• proteins
  • This suggested that the lipid bilayer supplies the backbone of the membrane, and proteins associated with the membrane are not fixed in regular positions. (digitaltermpapers.com)
  • Rafts are enriched with GPI-linked proteins, palmitoylated transmembrane adaptors such as LAT (linker for activation of T cells), and myristoylated kinases such as p56 lck and p59 fyn ( 19 - 22 ). (rupress.org)
  • In this context, a family of immune cell specific adaptor proteins have been identified in recent years ( 26 - 28 ). (rupress.org)
  • During cytokinesis, Rab-A2 and Rab-A3 proteins localized precisely to the growing margins of the cell plate, but VHA-a1, GNOM, and prevacuolar markers were excluded. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Magnesium transporters are proteins that transport magnesium across the cell membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • This bacterial system might also be able to provide some utility for the analysis of eukaryotic Mg2+ transport proteins, but differences in biological systems of prokaryotes and eukaryotes will have to be considered in any experiment. (wikipedia.org)
  • Comparing the functions of the characterised Mg2+ transport proteins is currently almost impossible, even though the proteins have been investigated in different biological systems using different methodologies and technologies. (wikipedia.org)
  • If the proteins could be shown to be functional in bacteria (S. typhimurium), then a combination of the techniques of mag-fura 2, quantification of protein in the envelope membrane, and structure of the proteins (X-ray crystal or cryo-TEM) might allow the determination of the basic mechanisms involved in the recognition and transport of the Mg2+ ion. (wikipedia.org)
  • They are investigating the in vitro and in vivo effects of alterations in the amounts of this protein and others of this family, present in bone cells, to determine whether these proteins could be targeted for treatment of osteoporosis and/or bone cancers. (edu.au)
  • In particular, they study how microbes display and assemble cell wall attached surface proteins, and how they acquire essential nutrients from their host during infections. (ucla.edu)
  • In the prokaryotes, all the intracellular water-soluble components (proteins, DNA and metabolites) are located together in the cytoplasm enclosed by the cell membrane, rather than in separate cellular compartments. (wikipedia.org)
  • Besides homologues of actin and tubulin (MreB and FtsZ), the helically arranged building-block of the flagellum, flagellin, is one of the most significant cytoskeletal proteins of bacteria, as it provides structural backgrounds of chemotaxis, the basic cell physiological response of bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • Metabolism is usually divided into two categories: catabolism, the breaking down of organic matter for example, the breaking down of glucose to pyruvate, by cellular respiration, and anabolism, the building up of components of cells such as proteins and nucleic acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other proteins have structural or mechanical functions, such as those that form the cytoskeleton, a system of scaffolding that maintains the cell shape. (wikipedia.org)
  • Proteins are also important in cell signaling, immune responses, cell adhesion, active transport across membranes, and the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • About half of the dry mass of a bacterial cell consists of carbon, and also about half of it can be attributed to proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • In prokaryotes, the primary function of the cell wall is to protect the cell from internal turgor pressure caused by the much higher concentrations of proteins and other molecules inside the cell compared to its external environment. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cell nuclei contain most of the cell's genetic material, organized as multiple long linear DNA molecules in complex with a large variety of proteins, such as histones, to form chromosomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The pores cross both nuclear membranes, providing a channel through which larger molecules must be actively transported by carrier proteins while allowing free movement of small molecules and ions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although the interior of the nucleus does not contain any membrane-bound sub compartments, its contents are not uniform, and a number of sub-nuclear bodies exist, made up of unique proteins, RNA molecules, and particular parts of the chromosomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some of its proteins were then synthesized in the cytoplasm of the host cell, and imported back into the chloroplast (formerly the cyanobacterium). (wikipedia.org)
  • metabolism
  • Life functions through the specialized chemistry of carbon and water and is largely based upon four key families of chemicals: lipids (fatty cell walls), carbohydrates (sugars, cellulose), amino acids (protein metabolism), and nucleic acids (self-replicating DNA and RNA). (wikipedia.org)
  • Metabolism (from Greek: μεταβολή metabolē, "change") is the set of life-sustaining chemical transformations within the cells of organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • The word metabolism can also refer to the sum of all chemical reactions that occur in living organisms, including digestion and the transport of substances into and between different cells, in which case the set of reactions within the cells is called intermediary metabolism or intermediate metabolism. (wikipedia.org)
