• laevis
  • In addition, the availability of major histocompatibility (MHC)-defined X . laevis animal inbred strains, gynogenetic clones, and cell lines, coupled with a powerful and continuously improving reverse genetics approach provide the basic tools for addressing fundamental questions about the ontogeny and phylogeny of the immune system [ 6 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Studies with X. laevis over several decades have resulted in the generation of many invaluable research tools including MHC-defined isogenetic clones and inbred strains of animals, transgenic lines, cell lines, monoclonal antibodies, and cDNA probes that need to be preserved, enriched and made available to the scientific community. (grantome.com)
  • The broad objective of this renewal proposal, therefore, is to safeguard, promote and further develop X. laevis as an important model for biomedical research in general, and immunology, in particular. (grantome.com)
  • As in the original proposal, two major aims are proposed: (1) Maintenance, improvement and advertisement of our X. laevis facility by continuing to maintain and improve the performance and quality of our resource;by providing animals, not commercially available, and reagents upon request;by assisting, training, and informing scientists and students about X. laevis;and by disseminating information, advertising and interacting with the scientific community through a web site. (grantome.com)
  • The overall objective of this renewal application is to safeguard and promote the frog Xenopus laevis, as an important non-mammalian comparative model for biomedical research in general, and immunology, in particular. (grantome.com)
  • Albino
  • Unless you had some reason to use one particular strain for your experiments-a nude mouse, let's say, for the screening of cancerous skin lesions, or the Bagg's Albino for its special role in the production of monoclonal antibodies-then Black-6 would be your fallback choice. (slate.com)
  • Examples of albino laboratory mammals Albinism in biology is the "Congenital absence of any pigmentation or coloration in a person, animal or plant, resulting in white hair and pink eyes in mammals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Albino animals have characteristic pink or red eyes because the lack of pigment in the iris allows the blood vessels of the retina to be visible. (wikipedia.org)
  • chromosome
  • To characterize the genetic architecture of this new set of RI strains, we genotyped 330 MIT microsatellite markers distributed on all autosomes and the X Chromosome and assembled error-checked meiotic recombination maps that have an average F2-adjusted marker spacing of ∼4 cM. (deepdyve.com)
  • widely
  • The NSRRC will maintain purpose-bred swine strains and make them widely available to the national and international research community. (nih.gov)
  • Although high-throughput processing has been widely applied for sperm cryopreservation in dairy bulls for example, application in biomedical model fishes is still in the concept-development stage, because of the limited sample volumes and the biological characteristics of fish sperm. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Model organisms are in vivo models and are widely used to research human disease when human experimentation would be unfeasible or unethical. (wikipedia.org)
  • The zebrafish is also an important and widely used vertebrate model organism in scientific research. (wikipedia.org)
  • populations
  • As research swine populations have experienced rapid and significant increases during the past few years, investigators have requested more resources for improving husbandry and medical care of new swine strains created by genetic technologies. (nih.gov)
  • Multiparent populations (MPP) have become popular resources for complex trait mapping because of their wider allelic diversity and larger population size compared with traditional two-way recombinant inbred (RI) strains. (g3journal.org)
  • With the need for more powerful resources, multiparent populations (MPP) ( de Koning and McIntyre 2017 ), a set of inbred lines using multiple lines as founders, can overcome the limitations of traditional RI lines and have become an innovative tool for fine quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping. (g3journal.org)
  • Heterosis is often discussed as the opposite of inbreeding depression although differences in these two concepts can be seen in evolutionary considerations such as the role of genetic variation or the effects of genetic drift in small populations on these concepts. (wikipedia.org)
  • parental
  • Although the parental inbred strains-Inbred Long-Sleep (ILS) and Inbred Short-Sleep (ISS)-were derived originally by selection from an 8-way heterogeneous stock selected for differential sensitivity to sedative effects of ethanol, the LXS panel is also segregating for many other traits. (deepdyve.com)
  • immunology
  • The amphibian Xenopus has long been a comparative model system of choice for a number of different biological research areas, including immunology. (mdpi.com)
