• guanine-nucleo
  • In cooperation with Grb2, the guanine-nucleotide exchange factor Sos potentiates Ras, by catalyzing the replacement of GDP for GTP. (aacrjournals.org)
  • citation needed] In turn, KRAS can bind to proteins of the Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factor (GEF) class (such as SOS1), which forces the release of bound nucleotide (GDP). (wikipedia.org)
  • pathway
  • Consistent with this idea, we have previously shown that overexpression of caveolin-1 is sufficient to arrest mouse embryonic fibroblasts in the G 0 -G 1 phase of the cell cycle, reduce their proliferative life span, and promote premature cellular senescence through activation of a p53/p21-dependent pathway ( 33 , 34 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • The protein encoded by this gene is a component of the SMAD pathway, which regulates cell growth and differentiation through transforming growth factor-beta (TGFB). (cancerindex.org)
  • Calcitriol induces PARP cleavage, increases the bax/bcl-2 ratio, reduces levels of phosphorylated mitogen-activated protein kinases (P-MAPKs, P-Erk-1/2) and phosphorylated Akt (P-Akt), induces caspase-dependent MEK cleavage and up-regulation of MEKK-1, all potential markers of the apoptotic pathway. (springer.com)
  • Our findings identify a role for EYA4 and possibly interacting SIX and DACH proteins in MPNSTs and suggest the EYA4 pathway as a rational therapeutic target. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • A major pathway implicated in MPNST formation is the NF1-Ras pathway. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • For instance, 14-3-3ζ controls cellular senescence by complexing with BIS to chaperone protein folding of STAT3 and activate the signaling pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • Today we know that the beta-catenin protein (part of the Wnt signaling pathway) is implicated in colorectal carcinogenesis and its stability in the cell is regulated by APC. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genes
  • Substantial evidence shows that alteration in the expression of NF-kB-induced proinflammatory cytokine TNF- α and interleukins, oncogenes, and tumour suppressor genes typically follows chronic hepatic inflammation associated with epigenetic aberrations [ 5 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • In the absence of ligand, the encoded protein binds to the promoter region of TGFB-responsive genes and recruits a nuclear repressor complex. (cancerindex.org)
  • TGFB signaling causes SMAD3 to enter the nucleus and degrade this protein, allowing these genes to be activated. (cancerindex.org)
  • One example is serum response factor, a protein that activates several genes that cause muscle growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • kinase
  • Serine/threonine-protein kinase PAK 5 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PAK5 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Telerman A, Amson R, Zakut-Houri R, Givol D (1988) Identification of the human pim-1 gene product as a 33-kilodalton cytoplasmic protein with tyrosine kinase activity. (springer.com)
  • Calcitriol induces a significant G 0 /G 1 arrest and modulates p21 Waf1/Cip1 and p27 Kip1 , the cyclin dependent kinase inhibitors. (springer.com)
  • Once it is allosterically activated, it recruits and activates proteins necessary for the propagation of growth factors, as well as other cell signaling receptors like c-Raf and PI 3-kinase. (wikipedia.org)
  • The disease is due to conversion of the tightly regulated tyrosine kinase of ABL1 protein to being unregulated and continuously active in the BCR-ABL1 fusion protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • p16 (also known as cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A, multiple tumor suppressor 1 and as several other synonyms), is a tumor suppressor protein, that in humans is encoded by the CDKN2A gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • cellular
  • The proteasomes form a pivotal component for the Ubiquitin-Proteasome System (UPS) and corresponding cellular Protein Quality Control (PQC). (wikipedia.org)
  • Interplay between immune checkpoint proteins and cellular metabolism. (uio.no)
  • There are two protein products of the KRAS gene in mammalian cells that result from the use of alternative exon 4 (exon 4A and 4B respectively): K-Ras4A and K-Ras4B, these proteins have different structure in their C-terminal region and use different mechanisms to localize to cellular membranes including the plasma membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • epigenetic
  • Deeper understanding of epigenetic aberrations, their interconnectivity, and clinical phenotypes in HCC patients may provide useful insights in the development of novel and more effective biomarkers for HCC treatment and better prognosis. (hindawi.com)
  • Regulation of p16 is complex and involves the interaction of several transcription factors, as well as several proteins involved in epigenetic modification through methylation and repression of the promoter region. (wikipedia.org)
  • heat shock pr
  • Prior to these studies, the only biochemical function attributed to p53 was its binding to heat shock proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • The binding of an androgen to the androgen receptor results in a conformational change in the receptor that, in turn, causes dissociation of heat shock proteins, transport from the cytosol into the cell nucleus, and dimerization. (wikipedia.org)
  • apoptosis
