Loading...


  • proteins
  • This suggested that the lipid bilayer supplies the backbone of the membrane, and proteins associated with the membrane are not fixed in regular positions. (digitaltermpapers.com)
  • Rafts are enriched with GPI-linked proteins, palmitoylated transmembrane adaptors such as LAT (linker for activation of T cells), and myristoylated kinases such as p56 lck and p59 fyn ( 19 - 22 ). (rupress.org)
  • In this context, a family of immune cell specific adaptor proteins have been identified in recent years ( 26 - 28 ). (rupress.org)
  • This membrane is partially permeable, very flexible, and has fluid properties, in which embedded proteins and phospholipid molecules are constantly moving laterally across the membrane because of the forces generated by their vibrations. (humpath.com)
  • Such movement can be described by the Fluid Mosaic Model, which describes the membrane as a "mosaic" of lipid molecules that act as a solvent for all the substances and proteins within it, so proteins and lipid molecules are then free to diffuse laterally through the lipid matrix and migrate over the membrane. (humpath.com)
  • During cytokinesis, Rab-A2 and Rab-A3 proteins localized precisely to the growing margins of the cell plate, but VHA-a1, GNOM, and prevacuolar markers were excluded. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Magnesium transporters are proteins that transport magnesium across the cell membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • This bacterial system might also be able to provide some utility for the analysis of eukaryotic Mg2+ transport proteins, but differences in biological systems of prokaryotes and eukaryotes will have to be considered in any experiment. (wikipedia.org)
  • Comparing the functions of the characterised Mg2+ transport proteins is currently almost impossible, even though the proteins have been investigated in different biological systems using different methodologies and technologies. (wikipedia.org)
  • If the proteins could be shown to be functional in bacteria (S. typhimurium), then a combination of the techniques of mag-fura 2, quantification of protein in the envelope membrane, and structure of the proteins (X-ray crystal or cryo-TEM) might allow the determination of the basic mechanisms involved in the recognition and transport of the Mg2+ ion. (wikipedia.org)
  • They are investigating the in vitro and in vivo effects of alterations in the amounts of this protein and others of this family, present in bone cells, to determine whether these proteins could be targeted for treatment of osteoporosis and/or bone cancers. (edu.au)
  • A similar decrease in intracellular fluorescence associated with U373-EGFP cells was observed in response to LPS-sCD14 complexes (Fig. 8), indicating that the compartments released contained GPI-anchored proteins in addition to mCD14-EGFP. (nih.gov)
  • In particular, they study how microbes display and assemble cell wall attached surface proteins, and how they acquire essential nutrients from their host during infections. (ucla.edu)
  • In the prokaryotes, all the intracellular water-soluble components (proteins, DNA and metabolites) are located together in the cytoplasm enclosed by the cell membrane, rather than in separate cellular compartments. (wikipedia.org)
  • Besides homologues of actin and tubulin (MreB and FtsZ), the helically arranged building-block of the flagellum, flagellin, is one of the most significant cytoskeletal proteins of bacteria, as it provides structural backgrounds of chemotaxis, the basic cell physiological response of bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • Metabolism is usually divided into two categories: catabolism, the breaking down of organic matter for example, the breaking down of glucose to pyruvate, by cellular respiration, and anabolism, the building up of components of cells such as proteins and nucleic acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other proteins have structural or mechanical functions, such as those that form the cytoskeleton, a system of scaffolding that maintains the cell shape. (wikipedia.org)
  • Proteins are also important in cell signaling, immune responses, cell adhesion, active transport across membranes, and the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • About half of the dry mass of a bacterial cell consists of carbon, and also about half of it can be attributed to proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • In prokaryotes, the primary function of the cell wall is to protect the cell from internal turgor pressure caused by the much higher concentrations of proteins and other molecules inside the cell compared to its external environment. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cell nuclei contain most of the cell's genetic material, organized as multiple long linear DNA molecules in complex with a large variety of proteins, such as histones, to form chromosomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The pores cross both nuclear membranes, providing a channel through which larger molecules must be actively transported by carrier proteins while allowing free movement of small molecules and ions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although the interior of the nucleus does not contain any membrane-bound sub compartments, its contents are not uniform, and a number of sub-nuclear bodies exist, made up of unique proteins, RNA molecules, and particular parts of the chromosomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some of its proteins were then synthesized in the cytoplasm of the host cell, and imported back into the chloroplast (formerly the cyanobacterium). (wikipedia.org)
  • metabolism
  • We have focused our attention on arginine metabolism in Neurospora crassa because it encompasses many of the compartmental features characteristic of eukaryotic cells. (ucla.edu)
