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  • enzymes
  • AKT1 stimulates glycolysis by increasing the expression and membrane translocation of glucose transporters and by phosphorylating key glycolytic enzymes, such as hexokinase and phosphofructokinase 2. (wikipedia.org)
  • subunit
  • Crystal structure of UTP-glucose-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase from Burkholderia xenovorans Human UTP-glucose-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase isoform 1 subunit with UDP-glucose bound Human genes encoding proteins with UTP-glucose-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase activity include two isoforms with molecular weights of 56.9 and 55.7 kDa, respectively. (wikipedia.org)
  • In sucrose, the components glucose and fructose are linked via an ether bond between C1 on the glucosyl subunit and C2 on the fructosyl unit. (wikipedia.org)
  • C-terminal residues bind UDP, such that the subunit is responsible for correctly positioning UDP-glucose or UDP-galactose for catalysis. (wikipedia.org)
  • acid
  • Biosynthesis of uridine diphospho-N-acetylmuramic acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • Amino acids also contribute to cellular energy metabolism by providing a carbon source for entry into the citric acid cycle (tricarboxylic acid cycle), especially when a primary source of energy, such as glucose, is scarce, or when cells undergo metabolic stress. (wikipedia.org)
  • pyruvate
  • Glucose-6-phosphate readily enters glycolysis, leading to the production of ATP and pyruvate. (wikipedia.org)
  • Metabolism is usually divided into two categories: catabolism, the breaking down of organic matter for example, the breaking down of glucose to pyruvate, by cellular respiration, and anabolism, the building up of components of cells such as proteins and nucleic acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • fructose
  • The formation of sucrose-6-phosphate is catalyzed by SPS with the transfer of a glycosyl group of uridine diphosphate glucose (UDP-G) as an activated donor sugar to a fructose-6-phosphate as a sugar acceptor. (springer.com)
  • Specifically, this enzyme catalyzes the transfer of a hexosyl group from uridine diphosphate glucose (UDP-glucose) to D-fructose 6-phosphate to form UDP and D-sucrose-6-phosphate. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the open conformation of H. orenii SPS, fructose 6-phosphate forms hydrogen bonds with Gly-33 and Gln-35 residues in the A domain while UDP-glucose interacts with the B-domain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Finally, the C1 atom of UDP-glucose undergoes nucleophilic attack by an oxygen atom in fructose 6-phosphate, resulting in glucosyl group transfer to fructose 6-phosphate. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sucrose, present in sugar cane and honey, is composed of glucose and fructose. (pili.org)
  • It is a disaccharide, a molecule composed of the two monosaccharides, glucose and fructose. (wikipedia.org)
  • Glucose exists predominantly as two isomeric "pyranoses" (α and β), but only one of these forms links to the fructose. (wikipedia.org)
  • What is notable about sucrose is that, unlike most disaccharides, the glycosidic bond is formed between the reducing ends of both glucose and fructose, and not between the reducing end of one and the nonreducing end of the other. (wikipedia.org)
  • C12H22O11 + heat → 12 C + 11 H2O 12 C + 12 O2 → 12 CO2 Hydrolysis breaks the glycosidic bond converting sucrose into glucose and fructose. (wikipedia.org)
  • phosphate
  • The reversible formation of starch from glucose-1-phosphate catalysed by potato Phosphorylase. (springer.com)
  • UTP-glucose-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase also known as glucose-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase (or UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase) is an enzyme involved in carbohydrate metabolism. (wikipedia.org)
  • Recently, human UTP-glucose-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase has been studied and crystallized, revealing a different type of regulation than other organisms previously studied. (wikipedia.org)
  • The structure of UTP-glucose-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase is significantly different between prokaryotes and eukaryotes, but within eukaryotes, the primary, secondary, and tertiary structures of the enzyme are quite conserved. (wikipedia.org)