  • Amino acids also contribute to cellular energy metabolism by providing a carbon source for entry into the citric acid cycle (tricarboxylic acid cycle), especially when a primary source of energy, such as glucose, is scarce, or when cells undergo metabolic stress. (wikipedia.org)
  • By phosphorylating glucose, HK3 effectively prevents glucose from leaving the cell and, thus, commits glucose to energy metabolism. (wikipedia.org)
  • At low surface area-to-volume ratios the diffusion of nutrients and waste products across the bacterial cell membrane limits the rate at which microbial metabolism can occur, making the cell less evolutionarily fit. (wikipedia.org)
  • In prokaryotes, most of the chemical reactions of metabolism take place in the cytosol, while a few take place in membranes or in the periplasmic space. (wikipedia.org)
  • these saw that a 20% reduction in the amount of water in a cell inhibits metabolism, with metabolism decreasing progressively as the cell dries out and all metabolic activity halting when the water level reaches 70% below normal. (wikipedia.org)
  • protein
  • All membranes are composed of lipid, protein and carbohydrate, but it is the ratio of these components that varies. (digitaltermpapers.com)
  • Lipid and protein are the two predominant components of the biological membrane. (digitaltermpapers.com)
  • Here we demonstrate that at the lowest detectable levels of protein expression by cryoimmunogold electron microscopy, ARF6 localized predominantly to an intracellular compartment at the pericentriolar region of the cell. (nih.gov)
  • Additionally, his group has recently demonstrated that a protein of the Homer family plays a critical role in bone cell viability and function. (edu.au)
  • The group is presently determining the biological role of protein methyltransferases that can initiate the conversion of D-aspartyl residues to the L-configuration as well as the conversion of isopeptide linkages to normal peptide bonds. (ucla.edu)
  • Cytosol
  • Although water forms the large majority of the cytosol, its structure and properties within cells is not well understood. (wikipedia.org)
  • The term "cytosol" was first introduced in 1965 by H. A. Lardy, and initially referred to the liquid that was produced by breaking cells apart and pelleting all the insoluble components by ultracentrifugation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The term cytosol is now used to refer to the liquid phase of the cytoplasm in an intact cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Due to the possibility of confusion between the use of the word "cytosol" to refer to both extracts of cells and the soluble part of the cytoplasm in intact cells, the phrase "aqueous cytoplasm" has been used to describe the liquid contents of the cytoplasm of living cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The proportion of cell volume that is cytosol varies: for example while this compartment forms the bulk of cell structure in bacteria, in plant cells the main compartment is the large central vacuole. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most of the cytosol is water, which makes up about 70% of the total volume of a typical cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • motility
  • Investigators in this focus area are addressing questions concerning such topics as gene regulation at both transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels, metabolic regulation and homeostasis, regulation of cell shape and motility, intracellular transport and compartmentation, phylogenomics, and molecular evolution. (ucla.edu)
  • Biochemical
  • Eukaryotic cells are characterized by a high degree of compartmentalization establishing a variety of biochemical reaction conditions. (frontiersin.org)
  • Because of the simplicity of bacteria relative to larger organisms and the ease with which they can be manipulated experimentally, the cell structure of bacteria has been well studied, revealing many biochemical principles that have been subsequently applied to other organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Biology
  • This course covers molecular biology of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells and their viruses. (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • This is an introductory survey of cell and developmental biology. (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • At least 15 research groups in the UCLA Department of Chemistry & Biochemistry carry out research in the area of Systems Biology and Biological Regulation. (ucla.edu)
  • In cell biology, an organelle (/ɔːrɡəˈnɛl/) is a specialized subunit within a cell that has a specific function. (wikipedia.org)
  • lipid
  • The major lipid of animal cells is phospatidylcholine. (digitaltermpapers.com)
  • Although the importance of lipid raft formation for the acquired immune recognition is clear, the involvement of membrane microdomains in the innate immune response has not yet been investigated. (biologists.org)
  • Since CD14 is found in such microdomains on the cell surface, it is probable that the entire bacterial recognition system is based around the ligation of CD14 by bacterial components and the recruitment of multiple signalling molecules at the site of CD14-LPS ligation, within the lipid rafts. (biologists.org)
  • Organelle
  • citation needed] While most cell biologists consider the term organelle to be synonymous with "cell compartment", other cell biologists choose to limit the term organelle to include only those that are containing deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), having originated from formerly autonomous microscopic organisms acquired via endosymbiosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • A chloroplast is a type of organelle known as a plastid, characterized by its two membranes and a high concentration of chlorophyll. (wikipedia.org)
