• Neurons
  • Our results indicate that Ca2+ transport in undifferentiated PC12 cells is quite unlike transport in adrenal chromaffin cells, for which they often are considered models.Transport in both cell states more closely resembles that of sympathetic neurons, for which differentiated PC12 cells often are considered models.Comparison with other cell types shows that different cells emphasize different Ca2+ transport mechanisms. (nih.gov)
  • Transport in both cell states more closely resembles that of sympathetic neurons, for which differentiated PC12 cells often are considered models. (nih.gov)
  • electron transport
  • Electrochemical gradients also play a role in establishing proton gradients in oxidative phosphorylation in mitochondria.The final step of cellular respiration is the electron transport chain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Four complexes embedded in the inner membrane of the mitochondrion make up the electron transport chain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Free radical accumulation occurs due to increased electron transport uncoupling at the active site of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), an enzyme involved in converting L-arginine to NO. During an AMI, oxidative degradation of tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4), a cofactor in NO production, limits BH4 availability and limits NO productionby eNOS. (wikipedia.org)
  • For instance, the citric acid cycle, electron transport chain, and oxidative phosphorylation all take place in the mitochondrial membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mechanism
  • The principal mechanism of these inhibitors is a reduction in the translocation rate, since they have essentially no effect on the apparent KD for Cl- binding to the transport site and the migration of Cl- between the transport site and solution. (biomedsearch.com)
  • A direct mechanism of action involves homodimerization of the receptor, translocation via active transport into the nucleus, and binding to specific DNA responsive elements activating gene transcription. (wikipedia.org)
  • He and his colleagues then obtained an X-ray crystal structure of LacY, an essential step towards understanding the molecular mechanism, which has had important impact on the field of membrane transport. (wikipedia.org)
  • inhibitors
  • Instead, these inhibitors raise the free energy of formation of the transition state during translocation and thereby can lock the transport site into either the inward- or outward-facing orientation. (biomedsearch.com)
  • translocation
  • During the translocation of the band 3 transport site between the inward- and outward-facing orientations, the Cl- transport site complex passes through a transition state lying on the reaction pathway between the two extreme orientations. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Thus DNFB is proposed to trap the Cl--transport site complex site during translocation to yield a conformation intermediate to the inward- and outward-facing orientations. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The form of transport through a cell membrane in which a metabolite is modified is called group translocation transportation. (wikipedia.org)
  • chromaffin
  • Our results indicate that Ca2+ transport in undifferentiated PC12 cells is quite unlike transport in adrenal chromaffin cells, for which they often are considered models. (nih.gov)
  • compartment
  • The transport site lies between two of the channel-forming helices and remains stationary while the hydrophobic barrier slides from one end of the channel to the other, thereby exposing the transport site to the opposite solution compartment. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Subjects
  • From 1887 to 1905 Reid at St Mary's and Dundee was an active research worker on subjects dealing with physical and electrical phenomena associated with living tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cytoplasm
  • From these findings, we propose that the binding of RanBP1 to the Ran-importin beta complex is required for the dissociation of the complex in the cytoplasm and that the released Ran is recycled to the nucleus, which is essential for the nuclear protein transport. (nih.gov)
  • systems
  • Molecular alterations of canalicular transport systems in experimental models of cholestasis: possible functional correlations. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Recent cloning of several canalicular transport systems now facilitates studies on their molecular regulation in cholestasis. (biomedsearch.com)
  • This article gives an overview on molecular alterations of canalicular transport systems in experimental models of cholestasis and discusses the potential implications of these changes for the pathophysiology of cholestasis. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Efforts to understand biological systems also include engineering of semi-synthetic organisms, and understanding the universe itself from the point of view of information processing. (wikipedia.org)
  • cells
  • Undifferentiated and differentiated cells are similar in overall Ca2+ transport and in the small transport due to SERCA, but they differ in the fraction of transport by PMCA and NCX. (nih.gov)
  • Transport in neurites of differentiated PC12 cells was qualitatively similar to that in the somata, except that the ER stores in neurites sometimes released Ca2+ instead of clearing it after depolarization. (nih.gov)
  • Hydrogen sulfide is produced in small amounts by some cells of the mammalian body and has a number of biological signaling functions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Muscle
  • It acts as a relaxant of smooth muscle and as a vasodilator and is also active in the brain, where it increases the response of the NMDA receptor and facilitates long term potentiation, which is involved in the formation of memory. (wikipedia.org)
  • studies
  • Previous structure-activity studies of the active ileal bile salt transport system have demonstrated that a single negative charge on the side chain is essential for active transport. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Two recent studies have shown that defects in intraflagellar transport prevent assembly of sensory cilia in Drosophila, leaving the fly deaf and uncoordinated. (umassmed.edu)
  • temperature
  • Third, the temperature dependence of facilitated transport is substantially different due to the presence of an activated binding event, as compared to free diffusion where the dependence on temperature is mild. (wikipedia.org)