• Physiology
  • The discovery of unidirectional, ATP-dependent canalicular transport systems (also termed "export pumps") for bile salts, amphiphilic anionic conjugates, lipophilic cations, and phospholipids has opened new opportunities for understanding biliary physiology and the pathophysiology of cholestasis. (biomedsearch.com)
  • An example of active transport in human physiology is the uptake of glucose in the intestines. (wikipedia.org)
  • Neurons
  • Our results indicate that Ca2+ transport in undifferentiated PC12 cells is quite unlike transport in adrenal chromaffin cells, for which they often are considered models.Transport in both cell states more closely resembles that of sympathetic neurons, for which differentiated PC12 cells often are considered models.Comparison with other cell types shows that different cells emphasize different Ca2+ transport mechanisms. (nih.gov)
  • Transport in both cell states more closely resembles that of sympathetic neurons, for which differentiated PC12 cells often are considered models. (nih.gov)
  • electron transport
  • Electrochemical gradients also play a role in establishing proton gradients in oxidative phosphorylation in mitochondria.The final step of cellular respiration is the electron transport chain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Four complexes embedded in the inner membrane of the mitochondrion make up the electron transport chain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Free radical accumulation occurs due to increased electron transport uncoupling at the active site of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), an enzyme involved in converting L-arginine to NO. During an AMI, oxidative degradation of tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4), a cofactor in NO production, limits BH4 availability and limits NO productionby eNOS. (wikipedia.org)
  • For instance, the citric acid cycle, electron transport chain, and oxidative phosphorylation all take place in the mitochondrial membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • Glucose
  • Relative specificity for the bile salt system of these cationic bile salt derivatives was demonstrated in the in vivo preparation by comparing its inhibition of taurodehydrocholate absorption with their lesser capacity to inhibit glucose transport. (biomedsearch.com)
  • This hypothesis suggests that steady-state transport measurements in the human erythrocyte do not accurately reflect the intrinsic catalytic features of the glucose transporter and unless correctly interpreted, may lead to apparent inconsistencies in the operational behavior of the human erythrocyte sugar transport system. (umassmed.edu)
  • The gene was then discovered for intestinal glucose transport protein and linked to these membrane sodium glucose cotransport systems. (wikipedia.org)
  • Subjects
  • From 1887 to 1905 Reid at St Mary's and Dundee was an active research worker on subjects dealing with physical and electrical phenomena associated with living tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mechanism
  • He and his colleagues then obtained an X-ray crystal structure of LacY, an essential step towards understanding the molecular mechanism, which has had important impact on the field of membrane transport. (wikipedia.org)
  • chromaffin
  • Our results indicate that Ca2+ transport in undifferentiated PC12 cells is quite unlike transport in adrenal chromaffin cells, for which they often are considered models. (nih.gov)
  • compartment
  • The transport site lies between two of the channel-forming helices and remains stationary while the hydrophobic barrier slides from one end of the channel to the other, thereby exposing the transport site to the opposite solution compartment. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Cytoplasm
  • From these findings, we propose that the binding of RanBP1 to the Ran-importin beta complex is required for the dissociation of the complex in the cytoplasm and that the released Ran is recycled to the nucleus, which is essential for the nuclear protein transport. (nih.gov)
  • cells
  • Our results support this proposal by demonstrating that although sugar transport measurements in human red blood cells suggest that transport is catalytically asymmetric, ligand binding measurements indicate that transport must be symmetric. (umassmed.edu)
  • Undifferentiated and differentiated cells are similar in overall Ca2+ transport and in the small transport due to SERCA, but they differ in the fraction of transport by PMCA and NCX. (nih.gov)
  • Transport in neurites of differentiated PC12 cells was qualitatively similar to that in the somata, except that the ER stores in neurites sometimes released Ca2+ instead of clearing it after depolarization. (nih.gov)
  • Comparison with other cell types shows that different cells emphasize different Ca2+ transport mechanisms. (nih.gov)
  • Hydrogen sulfide is produced in small amounts by some cells of the mammalian body and has a number of biological signaling functions. (wikipedia.org)
  • synthetic
  • Efforts to understand biological systems also include engineering of semi-synthetic organisms, and understanding the universe itself from the point of view of information processing. (wikipedia.org)
  • hypothesis
  • Peter Mitchell who conceived and formulated the ''Chemiosmotic Hypothesis'' considered these findings to be the most conclusive experimental support for the Hypothesis with respect to membrane transport. (wikipedia.org)
  • systems
  • Molecular alterations of canalicular transport systems in experimental models of cholestasis: possible functional correlations. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Recent cloning of several canalicular transport systems now facilitates studies on their molecular regulation in cholestasis. (biomedsearch.com)
  • This article gives an overview on molecular alterations of canalicular transport systems in experimental models of cholestasis and discusses the potential implications of these changes for the pathophysiology of cholestasis. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Muscle
  • It acts as a relaxant of smooth muscle and as a vasodilator and is also active in the brain, where it increases the response of the NMDA receptor and facilitates long term potentiation, which is involved in the formation of memory. (wikipedia.org)