  • Metabolism (from Greek: μεταβολή metabolē, "change") is the set of life-sustaining chemical transformations within the cells of organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • The word metabolism can also refer to the sum of all chemical reactions that occur in living organisms, including digestion and the transport of substances into and between different cells, in which case the set of reactions within the cells is called intermediary metabolism or intermediate metabolism. (wikipedia.org)
  • Amino acids also contribute to cellular energy metabolism by providing a carbon source for entry into the citric acid cycle (tricarboxylic acid cycle), especially when a primary source of energy, such as glucose, is scarce, or when cells undergo metabolic stress. (wikipedia.org)
  • By phosphorylating glucose, HK3 effectively prevents glucose from leaving the cell and, thus, commits glucose to energy metabolism. (wikipedia.org)
  • At low surface area-to-volume ratios the diffusion of nutrients and waste products across the bacterial cell membrane limits the rate at which microbial metabolism can occur, making the cell less evolutionarily fit. (wikipedia.org)
  • these saw that a 20% reduction in the amount of water in a cell inhibits metabolism, with metabolism decreasing progressively as the cell dries out and all metabolic activity halting when the water level reaches 70% below normal. (wikipedia.org)
  • protein
  • All membranes are composed of lipid, protein and carbohydrate, but it is the ratio of these components that varies. (digitaltermpapers.com)
  • They suggested that the plasma membrane consisted of a lipid bilayer coated on both sides by protein. (digitaltermpapers.com)
  • Lipid and protein are the two predominant components of the biological membrane. (digitaltermpapers.com)
  • Here we demonstrate that at the lowest detectable levels of protein expression by cryoimmunogold electron microscopy, ARF6 localized predominantly to an intracellular compartment at the pericentriolar region of the cell. (nih.gov)
  • HRP labeling in cells expressing ARF6(Q67L), a GTP-bound mutant of ARF6, was restricted to small peripheral vesicles, whereas the mutant protein was enriched on plasma membrane invaginations. (nih.gov)
  • Mutations in RAB-A2a that were predicted to stabilize the GDP- or GTP-bound state shifted the location of the protein to the Golgi or plasma membrane, respectively. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Additionally, his group has recently demonstrated that a protein of the Homer family plays a critical role in bone cell viability and function. (edu.au)
  • To determine if membrane (m)CD14 directs the movement of LPS to the Golgi apparatus, an mCD14 chimera containing enhanced green fluorescent protein (mCD14-EGFP) was used to follow trafficking of mCD14 and BODIPY-LPS in stable transfectants. (nih.gov)
  • The group is presently determining the biological role of protein methyltransferases that can initiate the conversion of D-aspartyl residues to the L-configuration as well as the conversion of isopeptide linkages to normal peptide bonds. (ucla.edu)
  • localization
  • However, another study on the distribution of ARF6 in subcellular fractions of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells suggested that ARF6 did not localize to endosomes labeled after 10 min of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) uptake, but instead was uniquely localized to the plasma membrane, and that its reported endosomal localization may have been a result of overexpression. (nih.gov)
  • Cytosol
  • Although water forms the large majority of the cytosol, its structure and properties within cells is not well understood. (wikipedia.org)
  • The term "cytosol" was first introduced in 1965 by H. A. Lardy, and initially referred to the liquid that was produced by breaking cells apart and pelleting all the insoluble components by ultracentrifugation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The term cytosol is now used to refer to the liquid phase of the cytoplasm in an intact cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Due to the possibility of confusion between the use of the word "cytosol" to refer to both extracts of cells and the soluble part of the cytoplasm in intact cells, the phrase "aqueous cytoplasm" has been used to describe the liquid contents of the cytoplasm of living cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The proportion of cell volume that is cytosol varies: for example while this compartment forms the bulk of cell structure in bacteria, in plant cells the main compartment is the large central vacuole. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most of the cytosol is water, which makes up about 70% of the total volume of a typical cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • motility
  • Investigators in this focus area are addressing questions concerning such topics as gene regulation at both transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels, metabolic regulation and homeostasis, regulation of cell shape and motility, intracellular transport and compartmentation, phylogenomics, and molecular evolution. (ucla.edu)
  • Microscopy
  • Bacteria generally form distinctive cell morphologies when examined by light microscopy and distinct colony morphologies when grown on Petri plates. (wikipedia.org)
  • Organelle
  • In cell biology, an organelle (/ɔːrɡəˈnɛl/) is a specialized subunit within a cell that has a specific function. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] While most cell biologists consider the term organelle to be synonymous with "cell compartment", other cell biologists choose to limit the term organelle to include only those that are containing deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), having originated from formerly autonomous microscopic organisms acquired via endosymbiosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • A chloroplast is a type of organelle known as a plastid, characterized by its two membranes and a high concentration of chlorophyll. (wikipedia.org)
  • metabolic
  • Generation of protons by metabolic processes in heart cells. (springer.com)
