• guanine-nucleo
  • In cooperation with Grb2, the guanine-nucleotide exchange factor Sos potentiates Ras, by catalyzing the replacement of GDP for GTP. (aacrjournals.org)
  • citation needed] In turn, KRAS can bind to proteins of the Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factor (GEF) class (such as SOS1), which forces the release of bound nucleotide (GDP). (wikipedia.org)
  • MAPK
  • Phosphorylation of Thr at position 148 is detected in response to various stress conditions such as UV irradiation, oxidative stress, and anisomycin treatment or JDP2 is also regulated by other kinases such as p38 MAPK and doublecortin like protein kinase. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Ras/mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway has long been identified as a convergence point for numerous (normal and pathologic) signaling inputs, rendering it an appealing target for therapeutic intervention ( 4 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Overview of the Ras/MAPK signaling network. (aacrjournals.org)
  • pathway
  • The protein encoded by this gene is a component of the SMAD pathway, which regulates cell growth and differentiation through transforming growth factor-beta (TGFB). (cancerindex.org)
  • Calcitriol induces PARP cleavage, increases the bax/bcl-2 ratio, reduces levels of phosphorylated mitogen-activated protein kinases (P-MAPKs, P-Erk-1/2) and phosphorylated Akt (P-Akt), induces caspase-dependent MEK cleavage and up-regulation of MEKK-1, all potential markers of the apoptotic pathway. (springer.com)
  • Our findings identify a role for EYA4 and possibly interacting SIX and DACH proteins in MPNSTs and suggest the EYA4 pathway as a rational therapeutic target. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • A major pathway implicated in MPNST formation is the NF1-Ras pathway. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • For instance, 14-3-3ζ controls cellular senescence by complexing with BIS to chaperone protein folding of STAT3 and activate the signaling pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • KRAS
  • KRAS ( K-ras or Ki-ras) is proto-oncogene corresponding to the oncogene first identified in Kirsten rat sarcoma virus and the gene product was first found as a p21 GTPase. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are two protein products of the KRAS gene in mammalian cells that result from the use of alternative exon 4 (exon 4A and 4B respectively): K-Ras4A and K-Ras4B, these proteins have different structure in their C-terminal region and use different mechanisms to localize to cellular membranes including the plasma membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • Subsequently, KRAS binds GTP present in the cytosol and the GEF is released from ras-GTP. (wikipedia.org)
  • heat shock pr
  • Prior to these studies, the only biochemical function attributed to p53 was its binding to heat shock proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • The binding of an androgen to the androgen receptor results in a conformational change in the receptor that, in turn, causes dissociation of heat shock proteins, transport from the cytosol into the cell nucleus, and dimerization. (wikipedia.org)
  • apoptosis
  • The DFMO-dependent decrease in colony formation in K- ras -activated cells occurred in the absence of apoptosis. (aacrjournals.org)
  • These data indicate that K- ras can influence the kinetics of apoptosis induction by sulindac metabolites and cell survival in response to DFMO. (aacrjournals.org)
  • apoptotic
  • In combination with calcitriol, dexamethasone results in a significant time- and dose-dependent increase in VDR protein and an enhanced apoptotic response as compared to calcitriol alone. (springer.com)
  • In particular, 14-3-3ζ is a key player in regulating cell survival and interacts with many apoptotic proteins, including Raf kinases, BAX, BAD, NOXA, and caspase-2. (wikipedia.org)
  • The14-3-3 protein zeta/delta (14-3-3ζ) is a protein (in humans encoded by the YWHAZ gene on chromosome 8) with an important apoptotic constituents. (wikipedia.org)
  • colorectal
  • Mutational activation of the K- ras oncogene is an important genetic alteration in colorectal neoplasia. (aacrjournals.org)
  • MiRNAs and LincRNAs: Could They Be Considered as Biomarkers in Colorectal Cancer? (mdpi.com)
  • The transforming protein that results is implicated in various malignancies, including lung adenocarcinoma, mucinous adenoma, ductal carcinoma of the pancreas and colorectal cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • amino
  • The protein JDP2 has 163 amino acids, belongs to the family of basic leucine zipper (bZIP), and shows high homology with the ATF3 bZIP domain. (wikipedia.org)
  • The human protein 26S proteasome non-ATPase regulatory subunit 2 is 100 kDa in size and composed of 909 amino acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • The human protein proteasome subunit alpha type-3 is 28.4 kDa in size and composed of 254 amino acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • nucleus
  • Phosphorylation of cyclin D1's threonine residue T286 marks the protein for export from the nucleus and proteolytic degradation. (wikipedia.org)
  • mRNA
  • The central dogma of biology dictates that genetic information flows in a unidirectional fashion of DNA-mRNA-proteins. (mdpi.com)
  • Recent studies reveal that most of these excess transcripts are not transcriptional noise, but rather serve as functional ncRNAs regulating chromatin modifications, gene transcription, mRNA translation and protein function [ 5 - 7 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • kinase