  • prokaryotic
  • DNA transfer between prokaryotic cells occurs in bacteria and archaea, although it has been mainly studied in bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • endosomal
  • Expression of ARF6 mutants perturbs endosomal trafficking and the morphology of the peripheral membrane system. (nih.gov)
  • Rab-A2 and Rab-A3 GTPases define a trans-golgi endosomal membrane domain in Arabidopsis that contributes substantially to the cell plate. (ox.ac.uk)
  • bacteria
  • Naturally occurring ladderanes have been identified as major components of the anammoxosome membrane of the anammox bacteria, Planctomycetes. (wikipedia.org)
  • the four basic shapes of bacteria are: Cocci - spherical Bacilli - rod-shaped Spirochaete - spiral-shaped Vibrio - comma-shaped The archaeon Haloquadratum has flat square-shaped cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bacteria generally form distinctive cell morphologies when examined by light microscopy and distinct colony morphologies when grown on Petri plates. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are two main types of bacterial cell walls, those of gram-positive bacteria and those of gram-negative bacteria, which are differentiated by their Gram staining characteristics. (wikipedia.org)
  • The enzyme lysozyme, found in human tears, also digests the cell wall of bacteria and is the body's main defense against eye infections. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gram-positive cell walls are thick and the peptidoglycan ( also known as murein) layer constitutes almost 95% of the cell wall in some gram-positive bacteria and as little as 5-10% of the cell wall in gram-negative bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • They are a diverse phylum of bacteria capable of carrying out photosynthesis, and are gram-negative, meaning that they have two cell membranes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cyanobacteria also contain a peptidoglycan cell wall, which is thicker than in other gram-negative bacteria, and which is located between their two cell membranes. (wikipedia.org)
  • organisms
  • But the multicellular organisms, groups of cells specialized functions each, no one cell from the multicellular organisms can survive on its own. (digitaltermpapers.com)
  • The organisms themselves as a group of cells, the multicellular organisms can be advanced, because each cells have their specialized function, but as one cell, the unicellular organisms have more complex characteristics and one cell can survive itself. (digitaltermpapers.com)
  • In a footnote, which was published as a correction in the next issue of the journal, he justified his suggestion to call organs of unicellular organisms "organella" since they are only differently formed parts of one cell, in contrast to multicellular organs of multicellular organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • As in other organisms, the bacterial cell wall provides structural integrity to the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • metabolic
  • Generation of protons by metabolic processes in heart cells. (springer.com)
  • He has a special interest in the manner in which cells 'sense' nutrients in their external environment and the role of nutrient-sensing receptors in the metabolic basis of health and disease. (edu.au)
  • Enzymes also allow the regulation of metabolic pathways in response to changes in the cell's environment or to signals from other cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • As these molecules are vital for life, metabolic reactions either focus on making these molecules during the construction of cells and tissues, or by breaking them down and using them as a source of energy, by their digestion. (wikipedia.org)
  • eukaryotic cell
  • They are considered to have originated from cyanobacteria through endosymbiosis-when a eukaryotic cell engulfed a photosynthesizing cyanobacterium that became a permanent resident in the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Somewhere around a billion years ago, a free-living cyanobacterium entered an early eukaryotic cell, either as food or as an internal parasite, but managed to escape the phagocytic vacuole it was contained in. (wikipedia.org)
  • Receptors
  • Furthermore, we have shown that the ARF6-containing intracellular compartment partially colocalized with transferrin receptors and cellubrevin and morphologically resembled the recycling endocytic compartment previously described in CHO cells. (nih.gov)
  • MAG is expressed on the innermost wrap of myelin, apposed to the axon surface, where it interacts with axonal receptors that reside in lateral membrane domains including gangliosides, the glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored Nogo receptors, and β1-integrin. (genes2cognition.org)
  • We conclude that MAG engages membrane-domain resident neuronal receptors to protect neurons from excitotoxicity, and that soluble MAG mitigates excitotoxic damage in vivo. (genes2cognition.org)
  • nuclear
  • Nuclear transfer into an unfertilized oocyte can restore developmental potential to a differentiated cell. (jove.com)
  • Because the nuclear membrane is impermeable to large molecules, nuclear pores are required to regulate nuclear transport of molecules across the envelope. (wikipedia.org)
  • peptidoglycan
  • Peptidoglycan is responsible for the rigidity of the bacterial cell wall and for the determination of cell shape. (wikipedia.org)
  • β-Lactam antibiotics such as penicillin inhibit the formation of peptidoglycan cross-links in the bacterial cell wall. (wikipedia.org)
  • Organism