  • He has a special interest in the manner in which cells 'sense' nutrients in their external environment and the role of nutrient-sensing receptors in the metabolic basis of health and disease. (edu.au)
  • Enzymes also allow the regulation of metabolic pathways in response to changes in the cell's environment or to signals from other cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • As these molecules are vital for life, metabolic reactions either focus on making these molecules during the construction of cells and tissues, or by breaking them down and using them as a source of energy, by their digestion. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecules
  • The unsaturated chain is especially important because the kink due to the double bond increases the distance between neighbouring molecules, and this in turn increases the fluidity of the membrane. (digitaltermpapers.com)
  • Inhibition of Ii processing by the cysteine/serine protease inhibitor leupeptin, however, blocked transport to the cell surface and caused a dramatic but selective accumulation of I-A(b) class II molecules in lysosomes. (nih.gov)
  • After cell surface biotinylation, the cells were lysed, and total (left) or surface (right) I-Ab molecules were immunoprecipitated sequentially. (nih.gov)
  • Generally, interactions between GSH and other molecules with higher relative electrophilicity deplete GSH levels within the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because the nuclear membrane is impermeable to large molecules, nuclear pores are required to regulate nuclear transport of molecules across the envelope. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, up to 200,000 different small molecules might be made in plants, although not all these will be present in the same species, or in a single cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • The coenzyme is, therefore, found in two forms in cells: NAD+ is an oxidizing agent - it accepts electrons from other molecules and becomes reduced. (wikipedia.org)
  • endosomal
  • Expression of ARF6 mutants perturbs endosomal trafficking and the morphology of the peripheral membrane system. (nih.gov)
  • Taken together, our findings suggest that ARF activation is required for the targeted delivery of ARF6-positive, recycling endosomal vesicles to the plasma membrane. (nih.gov)
  • Rab-A2 and Rab-A3 GTPases define a trans-golgi endosomal membrane domain in Arabidopsis that contributes substantially to the cell plate. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The Rab-A2/A3 compartment, therefore, is a trans-Golgi compartment that communicates with the plasma membrane and early endosomal system and contributes substantially to the cell plate. (ox.ac.uk)
  • enzyme
  • Cells make glutathione in two adenosine triphosphate-dependent steps: First, gamma-glutamylcysteine is synthesized from L-glutamate and cysteine via the enzyme gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase (glutamate cysteine ligase, GCL). (wikipedia.org)
  • Adenylyl cyclase is a membrane bound enzyme that catalyses the formation of cyclic AMP from ATP. (wikipedia.org)
  • The enzyme lysozyme, found in human tears, also digests the cell wall of bacteria and is the body's main defense against eye infections. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecular
  • Despite the unique features of plant cytokinesis, membrane traffic to the division plane exhibits surprising molecular similarity across eukaryotic kingdoms in its reliance on Ypt3/Rab11/Rab-A GTPases. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Professor Albert Courey and his group study the molecular basis of cell development. (ucla.edu)
  • Molecular studies have provided insight into the evolution and interrelationships of the three domains of biological species. (wikipedia.org)
  • organisms
  • But the multicellular organisms, groups of cells specialized functions each, no one cell from the multicellular organisms can survive on its own. (digitaltermpapers.com)
  • The organisms themselves as a group of cells, the multicellular organisms can be advanced, because each cells have their specialized function, but as one cell, the unicellular organisms have more complex characteristics and one cell can survive itself. (digitaltermpapers.com)
  • In a footnote, which was published as a correction in the next issue of the journal, he justified his suggestion to call organs of unicellular organisms "organella" since they are only differently formed parts of one cell, in contrast to multicellular organs of multicellular organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because of the simplicity of bacteria relative to larger organisms and the ease with which they can be manipulated experimentally, the cell structure of bacteria has been well studied, revealing many biochemical principles that have been subsequently applied to other organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • As in other organisms, the bacterial cell wall provides structural integrity to the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • eukaryotic cell
  • They are considered to have originated from cyanobacteria through endosymbiosis-when a eukaryotic cell engulfed a photosynthesizing cyanobacterium that became a permanent resident in the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Somewhere around a billion years ago, a free-living cyanobacterium entered an early eukaryotic cell, either as food or as an internal parasite, but managed to escape the phagocytic vacuole it was contained in. (wikipedia.org)
  • Receptors
  • Furthermore, we have shown that the ARF6-containing intracellular compartment partially colocalized with transferrin receptors and cellubrevin and morphologically resembled the recycling endocytic compartment previously described in CHO cells. (nih.gov)
  • MAG is expressed on the innermost wrap of myelin, apposed to the axon surface, where it interacts with axonal receptors that reside in lateral membrane domains including gangliosides, the glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored Nogo receptors, and β1-integrin. (genes2cognition.org)