  • In many species, UTP-glucose-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase is found as a homopolymer consisting of identical subunits in a symmetrical quaternary structure. (wikipedia.org)
  • UTP-glucose-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase is ubiquitous in nature due to its important role in the generation of UDP-glucose, a central compound in carbohydrate metabolism. (wikipedia.org)
  • An exception is the brain, which has high levels of glycogen but low specific activity of UTP-glucose-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase. (wikipedia.org)
  • In animal cells, UTP-glucose-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase is found predominantly in the cytoplasm. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bacteria with defective UTP-glucose-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase are unable to incorporate galactose into their cell walls. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this enzyme's primary reaction, the phosphate group on glucose-1-phosphate replaces the phosphoanhydride bond on UTP. (wikipedia.org)
  • Similar to other sugar nucleotidyltransferases, UTP-glucose-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase activity requires two divalent cations to stabilize the binding of negatively charged phosphate groups. (wikipedia.org)
  • Glucose 6-phosphate binds to an allosteric site, resulting in conformational changes to SPS that increase the enzyme's affinity for the glucosyl accepting substrate. (wikipedia.org)
  • Inorganic phosphate can also bind to this allosteric site, preventing glucose 6-phosphate activation of SPS. (wikipedia.org)
  • Like regulation via phosphorylation, this regulation strategy is also closely related to photosynthesis, as high rates of photosynthesis will deplete levels of inorganic phosphate and increase concentrations of glucose 6-phosphate in the chloroplast. (wikipedia.org)
  • When galactose is taken up by the liver, it is phosphorylated to form galactose 1-phosphate, which then reacts with uridine diphosphate-glucose, or UDP-glucose, to form UDP-galactose and glucose 1-phosphate. (pili.org)
  • In the third step, galactose-1-phosphate uridyltransferase catalyzes the reversible transfer of a UMP moiety from UDP-glucose to galactose-1-phosphate, generating UDP-galactose and glucose-1-phosphate. (wikipedia.org)
  • When a phosphate attaches to uridine, uridine 5'-monophosphate is produced. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other names in common use include galactose-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase, galactose 1-phosphate uridylyltransferase, alpha-D-galactose 1-phosphate uridylyltransferase, galactose 1-phosphate uridyltransferase, UDPgalactose pyrophosphorylase, uridine diphosphate galactose pyrophosphorylase, and uridine diphosphogalactose pyrophosphorylase. (wikipedia.org)
  • gene
  • therefore, delphinidin-producing carnation, rose, and chrysanthemum flowers have been generated by overexpression of the gene encoding flavonoid 3′,5′-hydroxylase (F3′5′H), the key enzyme for delphinidin biosynthesis. (sciencemag.org)
  • The Ribostamycin Biosynthetic Gene Cluster in Streptomyces ribosidificus: Comparison With Butirosin Biosynthesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Biosynthesis of Ribostamycin Derivatives by Reconstitution and Heterologous Expression of Required Gene Sets. (wikipedia.org)
  • protein
  • Activated mTOR stimulates protein and lipid biosynthesis and cell growth in response to sufficient nutrient and energy conditions and is often constitutively activated during tumorigenesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • tissues
  • It may also be partially responsible for the breakdown of sucrose in other tissues using UDP-glucose. (wikipedia.org)
  • Oxysterols as defined and discussed here are oxygenated derivatives of cholesterol and its precursors, i.e. with additional hydroxyl, epoxyl or keto groups, that are found in animal tissues and are important as short-lived intermediates or end products in the catabolism or excretion of cholesterol or in the biosynthesis of steroid hormones, bile acids and 1,25-dihydroxy-vitamin D 3 . (lipidhome.co.uk)
  • metabolism
  • Similar difficulties surround the assessment of the potential ability of glucosamine formulations to alter glucose metabolism. (hindawi.com)
  • It provides resistance to oxidative stress that would regulates a set of genes that increase glucose metabolism and reduce mitochondrial respiration. (wikipedia.org)