  • These techniques rely on the ability to cut DNA precisely, isolate desired fragments and insert them into a single cell of another organism. (digitaltermpapers.com)
  • From this transformed cell a new multicellular organism can be regenerated. (digitaltermpapers.com)
  • Such embryonic stem cells have the ability to give rise to all cell types of the adult organism. (jove.com)
  • differentiation
  • Test your knowledge about cell differentiation, cell function and tissue culture. (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • The transcription factor PU.1 is known to directly activate transcription of the antiapoptotic BCL2A1 gene or inhibit transcription of the p53 tumor suppressor to promote cell survival, and is proposed to also directly activate HK3 transcription during neutrophil differentiation to support short-term cell survival of mature neutrophils. (wikipedia.org)
  • processes
  • SICM is used in an electrolyte-containing solution, so can be used in physiological media and image living cells and tissues, and monitor biological processes while they are taking place. (wikipedia.org)
  • chlorophyll
  • The first definitive description of a chloroplast (Chlorophyllkörnen, "grain of chlorophyll") was given by Hugo von Mohl in 1837 as discrete bodies within the green plant cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • On the thylakoid membranes are photosynthetic pigments, including chlorophyll a. (wikipedia.org)
  • Binding
  • Having identified binding sites for the nutrient sensors on GPCR class C, his team is characterising the downstream signaling pathways and resultant biological effects. (edu.au)
  • permeability
  • There are general functions common to all membranes such as control of permeability, and then there are specialised functions that depend upon the cell type, such as conveyance of an action potential in neurones. (digitaltermpapers.com)
  • characteristic
  • They undergo snapping movements just after cell division which brings them into characteristic arrangements resembling Chinese letters. (digitaltermpapers.com)
  • Typical examples include: coccus (spherical) bacillus (rod-like) spiral(DNA-like) filamentous (elongated) Cell shape is generally characteristic of a given bacterial species, but can vary depending on growth conditions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Regulation
  • Professor Guillaume Chanfreau's laboratory is interested in gene expression regulation in eukaryotic cells, with a particular emphasis on post-transcriptional steps. (ucla.edu)
  • peripheral
  • While CD28 increased expression and the number of peripheral T cells induced to express surface rafts in response to TcR ligation, CTLA-4 potently inhibited both TcR and TcR × CD28 induced raft expression on the surface of T cells. (rupress.org)
  • In this study, we report that while CD28 greatly increased the number of GM1 negative peripheral T cells that become positive as a result of TcR ligation, CTLA-4 profoundly inhibited the expression of surface rafts. (rupress.org)
  • molecules
  • The unsaturated chain is especially important because the kink due to the double bond increases the distance between neighbouring molecules, and this in turn increases the fluidity of the membrane. (digitaltermpapers.com)
  • Generally, interactions between GSH and other molecules with higher relative electrophilicity deplete GSH levels within the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, up to 200,000 different small molecules might be made in plants, although not all these will be present in the same species, or in a single cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • The coenzyme is, therefore, found in two forms in cells: NAD+ is an oxidizing agent - it accepts electrons from other molecules and becomes reduced. (wikipedia.org)
  • bound
  • Adenylyl cyclase is a membrane bound enzyme that catalyses the formation of cyclic AMP from ATP. (wikipedia.org)
  • The classic view of water in cells is that about 5% of this water is strongly bound in by solutes or macromolecules as water of solvation, while the majority has the same structure as pure water. (wikipedia.org)
  • enzyme
  • Cells make glutathione in two adenosine triphosphate-dependent steps: First, gamma-glutamylcysteine is synthesized from L-glutamate and cysteine via the enzyme gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase (glutamate cysteine ligase, GCL). (wikipedia.org)
  • tissues
  • During embryogenesis, a cluster of apparently undifferentiated cells is transformed into an ordered array of differentiated tissues. (ucla.edu)
  • The samples can be hard or soft, are generally non-conducting, and the non-destructive nature of the measurement allows for the observation of living tissues and cells, and biological samples in general. (wikipedia.org)
  • bacterial
  • Genetic exchange and recombination still occur, but this is a form of horizontal gene transfer and is not a replicative process, simply involving the transference of DNA between two cells, as in bacterial conjugation. (wikipedia.org)
  • If the bacterial cell wall is entirely removed, it is called a protoplast while if it's partially removed, it is called a spheroplast. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecular
  • Despite the unique features of plant cytokinesis, membrane traffic to the division plane exhibits surprising molecular similarity across eukaryotic kingdoms in its reliance on Ypt3/Rab11/Rab-A GTPases. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Professor Albert Courey and his group study the molecular basis of cell development. (ucla.edu)
  • Molecular studies have provided insight into the evolution and interrelationships of the three domains of biological species. (wikipedia.org)