  • We conclude that MAG engages membrane-domain resident neuronal receptors to protect neurons from excitotoxicity, and that soluble MAG mitigates excitotoxic damage in vivo. (genes2cognition.org)
  • bacteria
  • Naturally occurring ladderanes have been identified as major components of the anammoxosome membrane of the anammox bacteria, Planctomycetes. (wikipedia.org)
  • the four basic shapes of bacteria are: Cocci - spherical Bacilli - rod-shaped Spirochaete - spiral-shaped Vibrio - comma-shaped The archaeon Haloquadratum has flat square-shaped cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are two main types of bacterial cell walls, those of gram-positive bacteria and those of gram-negative bacteria, which are differentiated by their Gram staining characteristics. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gram-positive cell walls are thick and the peptidoglycan ( also known as murein) layer constitutes almost 95% of the cell wall in some gram-positive bacteria and as little as 5-10% of the cell wall in gram-negative bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • They are a diverse phylum of bacteria capable of carrying out photosynthesis, and are gram-negative, meaning that they have two cell membranes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cyanobacteria also contain a peptidoglycan cell wall, which is thicker than in other gram-negative bacteria, and which is located between their two cell membranes. (wikipedia.org)
  • hydrophobic
  • The significance of the hydrophobic forces between fatty acids is that the membrane is capable of spontaneous reforming should it become damaged. (digitaltermpapers.com)
  • When placed in water, phospholipids form a bilayer, where the hydrophobic tails line up against each other, forming a membrane with hydrophilic heads on both sides extending out into the water. (humpath.com)
  • tissues
  • The first phospholipid identified as such in biological tissues was lecithin, or phosphatidylcholine, in the egg yolk, by Theodore Nicolas Gobley, a French chemist and pharmacist, in 1847. (humpath.com)
  • During embryogenesis, a cluster of apparently undifferentiated cells is transformed into an ordered array of differentiated tissues. (ucla.edu)
  • The samples can be hard or soft, are generally non-conducting, and the non-destructive nature of the measurement allows for the observation of living tissues and cells, and biological samples in general. (wikipedia.org)
  • SICM is used in an electrolyte-containing solution, so can be used in physiological media and image living cells and tissues, and monitor biological processes while they are taking place. (wikipedia.org)
  • Regulation
  • At least 15 research groups in the UCLA Department of Chemistry & Biochemistry carry out research in the area of Systems Biology and Biological Regulation. (ucla.edu)
  • Professor Guillaume Chanfreau's laboratory is interested in gene expression regulation in eukaryotic cells, with a particular emphasis on post-transcriptional steps. (ucla.edu)
  • peptidoglycan
  • Peptidoglycan is responsible for the rigidity of the bacterial cell wall and for the determination of cell shape. (wikipedia.org)
  • β-Lactam antibiotics such as penicillin inhibit the formation of peptidoglycan cross-links in the bacterial cell wall. (wikipedia.org)
  • inhibit
  • The transcription factor PU.1 is known to directly activate transcription of the antiapoptotic BCL2A1 gene or inhibit transcription of the p53 tumor suppressor to promote cell survival, and is proposed to also directly activate HK3 transcription during neutrophil differentiation to support short-term cell survival of mature neutrophils. (wikipedia.org)
  • Golgi
  • We show that the Rab-A2 and Rab-A3 subclasses define a novel post-Golgi membrane domain in Arabidopsis root tips. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The chimera was expressed strongly on the cell surface and also in a Golgi complex-like structure. (nih.gov)
  • chlorophyll
  • The first definitive description of a chloroplast (Chlorophyllkörnen, "grain of chlorophyll") was given by Hugo von Mohl in 1837 as discrete bodies within the green plant cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • On the thylakoid membranes are photosynthetic pigments, including chlorophyll a. (wikipedia.org)
  • Binding
  • Having identified binding sites for the nutrient sensors on GPCR class C, his team is characterising the downstream signaling pathways and resultant biological effects. (edu.au)
  • permeability
  • There are general functions common to all membranes such as control of permeability, and then there are specialised functions that depend upon the cell type, such as conveyance of an action potential in neurones. (digitaltermpapers.com)
  • cholesterol
  • In this context, ganglioside and cholesterol enriched membrane microdomains (rafts, GEMs) serve as centers of signaling in T cells. (rupress.org)
  • Glycosphingolipid/cholesterol enriched microdomains (GEMs, Rafts, detergent-insoluble glycolipid-enriched domains [DIGs], detergent-resistant membranes [DRMs]) on the surface of cells act as platforms that compartmentalize key components involved in signaling ( 17 , 18 ). (rupress.org)
  • transport
  • Reversal of the leupeptin block results in MHC class II transport from lysosomes to the cell surface. (nih.gov)
  • B) Kinetics of compact dimer formation and transport to the cell surface. (nih.gov)
  • However, it is important that the amount of transporter present in the membrane is accurately determined if comparisons of transport capability are to be made. (wikipedia.org)
  • peripheral
  • While CD28 increased expression and the number of peripheral T cells induced to express surface rafts in response to TcR ligation, CTLA-4 potently inhibited both TcR and TcR × CD28 induced raft expression on the surface of T cells. (rupress.org)
  • In this study, we report that while CD28 greatly increased the number of GM1 negative peripheral T cells that become positive as a result of TcR ligation, CTLA-4 profoundly inhibited the expression of surface rafts. (rupress.org)