  • Currently the Center hosts 14 research groups distributed in 4 Institutes (Immunology, Molecular Oncology, Molecular Biology and Genetics, Cellular & Developmental Biology). (wikipedia.org)
  • polymorphisms
  • The third edition reflects the great expansion of knowledge in the field in recent years, and includes new chapters on transgenics, simple sequence polymorphisms, and recombinant cogenic strains. (booktopia.com.au)
  • C57BL
  • Two strains, DBA/2J and C57BL/6J, differed in trait and restraint-induced anxiety-related behavior (dark/light exploration, elevated plus maze). (jneurosci.org)
  • transplantation
  • Indeed, the use of Xenopus in various areas of biomedical research including tumor biology, transplantation biology, self-tolerance, and auto immunity is steadily increasing and has significantly contributed to advances in these fields. (mdpi.com)
  • Furthermore, because the resource is expected to maintain swine strains for xenograft transplantation procedures, it is essential that the center be able to accommodate the specific needs for isolation, growth, preservation, expansion, and distribution of cells, tissues and organs from these animals. (nih.gov)
  • For example, the results have included the near-eradication of polio and the development of organ transplantation, and have benefited both humans and animals. (wikipedia.org)
  • valuable
  • This may impose undesirable restrictions on the availability of potentially valuable purpose-bred swine strains and their scientific use. (nih.gov)
  • Inbred mouse strains provide a relatively stable and restricted range of genetic and environmental variability that is valuable for disentangling gene-stress interactions. (jneurosci.org)
  • diseases
  • Another important objective of the NSRRC will be to develop methods for improving health of swine strains by establishing standards and procedures for generating specific-pathogen free and more vigorous swine strains and characterizing diseases endemic to laboratory swine stocks. (nih.gov)
  • Laboratory or model animals are used in research for cure and improvement of human and animal diseases. (alliedacademies.org)
  • Although biological activity in a model organism does not ensure an effect in humans, many drugs, treatments and cures for human diseases are developed in part with the guidance of animal models. (wikipedia.org)
  • The scope of the laboratory expanded to include all deficiency diseases, and around 1928-29 became the Nutrition Research Laboratories (NRL), with McCarrison as its first Director, until his retirement in 1935, when he was succeeded by Dr. W.R. Ackroyd. (wikipedia.org)
  • Developed obese and diabetic mutant rat models: WNIN/GR-Ob, WNIN/Ob, WNIN/Ob-IGT, to serve as pre-clinical animal models in drug development for chronic diseases like diabesity. (wikipedia.org)
  • laboratories
  • He is also a consultant geneticist to Harlan UK, which supplies animals to laboratories. (wikipedia.org)
  • The swine resource center will eliminate the requirement of individual laboratories to maintain and distribute swine strains thereby ensuring the highest-level quality and uniformity of genetic and microbiological monitoring. (nih.gov)
  • It takes five days for Charles River Laboratories to truck a crate of these animals from here to Seattle, and there are five dozen more facilities like this one around the world, with thousands of employees in 17 countries, shipping out millions of animals and earning some $700 million every year. (slate.com)
  • Joseph F. (Joe) Holson, an American scientist, business executive, and educator in the disciplines of toxicology and product development, served as President of WIL Research Laboratories for 20 years (1988-2008). (wikipedia.org)
  • In March 1987, Dr. Holson was appointed Vice President and Director of Developmental and Reproductive Toxicology at WIL Research Laboratories, Inc., in Ashland, Ohio. (wikipedia.org)
  • toxicology
  • He has a particular interest in improving the design of animal experiments, particularly in the area of toxicology testing. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, Xenopus is emerging as an excellent model system for toxicology, neurobiology, regenerative biology, and other areas of biomedical science [ 3 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • The institute majorly conducts research in obesity, diabetes, food chemistry, dietetics, drug toxicology, and micronutrient deficiency in collaboration with centers such as the Rockefeller University, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Washington University, and the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health in the U.S.. and the University of Wollongong in Australia. (wikipedia.org)
  • Joseph Holson received his Doctorate in Physiology in 1973 from the University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, having studied under the direction of Dr. James G. Wilson in the disciplines of developmental toxicology and research pediatrics. (wikipedia.org)
  • He became the Division Director in 1975 and organized a multidisciplinary research program, which became one of the nation's major federally sponsored research groups in reproductive toxicology. (wikipedia.org)