  • The DFMO-dependent decrease in colony formation in K- ras -activated cells occurred in the absence of apoptosis. (aacrjournals.org)
  • These data indicate that K- ras can influence the kinetics of apoptosis induction by sulindac metabolites and cell survival in response to DFMO. (aacrjournals.org)
  • apoptotic
  • In combination with calcitriol, dexamethasone results in a significant time- and dose-dependent increase in VDR protein and an enhanced apoptotic response as compared to calcitriol alone. (springer.com)
  • In particular, 14-3-3ζ is a key player in regulating cell survival and interacts with many apoptotic proteins, including Raf kinases, BAX, BAD, NOXA, and caspase-2. (wikipedia.org)
  • The14-3-3 protein zeta/delta (14-3-3ζ) is a protein (in humans encoded by the YWHAZ gene on chromosome 8) with an important apoptotic constituents. (wikipedia.org)
  • colorectal
  • Mutational activation of the K- ras oncogene is an important genetic alteration in colorectal neoplasia. (aacrjournals.org)
  • MiRNAs and LincRNAs: Could They Be Considered as Biomarkers in Colorectal Cancer? (mdpi.com)
  • The transforming protein that results is implicated in various malignancies, including lung adenocarcinoma, mucinous adenoma, ductal carcinoma of the pancreas and colorectal cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • amino
  • The protein JDP2 has 163 amino acids, belongs to the family of basic leucine zipper (bZIP), and shows high homology with the ATF3 bZIP domain. (wikipedia.org)
  • p16 was originally found in an "open reading frame of 148 amino acids encoding a protein of molecular weight 15,845 comprising four ankyrin repeats. (wikipedia.org)
  • nucleus
  • Phosphorylation of cyclin D1's threonine residue T286 marks the protein for export from the nucleus and proteolytic degradation. (wikipedia.org)
  • GTPase
  • A genome-wide RNAi screen reveals a trio-regulated rho GTPase circuitry transducing Mitogenic signals initiated by G protein-coupled receptors. (thermofisher.com)
  • The rate of conversion is usually slow, but can be increased dramatically by an accessory protein of the GTPase-activating protein (GAP) class, for example RasGAP. (wikipedia.org)
  • degradation
  • These proteolytic active sites located in the inner side of a chamber formed by 4 stacked rings of 20S subunits, preventing random protein-enzyme encounter and uncontrolled protein degradation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The 19S regulatory particles can recognize ubiquitin-labeled protein as degradation substrate, unfold the protein to linear, open the gate of 20S core particle, and guide the substate into the proteolytic chamber. (wikipedia.org)
  • The ARF product functions as a stabilizer of the tumor suppressor protein p53, as it can interact with and sequester MDM2, a protein responsible for the degradation of p53. (wikipedia.org)
  • proteolysis
  • To meet such complicated demands in biological process via spatial and temporal proteolysis, protein substrates have to be recognized, recruited, and eventually hydrolyzed in a well controlled fashion. (wikipedia.org)
  • decreases
  • Immunoregulatory protein B7-H3 promotes growth and decreases sensitivity to therapy in metastatic melanoma cells. (uio.no)
  • subunits
  • To recognize protein as designated substrate, 19S complex has subunits that are capable to recognize proteins with a special degradative tag, the ubiquitinylation. (wikipedia.org)
  • This protein is one of the 17 essential subunits (alpha subunits 1-7, constitutive beta subunits 1-7, and inducible subunits including beta1i, beta2i, beta5i) that contributes to the complete assembly of 20S proteasome complex. (wikipedia.org)
  • exons
  • The PAK5 gene, the longest among the PAK family, contains a total of 12 exons of which four exons are for 5'-UTR and remaining 8 exons for protein coding(Gene from review). (wikipedia.org)
  • variants
  • Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding the same protein have been described. (wikipedia.org)
  • At least three alternatively spliced variants encoding distinct proteins have been reported, two of which encode structurally related isoforms known to function as inhibitors of CDK4. (wikipedia.org)
  • this transcript contains an alternate open reading frame (ARF) that specifies a protein that is structurally unrelated to the products of the other variants. (wikipedia.org)
  • cancer
  • Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. (nih.gov)
  • Immunoregulatory protein B7-H3 reprograms glucose metabolism in cancer cells by ROS-mediated stabilization of HIF1a. (uio.no)
  • We evaluated the effects of the major sulfide and sulfone metabolites of sulindac and DFMO alone, or in combinations, on the growth and survival of Caco-2 colon cancer-derived cells and in clones of these cells transfected with an activated K- ras oncogene. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Identification of targets of this ncRNA associated with cancer can suggest that networks of these linked to oncogenes or tumor suppressors play pivotal roles in cancer development. (mdpi.com)
  • accumulation
  • Subsequently, a compromised proteasome complex assembly and function lead to reduced proteolytic activities and the accumulation of damaged or misfolded protein species. (wikipedia.org)
  • Such protein accumulation may contribute to the pathogenesis and phenotypic characteristics in neurodegenerative diseases, cardiovascular diseases, inflammatory responses and autoimmune diseases, and systemic DNA damage responses leading to malignancies. (wikipedia.org)