  • mutants
  • Inducible expression of dominant-inhibitory mutants of RAB-A2a resulted in enlarged, polynucleate, meristematic cells with cell wall stubs. (ox.ac.uk)
  • bound
  • Upon removal of leupeptin, Ii-p10 was degraded and released, I-A(b) dimers bound antigenic peptides, and the peptide-loaded dimers were transported slowly from lysosomes to the plasma membrane. (nih.gov)
  • The classic view of water in cells is that about 5% of this water is strongly bound in by solutes or macromolecules as water of solvation, while the majority has the same structure as pure water. (wikipedia.org)
  • plasma
  • ARF6 targets recycling vesicles to the plasma membrane: insights from an ultrastructural investigation. (nih.gov)
  • Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) fluorescently labeled with boron dipyrromethane (BODIPY) first binds to the plasma membrane of CD14-expressing cells and is subsequently internalized. (nih.gov)
  • These results suggest that monomeric LPS is transferred out of mCD14 at the plasma membrane and traffics within the cell independently of mCD14. (nih.gov)
  • proteins
  • Cells exploited this property by embedding proteins in their membranes that would allow only certain molecules to gain entry. (catsboard.com)
  • Other proteins embedded in the membrane acted like sensory antennae, making it possible for cells to gain information about their immediate environment. (catsboard.com)
  • Some of these proteins were used to detect the presence of food molecules, while others became specialized as transmitters and receivers, allowing the cells to communicate with each other. (catsboard.com)
  • Expansins are unique plant cell wall proteins that are involved in cell wall modifications underlying many plant developmental processes. (jove.com)
  • The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is the primary site for the biogenesis of membrane and secretory proteins. (crg.eu)
  • Misfolded proteins in the lumen or membrane of the ER are discarded by ER-associated protein degradation (ERAD), a pathway in which misfolded proteins are recognized, translocated across ER membrane (retrotranslocated), ubiquitinated and released in the cytosol for proteasomal degradation. (crg.eu)
  • Key unresolved issues under investigation in our lab include the determinants for substrate selectivity and the mechanism for translocation of misfolded proteins across the ER membrane. (crg.eu)
  • Many of these techniques study potassium channels as cellular proteins as well as the resultant membrane biophysics. (springer.com)
  • Metabolism is usually divided into two categories: catabolism, the breaking down of organic matter for example, the breaking down of glucose to pyruvate, by cellular respiration, and anabolism, the building up of components of cells such as proteins and nucleic acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other proteins have structural or mechanical functions, such as those that form the cytoskeleton, a system of scaffolding that maintains the cell shape. (wikipedia.org)
  • Proteins are also important in cell signaling, immune responses, cell adhesion, active transport across membranes, and the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cell nuclei contain most of the cell's genetic material, organized as multiple long linear DNA molecules in complex with a large variety of proteins, such as histones, to form chromosomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The pores cross both nuclear membranes, providing a channel through which larger molecules must be actively transported by carrier proteins while allowing free movement of small molecules and ions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Magnesium transporters are proteins that transport magnesium across the cell membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • This bacterial system might also be able to provide some utility for the analysis of eukaryotic Mg2+ transport proteins, but differences in biological systems of prokaryotes and eukaryotes will have to be considered in any experiment. (wikipedia.org)
  • Comparing the functions of the characterised Mg2+ transport proteins is currently almost impossible, even though the proteins have been investigated in different biological systems using different methodologies and technologies. (wikipedia.org)
  • If the proteins could be shown to be functional in bacteria (S. typhimurium), then a combination of the techniques of mag-fura 2, quantification of protein in the envelope membrane, and structure of the proteins (X-ray crystal or cryo-TEM) might allow the determination of the basic mechanisms involved in the recognition and transport of the Mg2+ ion. (wikipedia.org)
  • Besides homologues of actin and tubulin (MreB and FtsZ), the helically arranged building-block of the flagellum, flagellin, is one of the most significant cytoskeletal proteins of bacteria, as it provides structural backgrounds of chemotaxis, the basic cell physiological response of bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • About half of the dry mass of a bacterial cell consists of carbon, and also about half of it can be attributed to proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • In prokaryotes, the primary function of the cell wall is to protect the cell from internal turgor pressure caused by the much higher concentrations of proteins and other molecules inside the cell compared to its external environment. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some of its proteins were then synthesized in the cytoplasm of the host cell, and imported back into the chloroplast (formerly the cyanobacterium). (wikipedia.org)
  • lipids
  • Lipids are fundamental to biology as the compounds from which biological membranes are largely constructed. (catsboard.com)
  • It is known that straight-chain amphiphiles and various biological lipids will spontaneously self-assemble under the appropriate conditions of pH, temperature, and solute concentration to form aggregates known as micelles or vesicles, which in some cases are able to trap various solutes for extended periods of time (Deamer and Barchfeld 1982). (catsboard.com)
