosis, proliferation, and differentiation ( McConnell and Yang, 2010 ). (eneuro.org)
  • RGCs
  • the mid-periphery, which is a vast region with medium cell density (678 ± 20 RGCs/mm 2 ) and the periphery, which presents the lowest density of RGCs (241 ± 19 RGCs/ mm 2 ). (arvojournals.org)