• excretion
  • this is accompanied by more than a four-fold increase of plasma biotin concentration and more than a six-fold increase of urinary biotin excretion (Barth et al. (dsm.com)
  • Biotin status is typically assessed by quantifying the urinary excretion of biotin and its major metabolites (~120 nmoles/d), the activity of PCC or MCC in lymphocytes, and the abundance of biotinylated carboxylases in cell extracts ( 1 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Low MCC activity causes increased urinary excretion of 3-hydroxyisovaleric acid and its carnityl conjugate, which is used to diagnose biotin deficiency. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The most reliable and commonly used methods for determining biotin status in the body are: excretion of 3-hydroxyisovaleric acid and biotin in urine activity of propionyl-CoA carboxylase in lymphocytes In the United States, biotin supplements are readily available without a prescription in amounts ranging from 1,000 to 10,000 micrograms (30 micrograms is identified as Adequate Intake). (wikipedia.org)
  • protein
  • Naturally occurring biotin is found partly in the free state (fruit, milk, vegetables) and partly in the form bound to protein in animal tissues, plant seeds and yeast. (dsm.com)
  • Biotin is an important component of enzymes involved in metabolizing fats and carbohydrates, influencing cell growth, and affecting amino acids involved in protein synthesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • The attachment of biotin to various molecules, biotinylation, is used as an important laboratory technique to study various processes, including protein localization, protein interactions, DNA transcription, and replication. (wikipedia.org)
  • Biotin hydrazide is a biotinyl derivative that can be used as a probe for the determination of protein carbonylation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Malonyl-S-ACP:biotin-protein carboxyltransferase (EC 2.1.3.10, malonyl-S-acyl-carrier protein:biotin-protein carboxyltransferase, MadC/MadD, MadC,D, malonyl-[acyl-carrier protein]:biotinyl-[protein] carboxyltransferase) is an enzyme with systematic name malonyl-(acyl-carrier protein):biotinyl-(protein) carboxytransferase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Biotinidase
  • Biotinidase, present in pancreatic juice and the intestinal mucosa, releases biotin from biocytin (bound form of biotin) during the luminal phase of proteolysis. (dsm.com)
  • Biotin appears to circulate in the bloodstream both free and bound to a serum glycoprotein, which also has biotinidase activity, catalyzing the hydrolysis of biocytin. (dsm.com)
  • Biotinidase catalyzes the release of biotin from breakdown products of carboxylases and, therefore, plays a crucial role in biotin recycling ( 1 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Mutations in the biotinidase gene impair the recycling of biotin and lead to a substantial urinary loss of biotin in form of biotinylated peptides. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • synthase
  • Biotin synthase reductively cleaves SAM into a deoxyadenosyl radical-a first radical formed on dethiobiotin is trapped by the sulfur donor, which was found to be the iron-sulfur (Fe-S) center contained in the enzyme. (wikipedia.org)
  • bacteria
  • 1990) suggested that under basal conditions 1.7% to 17% of the swine requirement for biotin is provided by colonic bacteria. (dsm.com)
  • Biotin is required by all organisms but can only be synthesized by bacteria, yeasts, molds, algae, and some plant species. (abcam.com)
  • intestinal
  • In most species that have been investigated, physiological concentrations of biotin are absorbed from the intestinal tract by a sodium-dependent active transport process, which is inhibited by dethiobiotin and biocytin (Said and Derweesh, 1991). (dsm.com)
  • Some anticonvulsants inhibit biotin transport across the intestinal mucosa. (wikipedia.org)
  • Alterations in the intestinal flora caused by the prolonged administration of antibiotics are presumed to be the basis for biotin deficiency. (wikipedia.org)
  • carbon dioxide
  • Biotin is required as prosthetic group of enzymes involved in incorporation of carbon dioxide into organic compounds. (abcam.com)
  • Biotin assists in various metabolic reactions involving the transfer of carbon dioxide. (wikipedia.org)
  • biotinyl
  • Biotin affects gene regulation by "classic" signaling pathways such as cyclic guanosine monophosphate, nuclear factor-κB, Sp1 and Sp3, nitric oxide, and receptor tyrosine kinases, by the intermediate biotinyl-5′-adenosyl monophosphate, and at the posttranscriptional level ( 1 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • carbamazepine
  • A prominent nutrient-drug interaction is that biotin-dependent enzymes are reduced with the epilepsy drug carbamazepine (Rathman et al. (dsm.com)
  • urine
  • 14C-labeled biotin showed the major portion of intraperitoneally injected radioactivity to be excreted in the urine and none in the feces or expired as CO2 (Lee et al. (dsm.com)
  • humans
  • In humans, 81% of biotin in plasma was free and the remainder bound (Mock and Malik, 1992). (dsm.com)
  • Information is very limited on biotin transport, tissue deposition, and storage in animals and humans. (dsm.com)
  • In humans, biotin deficiency can cause lethargy, depression and a scaly rash around the eyes, nose and mouth. (latimes.com)