  • The ER is also involved in the synthesis of most of the lipids in cells. (crg.eu)
  • Lipids are usually defined as hydrophobic or amphipathic biological molecules but will dissolve in organic solvents such as benzene or chloroform. (wikipedia.org)
  • Life functions through the specialized chemistry of carbon and water and is largely based upon four key families of chemicals: lipids (fatty cell walls), carbohydrates (sugars, cellulose), amino acids (protein metabolism), and nucleic acids (self-replicating DNA and RNA). (wikipedia.org)
  • Biology
  • This is an introductory survey of cell and developmental biology. (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • Excessive lipid accumulation in cells is also the hallmark of obesity and atherosclerosis, but remarkably little is known about lipid-droplet cell biology. (crg.eu)
  • In Potassium Channels: Methods and Protocols , experts in the field present a range of experimental approaches that have been developed to investigate potassium channel structure, function, pharmacology, cell biology, gene expression, and their role in disease. (springer.com)
  • In cell biology, an organelle (/ɔːrɡəˈnɛl/) is a specialized subunit within a cell that has a specific function. (wikipedia.org)
  • protein
  • This type of schematization is clearly wiping out important aspects of the detailed biological dynamics, such as localization in space and/or time, protein modifications and the formation of multimeric complexes, that have been lumped together in a link. (biomedcentral.com)
  • subcellular
  • Specifically, in this protocol we measure the apparent Young's modulus of cell walls at subcellular resolutions across regions of up to 100 µm x 100 µm in floral meristems, hypocotyls, and roots. (jove.com)
  • In contrast to other extant techniques, by using different indenters and indentation depths, this method allows simultaneous multiscale measurements, i.e. at subcellular resolutions and across hundreds of cells comprising a tissue. (jove.com)
  • organisms
  • An introduction to the structure and function of cells in organisms. (kingsu.ca)
  • But the multicellular organisms, groups of cells specialized functions each, no one cell from the multicellular organisms can survive on its own. (digitaltermpapers.com)
  • The organisms themselves as a group of cells, the multicellular organisms can be advanced, because each cells have their specialized function, but as one cell, the unicellular organisms have more complex characteristics and one cell can survive itself. (digitaltermpapers.com)
  • Metabolism (from Greek: μεταβολή metabolē, "change") is the set of life-sustaining chemical transformations within the cells of organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • The word metabolism can also refer to the sum of all chemical reactions that occur in living organisms, including digestion and the transport of substances into and between different cells, in which case the set of reactions within the cells is called intermediary metabolism or intermediate metabolism. (wikipedia.org)
  • In a footnote, which was published as a correction in the next issue of the journal, he justified his suggestion to call organs of unicellular organisms "organella" since they are only differently formed parts of one cell, in contrast to multicellular organs of multicellular organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • As in other organisms, the bacterial cell wall provides structural integrity to the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • bacteria
  • The organization, morphology and cell structure of microorganisms with emphasis on bacteria and fungi. (kingsu.ca)
  • The proportion of cell volume that is cytosol varies: for example while this compartment forms the bulk of cell structure in bacteria, in plant cells the main compartment is the large central vacuole. (wikipedia.org)
  • Naturally occurring ladderanes have been identified as major components of the anammoxosome membrane of the anammox bacteria, Planctomycetes. (wikipedia.org)
  • the four basic shapes of bacteria are: Cocci - spherical Bacilli - rod-shaped Spirochaete - spiral-shaped Vibrio - comma-shaped The archaeon Haloquadratum has flat square-shaped cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bacteria generally form distinctive cell morphologies when examined by light microscopy and distinct colony morphologies when grown on Petri plates. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are two main types of bacterial cell walls, those of gram-positive bacteria and those of gram-negative bacteria, which are differentiated by their Gram staining characteristics. (wikipedia.org)
  • The enzyme lysozyme, found in human tears, also digests the cell wall of bacteria and is the body's main defense against eye infections. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gram-positive cell walls are thick and the peptidoglycan ( also known as murein) layer constitutes almost 95% of the cell wall in some gram-positive bacteria and as little as 5-10% of the cell wall in gram-negative bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • They are a diverse phylum of bacteria capable of carrying out photosynthesis, and are gram-negative, meaning that they have two cell membranes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cyanobacteria also contain a peptidoglycan cell wall, which is thicker than in other gram-negative bacteria, and which is located between their two cell membranes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cellular
  • Further study indicated that the average cell length in both leaf and root vascular bundles was enhanced, and the cell growth in suspension cultures was increased, which revealed the cellular basis for OsEXPA8-mediated rice plant growth acceleration. (jove.com)
  • Numerous studies have indeed addressed a similar question in various cell types, however exclusively focusing on the cellular expression of SVCT2 and on the cellular uptake of the reduced form of the vitamin. (hindawi.com)
