• intracellular
  • It often contains signal peptide sequences, "intracellular postal codes" that direct delivery of the protein to the proper organelle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Though this volume obviously cannot provide a complete survey of all important ongoing research on the molecular and cellular biology of translational and post-translational events, we are confi- dent that it will facilitate a much better understanding of many im- portant contemporary problems in research on protein synthesis, including cell differentiation, translational accuracy, protein modifi- cation, intracellular transport, and membrane turnover. (springer.com)
  • This is due to strong, irreversible binding to the ribosome, and remains intracellular long after plasma levels drop, and allows a prolonged dosage interval. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ribosomes are often associated with the intracellular membranes that make up the rough endoplasmic reticulum. (wikipedia.org)
  • substrates
  • TopFIND, a scientific database covering proteases, their cleavage site specificity, substrates, inhibitors and protein termini originating from their activity Reusch, William (5 May 2013). (wikipedia.org)
  • On the basis of the absence of important ribosomal functional groups, lack of a dependence on pH, and the dominant contribution of entropy to catalysis, it has been suggested that the role of the ribosome is limited to bringing the substrates into close proximity. (nih.gov)
  • Electrostatic (top) and geometric (bottom) structures of the substrates and transition states for peptide bond formation shown in similar orientations. (nih.gov)
  • Consequently, she showed that the ribosome is a ribozyme that places its substrates in stereochemistry suitable for peptide bond formation and for substrate-mediated catalysis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Biosynthesis (also called anabolism) is a multi-step, enzyme-catalyzed process where substrates are converted into more complex products in living organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Metabolism
  • The three main purposes of metabolism are the conversion of food/fuel to energy to run cellular processes, the conversion of food/fuel to building blocks for proteins, lipids, nucleic acids, and some carbohydrates, and the elimination of nitrogenous wastes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Metabolism is usually divided into two categories: catabolism, the breaking down of organic matter for example, the breaking down of glucose to pyruvate, by cellular respiration, and anabolism, the building up of components of cells such as proteins and nucleic acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • cellular
  • Instead of a simple methyl group, the myristoyl group has a tail of 14 hydrophobic carbons, which make it ideal for anchoring proteins to cellular membranes. (wikipedia.org)
  • glycosyl phosphatidylinositol (GPI) attachment Glycosyl phosphatidylinositol is a large, hydrophobic phospholipid prosthetic group that achors proteins to cellular membranes. (wikipedia.org)
  • We feel that the presentation here of so wide a variety of articles on both the molecular and the cellular aspects of protein synthesis will be of considerable value to many scientists working in the area who were unable to attend, as well as to many who are active in related areas. (springer.com)
  • The ribosome, a universal dynamic cellular ribonucleoprotein complex, is the key player in this process, and typical mammalian cells can contain over a million ribosomes. (docme.ru)
  • Protein comprises approximately 50% of cellular dry weight. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • it is balanced by the loss of cellular proteins via degradation or export. (wikipedia.org)
  • The ribosome is a highly complex cellular machine. (wikipedia.org)
  • sequences
  • Protein primary structures can be directly sequenced, or inferred from DNA sequences. (wikipedia.org)
  • Large sequence databases now exist that collate known protein sequences. (wikipedia.org)
  • By convention, peptide sequences are written N-terminus to C-terminus, left to right in LTR languages. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since the start codon of the genetic code codes for the amino acid methionine, most protein sequences start with a methionine (or, in bacteria, mitochondria and chloroplasts, the modified version N-formylmethionine, fMet). (wikipedia.org)
  • Proteins are polymers - specifically polypeptides - formed from sequences of amino acids, the monomers of the polymer. (wikipedia.org)
  • The sequence of amino acids in insulin was discovered by Frederick Sanger, establishing that proteins have defining amino acid sequences. (wikipedia.org)
