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  • receptors
  • Precise localization of synaptic inputs to the cell, and localization of functional receptors in the cell was achieved. (wikipedia.org)
  • More importantly, weakening the AII-AC gap junction network by activating retinal dopamine receptors abolished oscillations in ON-SACs but not in OFF-SACs. (frontiersin.org)
  • While it is known that an important cell in the process is the horizontal cell, the exact sequence of receptors and molecules is unknown. (wikipedia.org)
  • Briefly, Wnt signaling proteins bind to their receptors, the Frizzled receptor family, and cause activation of molecular cascades within the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • neuron
  • A new study by researchers demonstrates that a particular neuron, the cholinergic amacrine cell, creates a personal space in much the same way that people distance themselves from one another in an elevator. (regenerativemedicine.net)
  • One of which is Horizontally Sensitive (HS) cells, such as the H1 neuron, that depolarize most strongly in response to stimulus moving in a horizontal direction (preferred direction). (wikipedia.org)
  • optic nerve
  • In the clinic, the PhNR amplitude is reduced in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG), and the decrease in amplitude correlated with the degree of optic nerve damage reprinted by retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness and visual field loss [ 5 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • The retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (RNFLT) measured by optical coherence tomography (OCT) correlated highly with the amplitudes of the PhNR in eyes with optic nerve atrophy [ 8 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Recordings also were made following acute intravitreal injections of GABA (35 mM) to suppress all inner retinal activity, tetrodotoxin (TTX, 7.5 µM) to suppress spiking, or in animals in which ganglion cells had been lesioned either by optic nerve crush (ONC) 21 days earlier, or by NMDA (160 nMoles) injected 6 days earlier. (arvojournals.org)
  • Rods
  • In the present study, an autosomal dominant PD model called rhoΔCTA, whose rods overexpress a C-terminally truncated mutant rhodopsin and degenerate with a rate similar to that of rd1 , was used to investigate the generality and mechanisms of heightened inner retinal activity following PD. (frontiersin.org)
  • neural
  • The linear relationship between the PhNR amplitude and RNFL thickness indicates that inner retinal function declines proportionately with neural loss in glaucomatous eyes. (hindawi.com)
  • During embryogenesis, retinal cells originate from the anterior portion of the neural plate termed the eye field. (wikipedia.org)
  • voltage-gated
  • Using paired recordings from synaptically coupled RBs and AIIs, we found that a voltage-gated Na conductance in AII amacrines accelerated EPSPs arising from RB synaptic input. (jneurosci.org)
  • We show that a voltage-gated Na conductance accelerates the time course of signals measured in and downstream of AII amacrines. (jneurosci.org)
  • receptive
  • They observed that receptive fields were subdivided into discrete areas, innervated by the different branches of a single cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • axon
  • The amacrine cells also introduce lateral inhibition to the axon terminal, serving various visual functions including efficient signal transduction with high signal-to-noise ratio. (wikipedia.org)
  • Retinal ganglion cells vary significantly in terms of their size, connections, and responses to visual stimulation but they all share the defining property of having a long axon that extends into the brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Closest to the visual field (and farthest from the brain) is the axon terminal, which releases a neurotransmitter called glutamate to bipolar cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • prostheses
  • The focus is specifically on retinal prostheses and electrical stimulation parameters used with these devices. (igi-global.com)
  • Retinal prostheses for restoration of sight to patients blinded by retinal degeneration are being developed by a number of private companies and research institutions worldwide. (wikipedia.org)
  • excitation
  • This causes the ON bipolar cell to lose its inhibition and become active (depolarized), while the OFF bipolar cell loses its excitation (becomes hyperpolarized) and becomes silent. (wikipedia.org)
  • Excitation of retinal ganglion cells results in an increased firing rate while inhibition results in a depressed rate of firing. (wikipedia.org)
  • The protein encoded is a G-protein coupled receptor with embedded 11-cis-retinal, whose light excitation causes a cis-trans conformational change that begins the process of chemical signalling to the brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • degeneration
  • Repeated intravitreal injections of anti-VEGF monoclonal antibody have been reported to cause degeneration of the retinal ganglion cells (RGC) in rats (Nishijima et al. (arvojournals.org)
  • Optimal candidates for retinal implants have retinal diseases, such as retinitis pigmentosa or age-related macular degeneration. (wikipedia.org)
  • In subjects with age-related macular degeneration, who may have intact peripheral vision, retinal implants could result in a hybrid form of vision. (wikipedia.org)
  • outer
  • Autoimmune retinopathies such as Cancer Associated Retinopathy (CAR), Melanoma Associated Retinopathy (MAR), and Acute Zonal Occult Outer Retinopathy (AZOOR) Retinal detachment Assessment of retinal function after trauma, especially in vitreous hemorrhage, dense cataracts, and other conditions where the fundus cannot be visualized. (wikipedia.org)
  • macular
  • DME is a consequence of DR in the macular area and is secondary to retinal barrier rupture, which is in turn secondary to a range of metabolic changes brought about by hyperglycemia [ 4 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Mechanism
  • The second postulated mechanism is relatively slow with a time constant of about 200 ms and depends on ATP release via Pannexin 1 channels located on horizontal cell dendrites invaginating the cone synaptic terminal. (wikipedia.org)
  • The physiological properties of these ganglion cells match known properties of the daily light entrainment (synchronization) mechanism regulating circadian rhythms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Following the initial report, an attempt to understand the mechanism of directionally selective cells was pursued by Horace B. Barlow and William R. Levick in 1965. (wikipedia.org)
  • types
  • Two types of cells have been identified: red-green cells and blue-yellow cells. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In collaboration with cancer immunologists around the globe, our new 770 gene panel combines markers for 24 different immune cell types, 30 common cancer antigens and genes that represent all categories of immune response including key checkpoint blockade genes. (issuu.com)
  • Multiple cell types are present within any brain structure, but the rules governing their positioning, and the molecular mechanisms mediating those rules, have been relatively unexplored. (regenerativemedicine.net)
  • As mentioned above, there are several different ways to divide the many different types of amacrine cells into subtypes. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are two main types of retinal implants by placement. (wikipedia.org)
  • In humans, there are three different types of cone cell, distinguished by their pattern of response to different wavelengths of light. (wikipedia.org)
  • The three types of cone cell respond (roughly) to light of short, medium, and long wavelengths. (wikipedia.org)
  • In cone cells, there are different types of opsins that combine with retinal to form pigments called photopsins. (wikipedia.org)