  • Amino acids also contribute to cellular energy metabolism by providing a carbon source for entry into the citric acid cycle (tricarboxylic acid cycle), especially when a primary source of energy, such as glucose, is scarce, or when cells undergo metabolic stress. (wikipedia.org)
  • The ratio of reduced glutathione to oxidized glutathione within cells is often used as a measure of cellular oxidative stress. (wikipedia.org)
  • similarity
  • Homologs from Spirogyra or Physcomitrella share high similarity with AtCHX20, suggesting that guard cell-specific AtCHX20 and its closest relatives are founders of the family, and pollen-expressed CHX genes appeared later in monocots and early eudicots. (frontiersin.org)
  • bound
  • The classic view of water in cells is that about 5% of this water is strongly bound in by solutes or macromolecules as water of solvation, while the majority has the same structure as pure water. (wikipedia.org)
  • Adenylyl cyclase is a membrane bound enzyme that catalyses the formation of cyclic AMP from ATP. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecules
  • The bilayer blocked or impeded, the passive flow of most molecules into the cell, thus protecting the cell from the external environment. (catsboard.com)
  • Deep sea hydrothermal vents have been cited as a potential source of the energy required to synthesize prebiotic molecules, including the building blocks of membranes. (catsboard.com)
  • As these molecules are vital for life, metabolic reactions either focus on making these molecules during the construction of cells and tissues, or by breaking them down and using them as a source of energy, by their digestion. (wikipedia.org)
  • Generally, interactions between GSH and other molecules with higher relative electrophilicity deplete GSH levels within the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because the nuclear membrane is impermeable to large molecules, nuclear pores are required to regulate nuclear transport of molecules across the envelope. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, up to 200,000 different small molecules might be made in plants, although not all these will be present in the same species, or in a single cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • The coenzyme is, therefore, found in two forms in cells: NAD+ is an oxidizing agent - it accepts electrons from other molecules and becomes reduced. (wikipedia.org)
  • enzyme
  • Cells make glutathione in two adenosine triphosphate-dependent steps: First, gamma-glutamylcysteine is synthesized from L-glutamate and cysteine via the enzyme gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase (glutamate cysteine ligase, GCL). (wikipedia.org)
  • thus
  • To account for cell wall properties only, measurements are performed in highly concentrated solutions of mannitol in order to plasmolyze the cells and thus remove the contribution of cell turgor pressure. (jove.com)
  • By phosphorylating glucose, HK3 effectively prevents glucose from leaving the cell and, thus, commits glucose to energy metabolism. (wikipedia.org)
  • peptidoglycan
  • Peptidoglycan is responsible for the rigidity of the bacterial cell wall and for the determination of cell shape. (wikipedia.org)
  • β-Lactam antibiotics such as penicillin inhibit the formation of peptidoglycan cross-links in the bacterial cell wall. (wikipedia.org)
  • cytosol
  • Although water forms the large majority of the cytosol, its structure and properties within cells is not well understood. (wikipedia.org)
  • The term "cytosol" was first introduced in 1965 by H. A. Lardy, and initially referred to the liquid that was produced by breaking cells apart and pelleting all the insoluble components by ultracentrifugation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The term cytosol is now used to refer to the liquid phase of the cytoplasm in an intact cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Due to the possibility of confusion between the use of the word "cytosol" to refer to both extracts of cells and the soluble part of the cytoplasm in intact cells, the phrase "aqueous cytoplasm" has been used to describe the liquid contents of the cytoplasm of living cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most of the cytosol is water, which makes up about 70% of the total volume of a typical cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • bacterial
  • however maintaining favorable environmental conditions for both plant epidermal peels and bacterial cells has been challenging. (jove.com)
  • On the other hand, bacterial cells can be kept alive in water which is not proper to maintain epidermal peels for long period of times. (jove.com)
  • Genetic exchange and recombination still occur, but this is a form of horizontal gene transfer and is not a replicative process, simply involving the transference of DNA between two cells, as in bacterial conjugation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Typical examples include: coccus (spherical) bacillus (rod-like) spiral(DNA-like) filamentous (elongated) Cell shape is generally characteristic of a given bacterial species, but can vary depending on growth conditions. (wikipedia.org)
  • At low surface area-to-volume ratios the diffusion of nutrients and waste products across the bacterial cell membrane limits the rate at which microbial metabolism can occur, making the cell less evolutionarily fit. (wikipedia.org)
  • If the bacterial cell wall is entirely removed, it is called a protoplast while if it's partially removed, it is called a spheroplast. (wikipedia.org)
  • processes
  • In each case, the regulatory processes for the biological function under consideration were found to hinge on post-transcriptional regulatory mechanisms, rather than on the transcriptional regulation by network motifs. (biomedcentral.com)