  • For the next five years, he directed the teratology and developmental toxicology research programs of the National Toxicology Program (NTP), which focused on biochemical and physiological causes of birth defects, pharmacokinetics, postnatal functional evaluations, and mechanistic studies. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dr. Holson joined Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) in La Jolla, California during March 1980 to establish research and development and chemical testing programs in toxicology. (wikipedia.org)
  • For the next five years, he directed SAIC's toxicology division, which included an active reproductive toxicology research emphasis. (wikipedia.org)
  • From 1985 through 1986, he served as President of Biomedical Research Institute of America in La Jolla, California and as an independent consultant in toxicology. (wikipedia.org)
  • guinea pigs
  • John Cade's research in guinea pigs discovered the anticonvulsant properties of lithium salts, which revolutionized the treatment of bipolar disorder, replacing the previous treatments of lobotomy or electroconvulsive therapy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Centre
  • Agencies such as WHO and FAO recognized the institute as a Centre for excellence in food quality, safety and nutrition research. (wikipedia.org)
  • Behavior
  • For example, acute stress typically produces heightened anxiety-like behavior and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)-axis activation in some strains (e.g. (jneurosci.org)
  • rabbits
  • Other animals such as rabbits, hares, and pikas, whose incisors also grow continually, were once included with them, but are now considered to be in a separate order, the Lagomorpha. (wikipedia.org)
  • experiments
  • He was previously a trustee of the Fund for the Replacement of Animals in Medical Experiments (FRAME), which funds and promotes research into the use of animal alternatives. (wikipedia.org)
  • He is the father of Simon Festing, the former executive director of the Research Defence Society, which focuses on supplying information about, and defending, the use of animals in medical experiments in the UK. (wikipedia.org)
  • The use of animals in research dates back to ancient Greece, with Aristotle (384-322 BCE) and Erasistratus (304-258 BCE) among the first to perform experiments on living animals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Loeb and Lathrop performed experiments at her farm and the pair authored 10 journal articles from 1913 to 1919, including those published in the Journal of Cancer Research and the Journal of Experimental Medicine. (wikipedia.org)
  • researchers
  • These special swine models are often made available to other investigators by the researchers who generated a strain, but the demands for distribution and maintenance of swine are frequently beyond the physical or financial resources of these individual investigators. (nih.gov)
  • But the researchers who conducted the work didn't use a field mouse caught from a barn, nor some unspecified laboratory strain. (slate.com)
  • experimental
  • In doing so he was able to conclude that the virus was either a protein or closely related to one, thus benefiting experimental research. (wikipedia.org)
  • novel
  • To better exploit this amphibian model, the development and innovative applications of novel research tools have been a priority. (mdpi.com)
  • This development of novel research tools has proved critical to further empowering Xenopus as a model system and keeping it at the forefront of biomedical research. (mdpi.com)
  • The Zebrafish International Resource Center reported that the research community produces novel fish strains at staggering rates. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • various
  • Earlier work also indicates that inbred strains differ in their response to stress as measured by various neural, neuroendocrine, and behavioral endpoints. (jneurosci.org)
  • Current research in fish cryopreservation should establish a central pathway that can accommodate various levels and methods of application. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • should meet the needs of a range of users, including students, research faculty, and industrial scientists across various fields. (booktopia.com.au)
  • The institute has associated clinical and pediatric nutrition research wards at various hospitals such as the Niloufer Hospital for Women and Children, the Government Maternity Hospital, the Gandhi Medical College and the Osmania General Hospital in Hyderabad. (wikipedia.org)
  • cDNA
  • There was a single-base pair substitution in the Hindlll recognition sequence in the cDNA in four out of the 15 strains. (nii.ac.jp)
  • translational
  • Since the beginning of its operations in 1998, the Center develops basic as well as translational and applied research programs at the cutting edge of modern biomedical sciences. (wikipedia.org)
  • The National Institute of Nutrition (NIN) is an Indian Public health, Biotechnology and Translational research center located in Hyderabad, India. (wikipedia.org)
  • among
  • It was on account of his " widespread use among the research community and favorable breeding characteristics ," they wrote. (slate.com)