  • Serine/threonine-protein kinase PAK 5 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PAK5 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Telerman A, Amson R, Zakut-Houri R, Givol D (1988) Identification of the human pim-1 gene product as a 33-kilodalton cytoplasmic protein with tyrosine kinase activity. (springer.com)
  • Calcitriol induces a significant G 0 /G 1 arrest and modulates p21 Waf1/Cip1 and p27 Kip1 , the cyclin dependent kinase inhibitors. (springer.com)
  • Once it is allosterically activated, it recruits and activates proteins necessary for the propagation of growth factors, as well as other cell signaling receptors like c-Raf and PI 3-kinase. (wikipedia.org)
  • The disease is due to conversion of the tightly regulated tyrosine kinase of ABL1 protein to being unregulated and continuously active in the BCR-ABL1 fusion protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • p16 (also known as cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A, multiple tumor suppressor 1 and as several other synonyms), is a tumor suppressor protein, that in humans is encoded by the CDKN2A gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • degradation
  • These proteolytic active sites located in the inner side of a chamber formed by 4 stacked rings of 20S subunits, preventing random protein-enzyme encounter and uncontrolled protein degradation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The 19S regulatory particles can recognize ubiquitin-labeled protein as degradation substrate, unfold the protein to linear, open the gate of 20S core particle, and guide the substate into the proteolytic chamber. (wikipedia.org)
  • The ARF product functions as a stabilizer of the tumor suppressor protein p53, as it can interact with and sequester MDM2, a protein responsible for the degradation of p53. (wikipedia.org)
  • cellular
  • The proteasomes form a pivotal component for the Ubiquitin-Proteasome System (UPS) and corresponding cellular Protein Quality Control (PQC). (wikipedia.org)
  • proteolysis
  • To meet such complicated demands in biological process via spatial and temporal proteolysis, protein substrates have to be recognized, recruited, and eventually hydrolyzed in a well controlled fashion. (wikipedia.org)
  • GTPase
  • The rate of conversion is usually slow, but can be increased dramatically by an accessory protein of the GTPase-activating protein (GAP) class, for example RasGAP. (wikipedia.org)
  • subunits
  • To recognize protein as designated substrate, 19S complex has subunits that are capable to recognize proteins with a special degradative tag, the ubiquitinylation. (wikipedia.org)
  • This protein is one of the 17 essential subunits (alpha subunits 1-7, constitutive beta subunits 1-7, and inducible subunits including beta1i, beta2i, beta5i) that contributes to the complete assembly of 20S proteasome complex. (wikipedia.org)
  • colon
  • We evaluated the effects of the major sulfide and sulfone metabolites of sulindac and DFMO alone, or in combinations, on the growth and survival of Caco-2 colon cancer-derived cells and in clones of these cells transfected with an activated K- ras oncogene. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Activation
  • Up-regulation or activation of transcription results in increased synthesis of messenger RNA, which, in turn, is translated by ribosomes to produce specific proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cells can also be induced to senesce via DNA damage in response to elevated reactive oxygen species (ROS), activation of oncogenes and cell-cell fusion, independent of telomere length. (wikipedia.org)
  • exons
  • The PAK5 gene, the longest among the PAK family, contains a total of 12 exons of which four exons are for 5'-UTR and remaining 8 exons for protein coding(Gene from review). (wikipedia.org)
  • variants
  • Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding the same protein have been described. (wikipedia.org)
  • At least three alternatively spliced variants encoding distinct proteins have been reported, two of which encode structurally related isoforms known to function as inhibitors of CDK4. (wikipedia.org)
  • this transcript contains an alternate open reading frame (ARF) that specifies a protein that is structurally unrelated to the products of the other variants. (wikipedia.org)
  • thus
  • Thus, Protein 26S proteasome non-ATPase regulatory subunit 2 (Rpn1) is an essential component of forming the base subcomplex of 19S regulatory particle. (wikipedia.org)
  • As part of the Ubiquitin-Proteasome System (UPS), the proteasome maintains cardiac protein homeostasis and thus plays a significant role in cardiac Ischemic injury, ventricular hypertrophy and Heart failure. (wikipedia.org)
  • family
  • The existence of a retinoblastoma family of proteins pRb, p107, and p130 and their potential unique and overlapping functions as master regulators of cell cycle progression and transcriptional modulation by similar processes, may provide potential clues to explain such conundrum. (frontiersin.org)
  • 14-3-3ζ is one of 7 members of the 14-3-3 protein family, which is ubiquitously expressed and highly conserved among plants and mammals. (wikipedia.org)
  • pivotal
  • Identification of targets of this ncRNA associated with cancer can suggest that networks of these linked to oncogenes or tumor suppressors play pivotal roles in cancer development. (mdpi.com)