  • these differences in ion levels are important in processes such as osmoregulation, cell signaling, and the generation of action potentials in excitable cells such as endocrine, nerve and muscle cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • SICM is used in an electrolyte-containing solution, so can be used in physiological media and image living cells and tissues, and monitor biological processes while they are taking place. (wikipedia.org)
  • expression
  • After 4 days of culture in differentiating medium, these cells ceased to proliferate, displayed downregulated ryanodine receptor expression, and responded to specific stimuli with enhanced NADPH-oxidase-derived superoxide formation or cytosolic phospholipase A 2 -dependent arachidonic acid release. (hindawi.com)
  • This study aimed to identify the in vivo effects and molecular mechanisms involved in the biological activities of oil palm phenolics (OPP) during healthy states via microarray gene expression profiling, using mice supplemented with a normal diet as biological models. (biomedcentral.com)
  • gene
  • The transcription factor PU.1 is known to directly activate transcription of the antiapoptotic BCL2A1 gene or inhibit transcription of the p53 tumor suppressor to promote cell survival, and is proposed to also directly activate HK3 transcription during neutrophil differentiation to support short-term cell survival of mature neutrophils. (wikipedia.org)
  • bacterium
  • To quantify these advantages, we have developed a stochastic automaton that allows experiments to be performed in a virtual bacterium with both a membrane and a cytoplasm. (biomedcentral.com)
  • For example, Escherichia coli cells, an "average" sized bacterium, are about 2 µm (micrometres) long and 0.5 µm in diameter, with a cell volume of 0.6-0.7 μm3. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tissues
  • The samples can be hard or soft, are generally non-conducting, and the non-destructive nature of the measurement allows for the observation of living tissues and cells, and biological samples in general. (wikipedia.org)
  • metabolic
  • Enzymes also allow the regulation of metabolic pathways in response to changes in the cell's environment or to signals from other cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • these saw that a 20% reduction in the amount of water in a cell inhibits metabolism, with metabolism decreasing progressively as the cell dries out and all metabolic activity halting when the water level reaches 70% below normal. (wikipedia.org)
  • differentiation
  • This means that it is now possible to spatially-temporally characterize the changes that take place in the mechanical properties of cell walls during development, enabling these changes to be correlated with growth and differentiation. (jove.com)
  • Test your knowledge about cell differentiation, cell function and tissue culture. (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • Growth of promonocytic U937 cells in the presence of DMSO promotes their differentiation to monocytes. (hindawi.com)
  • Developmental
  • Cells have evolved mechanisms to regulate ion and pH homeostasis in order to respond to developmental cues and to adapt to a constantly changing environment. (frontiersin.org)
  • transgenic
  • OsEXPA8 transgenic suspension-cultured cells decreased over six-fold compared to wild-type counterparts during different growth phases. (jove.com)
  • genes
  • The genes within these chromosomes are the cell's nuclear genome and are structured in such a way to promote cell function. (wikipedia.org)
  • Escherichia
  • Therefore, a typical fully grown 1-liter culture of Escherichia coli (at an optical density of 1.0, corresponding to c. 109 cells/ml) yields about 1 g wet cell mass. (wikipedia.org)
  • walls
  • Unlike other mycorrhizal relationships, such as arbuscular mycorrhiza and ericoid mycorrhiza, ectomycorrhizal fungi do not penetrate their host's cell walls. (wikipedia.org)
  • synthesis
  • While all animal cells are capable of synthesizing glutathione, glutathione synthesis in the liver has been shown to be essential. (wikipedia.org)
  • The study of abiogenesis can be geophysical, chemical, or biological, with more recent approaches attempting a synthesis of all three, as life arose under conditions that are strikingly different from those on Earth today. (wikipedia.org)
  • polysaccharide
  • Moreover, a prominent change in the wall polymer composition of suspension cells was observed, and Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectra revealed a relative increase in the ratios of the polysaccharide/lignin content in cell wall compositions of OsEXPA8 overexpressors. (jove.com)
  • germ
  • In 1873, August Weismann postulated the equivalence of the maternal and paternal germ cells for heredity. (wikipedia.org)
  • found
  • Some patterns, dubbed motifs, have been found to be statistically over-represented when biological networks are compared to randomized versions thereof. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Meanwhile, HK3 was found to be repressed in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) blast cells and acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) patients. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) is a coenzyme found in all living cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • cyclic
  • Although there has been significant progress made in understanding how the specific signaling of cyclic nucleotide second messengers is achieved, the mechanistic details in complex cell types like neurons are only just beginning to surface. (frontiersin.org)
  • The cyclic nucleotides cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) are ubiquitous second messengers present in most cell types. (frontiersin.org)
  • The levels of cyclic nucleotides and the activities of downstream effectors are not uniform throughout the cell, but instead form specific nanodomains or microdomains inside the cell. (frontiersin.org)
  • function
  • However, perhaps the best advance would be the development of methods allowing the measurement of the protein's function in the patch-clamp system using artificial membranes. (wikipedia.org)