  • Uridine diphosphate N-acetylglucosamine or UDP-GlcNAc is a nucleotide sugar and a coenzyme in metabolism. (wikipedia.org)
  • sugar
  • Sorbitol is de- maltose and oligosaccharides maltotriose and -limit dex- rived from glucose and is almost as sweet as glucose, but sor- trins (Fig. Because salivary amylase works best at bitol is absorbed much more slowly and, thus, maintains a neutral pH, its digestive action terminates rapidly after the high blood sugar level for a longer period when similar amounts are ingested. (pili.org)
  • Galactose is an important sugar used not only to provide energy but also in the biosynthesis of glycoproteins and glycolipids. (pili.org)
  • The biosynthesis of monoglycosylceramides requires a direct transfer of the carbohydrate moiety from a sugar-nucleotide, such as uridine 5-diphosphate(UDP)-galactose, or UDP-glucose to the ceramide unit. (wikipedia.org)
  • cells
  • The conversion of glucose to lactate rather than metabolizing it in the mitochondria through oxidative phosphorylation, (which can also occur in hypoxic normal cells) persists in malignant tumor despite the presence of oxygen. (wikipedia.org)
  • This shift therefore demands that tumor cells implement an abnormally high rate of glucose uptake to meet their increased needs. (wikipedia.org)
  • residue
  • In this closed conformation, the Gly-34 residue of the A domain interacts with UDP-glucose and forces the substrate to adapt a folded structure, facilitating its donation of the hexosyl group. (wikipedia.org)
  • nucleoside
  • Hydroxymethyl‐deoxycytidine triphosphate (Hm‐dCTP), subsequently synthesized from Hm‐dCMP by the actions of T4 deoxynucleoside monophosphate kinase and E.coli nucleoside diphosphate kinase, is incorporated into the phage DNA by T4 DNA polymerase. (embopress.org)
  • There are nine sugar nucleotides in humans which act as glycosyl donors and they can be classified depending on the type of the nucleoside forming them: Uridine Diphosphate: UDP-α-D-Glc, UDP-α-D-Gal, UDP-α-D-GalNAc, UDP-α-D-GlcNAc, UDP-α-D-GlcA, UDP-α-D-Xyl Guanine Diphosphate: GDP-α-D-Man, GDP-β-L-Fuc. (wikipedia.org)
  • lipid biosynthesis
  • Because most of the genes encoding the lipid-synthesizing enzymes have been identified in this decade, significant progress delineating the physiological functions and regulatory mechanisms of lipid biosynthesis in chloroplasts has been achieved. (springer.com)
  • Plants have homeostatic mechanisms to balance the amount of these lipids by regulating their biosyntheses under various environmental conditions, such as limiting Pi, which stimulates replacement of phospholipids with glycolipids through regulation of enzymes involved in lipid biosynthesis. (springer.com)
  • Activated mTOR stimulates protein and lipid biosynthesis and cell growth in response to sufficient nutrient and energy conditions and is often constitutively activated during tumorigenesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • blood glucose
  • However, little is known about how blood glucose impacts heart formation. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • Several plant species being a major source of terpenoids, flavonoids, phenolics, coumarins, and other bioactive constituents have shown reduction in blood glucose levels [ 5 , 6 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • substrate
  • The heart switches its energy substrate from glucose to fatty acids at birth, and maternal hyperglycemia is associated with congenital heart disease. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • In this closed conformation, the Gly-34 residue of the A domain interacts with UDP-glucose and forces the substrate to adapt a folded structure, facilitating its donation of the hexosyl group. (wikipedia.org)
  • proteins
  • Considering E. coli as a case in point, this review explains the structure and functional roles of proteins involved in Group 1 Wzy dependent CPS biosynthesis, surface expression and anchorage in relevance to drug and vaccine developments. (frontiersin.org)
  • mechanism
  • In mammals, there is enrichment of OGT transcripts in the pancreas beta-cells, and UDP-GlcNAc is thought to be part of the glucose sensing mechanism. (wikipedia.org)
  • glycolysis
  • Although ATP production by glycolysis can be more rapid than by oxidative phosphorylation, it is far less efficient in terms of ATP generated per unit of glucose consumed. (wikipedia.org)