• RGCs
  • To elaborate a precise topographic map of adult porcine retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), by analyzing the density and distribution of the different types of RGCs, classified on the basis of their soma size. (arvojournals.org)
  • the mid-periphery, which is a vast region with medium cell density (678 ± 20 RGCs/mm 2 ) and the periphery, which presents the lowest density of RGCs (241 ± 19 RGCs/ mm 2 ). (arvojournals.org)
  • Finally, analysis of the distribution of different types of RGCs showed that large RGCs are mainly distributed at the periphery (where they represent 65 ± 2.7% of cells), whereas in the visual streak, the majority of RGCs are small or medium-sized (30 ± 1.8% and 51 ± 1.3% of cells, respectively). (arvojournals.org)
  • neural
  • The linear relationship between the PhNR amplitude and RNFL thickness indicates that inner retinal function declines proportionately with neural loss in glaucomatous eyes. (hindawi.com)
  • During retinal morphogenesis, the neural tube evaginates to form a pseudostratified optic vesicle that invaginates to form the two-layered optic cup (Jacobson, 1966 ). (wiley.com)
  • During embryogenesis, retinal cells originate from the anterior portion of the neural plate termed the eye field. (wikipedia.org)
  • axons
  • Intravitreal injections of ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) promote the regrowth of adult axotomized rat retinal ganglion cell (RGC) axons. (arvojournals.org)
  • The bistratified cells project their axons through the optic nerve and optic tract to the koniocellular layers in the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN), synapsing with koniocellular cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • They contain the photopigment melanopsin in varying quantities along the cell membrane, including on the axons up to the optic disc, the soma, and dendrites of the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since the nerve fiber layer has similar stimulation threshold to that of the retinal ganglion cells, axons passing under the epiretinal electrodes are stimulated, creating arcuate percepts, and thereby distorting the retinotopic map. (wikipedia.org)
  • The output takes the form of action potentials in retinal ganglion cells whose axons form the optic nerve. (wikipedia.org)
  • The optic nerve is a central tract of many axons of ganglion cells connecting primarily to the lateral geniculate body, a visual relay station in the diencephalon (the rear of the forebrain). (wikipedia.org)
  • voltage-gated
  • Using paired recordings from synaptically coupled RBs and AIIs, we found that a voltage-gated Na conductance in AII amacrines accelerated EPSPs arising from RB synaptic input. (jneurosci.org)
  • We show that a voltage-gated Na conductance accelerates the time course of signals measured in and downstream of AII amacrines. (jneurosci.org)
  • receptive
  • They observed that receptive fields were subdivided into discrete areas, innervated by the different branches of a single cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • axon
  • The amacrine cells also introduce lateral inhibition to the axon terminal, serving various visual functions including efficient signal transduction with high signal-to-noise ratio. (wikipedia.org)
  • Retinal ganglion cells vary significantly in terms of their size, connections, and responses to visual stimulation but they all share the defining property of having a long axon that extends into the brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Closest to the visual field (and farthest from the brain) is the axon terminal, which releases a neurotransmitter called glutamate to bipolar cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • prostheses
  • The focus is specifically on retinal prostheses and electrical stimulation parameters used with these devices. (igi-global.com)
  • Retinal prostheses for restoration of sight to patients blinded by retinal degeneration are being developed by a number of private companies and research institutions worldwide. (wikipedia.org)
  • excitation
  • This causes the ON bipolar cell to lose its inhibition and become active (depolarized), while the OFF bipolar cell loses its excitation (becomes hyperpolarized) and becomes silent. (wikipedia.org)
  • Excitation of retinal ganglion cells results in an increased firing rate while inhibition results in a depressed rate of firing. (wikipedia.org)
  • The protein encoded is a G-protein coupled receptor with embedded 11-cis-retinal, whose light excitation causes a cis-trans conformational change that begins the process of chemical signalling to the brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • nerve
  • To determine the relationship among photopic negative response (PhNR) of the electroretinogram (ERG), retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness, and the visual field in normal and glaucomatous patients. (hindawi.com)
  • The spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) was used to measure the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness around the optic disc. (hindawi.com)
  • In the clinic, the PhNR amplitude is reduced in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG), and the decrease in amplitude correlated with the degree of optic nerve damage reprinted by retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness and visual field loss [ 5 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • The retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (RNFLT) measured by optical coherence tomography (OCT) correlated highly with the amplitudes of the PhNR in eyes with optic nerve atrophy [ 8 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • All eyes underwent retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) imaging with Spectralis SD-OCT (Heidelberg Engineering, Heidelberg, Germany). (arvojournals.org)
  • When the movement is towards the tallest stereocilia, the K+ cation channels open allowing K+ to flow into cell and the resulting depolarization causes the Ca++ channels to open, thus releasing its neurotransmitter into the afferent auditory nerve. (wikipedia.org)
  • Epiretinal implants are placed on top of the retinal surface, above the nerve fiber layer, directly stimulating ganglion cells and bypassing all other retinal layers. (wikipedia.org)
  • neuron
  • One of which is Horizontally Sensitive (HS) cells, such as the H1 neuron, that depolarize most strongly in response to stimulus moving in a horizontal direction (preferred direction). (wikipedia.org)
  • Rods
  • In the present study, an autosomal dominant PD model called rhoΔCTA, whose rods overexpress a C-terminally truncated mutant rhodopsin and degenerate with a rate similar to that of rd1 , was used to investigate the generality and mechanisms of heightened inner retinal activity following PD. (frontiersin.org)
  • types
  • Two types of cells have been identified: red-green cells and blue-yellow cells. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In collaboration with cancer immunologists around the globe, our new 770 gene panel combines markers for 24 different immune cell types, 30 common cancer antigens and genes that represent all categories of immune response including key checkpoint blockade genes. (issuu.com)
  • As mentioned above, there are several different ways to divide the many different types of amacrine cells into subtypes. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are two main types of retinal implants by placement. (wikipedia.org)
  • In humans, there are three different types of cone cell, distinguished by their pattern of response to different wavelengths of light. (wikipedia.org)
  • The three types of cone cell respond (roughly) to light of short, medium, and long wavelengths. (wikipedia.org)
  • In cone cells, there are different types of opsins that combine with retinal to form pigments called photopsins. (wikipedia.org)
  • macular
  • DME is a consequence of DR in the macular area and is secondary to retinal barrier rupture, which is in turn secondary to a range of metabolic changes brought about by hyperglycemia [ 4 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Optimal candidates for retinal implants have retinal diseases, such as retinitis pigmentosa or age-related macular degeneration. (wikipedia.org)
  • In subjects with age-related macular degeneration, who may have intact peripheral vision, retinal implants could result in a hybrid form of vision. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mechanism
  • The second postulated mechanism is relatively slow with a time constant of about 200 ms and depends on ATP release via Pannexin 1 channels located on horizontal cell dendrites invaginating the cone synaptic terminal. (wikipedia.org)
  • The physiological properties of these ganglion cells match known properties of the daily light entrainment (synchronization) mechanism regulating circadian rhythms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Following the initial report, an attempt to understand the mechanism of directionally selective cells was pursued by Horace B. Barlow and William R. Levick in 1965. (wikipedia.org)