  • precursor
  • However, some proteins are modified posttranslationally, for example, by cleavage from a protein precursor, and therefore may have different amino acids at their N-terminus. (wikipedia.org)
  • The following year, Altman demonstrated that RNA can act as a catalyst by showing that the RNase-P RNA subunit could catalyze the cleavage of precursor tRNA into active tRNA in the absence of any protein component. (wikipedia.org)
  • When a protein is harmful and needs to be available on short notice or in large quantities, a protein precursor is produced. (medicalxpress.com)
  • However, when a protein must be available on short notice or in large quantities, a protein precursor is produced. (wikipedia.org)
  • β-alanine: an amino acid produced by aspartate 1-decarboxylase and a precursor to coenzyme A and the peptides carnosine and anserine. (wikipedia.org)
  • The prerequisite elements for biosynthesis include: precursor compounds, chemical energy (e.g. (wikipedia.org)
  • eukaryotes
  • Ribosomes from bacteria, archaea and eukaryotes in the three-domain system, resemble each other to a remarkable degree, evidence of a common origin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Despite the use of only 22 amino acids (21 in eukaryotes) by the translational machinery to assemble proteins (the proteinogenic amino acids), over 140 amino acids are known to occur naturally in proteins and thousands more may occur in nature or be synthesized in the laboratory. (wikipedia.org)
  • cyclic
  • He also initiated research on the nonribosomal synthesis of linear and cyclic (antibiotic) peptides by specifically arranged multienzyme complexes with pantetheine at its active center and on the milieu dependence of the chemical phosphate potential of phosphorylated amino acids in phosphoproteins. (encyclopedia.com)
  • It consists of a central cyclic pentapeptide code assembled from nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS). (wikipedia.org)
  • There are five modules for cyclic pentapeptide biosynthesis, including one that lacks an adenylation domain (A). It is therefore proposed that one of the other A domains functions twice. (wikipedia.org)
  • tRNAs
  • Tetracyclines and Tigecycline (a glycylcycline related to tetracyclines) block the A site on the ribosome, preventing the binding of aminoacyl tRNAs. (wikipedia.org)
  • The amino acids then have to be linked together to extend the growing protein chain, and the tRNAs, relieved of their burdens, have to be released. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Concluding Remarks and Future Prospects 4350 of the genetic code into proteins is performed by a complex apparatus comprising the ribosome, messenger RNA (mRNA), transfer RNAs (tRNAs), and accessory protein factors. (docme.ru)
  • The amino acids are then linked together to extend the growing protein chain, and the tRNAs, no longer carrying amino acids, are released. (wikipedia.org)
  • structures
  • Crystal structures have shown that the active site for peptide bond formation is composed entirely of RNA. (nih.gov)
  • Protein structures range in size from tens to several thousand amino acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • The alternative structures of the same protein are referred to as different conformational isomers, or simply, conformations, and transitions between them are called conformational changes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some parts of the protein are ordered but do not form any regular structures. (wikipedia.org)
  • bind
  • The phosphorylated tyrosines are often used as "handles" by which proteins can bind to one another, whereas phosphorylation of Ser/Thr often induces conformational changes, presumably because of the introduced negative charge. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ribosomes can bind to a messenger RNA chain and use its sequence for determining the correct sequence of amino acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecular
  • This contained an open reading frame of 672 nucleotides encoding a protein of 223 amino acids with a predicted molecular weight of 24.04 kDa and pI of 4.53. (mdpi.com)
  • Ribosome stalling is a promising starting point for this kind of research, as the functional role of the ribosomal exit tunnel to polypeptide synthesis and protein folding is only beginning to be understood in molecular terms. (myscience.ch)
  • The larger, 80S, ribosome has a molecular weight of about 4-5 × 10 6 , a maximum diameter reaching 400 Å, and a sedimentation coefficient of about 80 Svedberg units. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • To understand the functions of proteins at a molecular level, it is often necessary to determine their three-dimensional structure. (wikipedia.org)