• Complexity
  • How and why complexity increases in the course of evolution is a question of great scientific and philosophical significance. (eurekalert.org)
  • Biologists have identified a number of major transitions in the evolution of complexity including the origin of chromosomes, eukaryotes, sexual reproduction, multicellular organisms, and social groups in insects. (eurekalert.org)
  • These findings help to answer many questions for evolutionary biologists working toward understanding the major transitions in the evolution of complexity. (eurekalert.org)
  • The study, published in Nature, suggests that the random introduction of errors into proteins, rather than traditional natural selection, may have boosted the evolution of biological complexity. (redorbit.com)
  • The evolution of biological complexity is one important outcome of the process of evolution. (wikipedia.org)
  • Evolution has produced some remarkably complex organisms - although the actual level of complexity is very hard to define or measure accurately in biology, with properties such as gene content, the number of cell types or morphology all being used to assess an organism's complexity. (wikipedia.org)
  • This idea of "progression" and "higher organisms" in evolution is now regarded as misleading, with natural selection having no intrinsic direction and organisms selected for either increased or decreased complexity in response to local environmental conditions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Complexity often arises in the co-evolution of hosts and pathogens, with each side developing ever more sophisticated adaptations, such as the immune system and the many techniques pathogens have developed to evade it. (wikipedia.org)
  • If evolution possessed an active trend toward complexity (orthogenesis), as was widely believed in the 19th century, then we would expect to see an increase over time in the most common value (the mode) of complexity among organisms, as shown to the left. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, the idea of increasing production of complexity in evolution can also be explained through a passive process. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this hypothesis, any appearance of evolution acting with an intrinsic direction towards increasingly complex organisms is a result of people concentrating on the small number of large, complex organisms that inhabit the right-hand tail of the complexity distribution and ignoring simpler and much more common organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • A review of Eric D. Beinhocker's The Origin of Wealth: Evolution, Complexity, and the Radical Remaking of Economics , Harvard Business School Press, 2006. (metanexus.org)
  • PDF) Clune J, Misevic D, Ofria C, Lenski RE, Elena SF, and Sanjuán R. Natural selection fails to optimize mutation rates for long-term adaptation on rugged fitness landscapes Ofria C, Huang W and Torng E. On the gradual evolution of complexity and the sudden emergence of complex features Elena SF, Wilke CO, Ofria C, and Lenski RE. (wikipedia.org)
  • emergence
  • Charles Darwin viewed evolution as a gradual emergence of new varieties of life from previous forms over long periods. (howstuffworks.com)
  • In particular, Auletta is interested in the relevance of notions like information control, functional equivalence class, formal constraints and top-down causation as to the organisms' capability of dealing with a challenging environment at the ontogenetic and epigenetic levels, eventually leading to the emergence of new biological functionalities at the phylogenetic level. (wikipedia.org)
  • Darwinian
  • 1) used an innovative Darwinian method to demonstrate the importance of consumers' preferences in shaping the evolution of music, a fact that has often been overlooked and deserved attention. (pnas.org)
  • 1 ) opens up a wide range of possible developments that invites further studies on the relative strength of transformative processes and Darwinian selection and on their role in shaping cultural evolution. (pnas.org)
  • Ofria's research focuses on the interplay between computer science and Darwinian evolution. (wikipedia.org)
  • fundamental
  • Their experimental design, however, emphasizes the role of selection at the expense of other fundamental features of human cultural evolution that need to be taken into account to study the evolution of real musical culture. (pnas.org)
  • processes
  • These results show that frequent, nonrandom transformative processes, resulting from psychological biases, are crucial in models of cultural evolution, requiring a difference in emphasis from models inspired by biology, such as genetic algorithms. (pnas.org)
  • In this way, cultural evolution may be viewed as a particular kind of "scaling up" from the individual-level processes to population-level ones. (wikipedia.org)
  • His fields of interest are the oscillatory processes in biology, the theory of evolution, Chronobiology, and the history of science. (wikipedia.org)
  • mutation
  • Effects of population size and mutation rate on the evolution of mutational robustness Ostrowski E, Ofria C, and Lenski RE, Ecological specialization and adaptive decay in digital organisms Lenski RE, Barrick JE, Ofria C. Balancing Robustness and Evolvability Misevic D, Ofria C, and Lenski RE. (wikipedia.org)
  • Evolution of Digital Organisms at High Mutation Rate Leads To Survival of the Flattest. (wikipedia.org)
  • Research
  • His main interests in quantum information led him to focus his further research on the way in which biological and cognitive systems deal with information. (wikipedia.org)
  • This pathway of research eventually led him to consider quantum information as a fruitful approach for studying the way in which biological and cognitive systems deal with information at all scales. (wikipedia.org)
  • His current work concerns biological systems evolution and the research behind it. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cultural evolution, the domain of research focused on how culture changes through time due to different individual transmission mechanisms and population-level effects, often uses models derived from population genetics, in which agents are passive recipients of cultural traits (e.g. (wikipedia.org)
  • genetic
  • In contrast to genetic programs, cultural evolution investigates how culture itself may evolve (Mesoudi, 2009). (wikipedia.org)
  • Gene-culture coevolution studies how culture and genetic evolution influence each other, ultimately shaping behavior, as well. (wikipedia.org)
  • humans
  • Theoretical and empirical results show that individuals actively transform and recombine information according to psychological biases and that these biases drive the evolution of culture ( 2 ), both in humans and nonhuman animals ( 3 ). (pnas.org)
  • University
  • Understanding how the division of labor evolved in multicellular organisms is difficult because single cells are expected to act selfishly to protect their own existence instead of working cooperatively to achieve a more productive higher level of organization, explains author Sergey Gavrilets, Associate Director for Scientific Activities at the National Institute for Mathematical and Biological Synthesis and a professor at the University of Tennessee-Knoxville. (eurekalert.org)
  • Everybody wants to say that evolution is equivalent to natural selection and that things that are sophisticated and complex have been absolutely selected for," said study co-author Ariel Fernández, PhD, a visiting scholar at the University of Chicago and senior researcher at the Mathematics Institute of Argentina (IAM) in Buenos Aires. (redorbit.com)
  • Dr. Charles A. Ofria is a Professor in the Department of Computer Science and Engineering at Michigan State University, the director of the Digital Evolution (DEvo) Lab there, and a co-founder of the BEACON Center for the Study of Evolution in Action. (wikipedia.org)
  • Avida is under active development in Ofria's Digital Evolution Lab at Michigan State University and was originally designed by Ofria, Chris Adami and C. Titus Brown at Caltech in 1993. (wikipedia.org)
  • systems
  • Evolution of metal ions in biological systems refers to the incorporation of metallic ions into living organisms and how it has changed over time. (wikipedia.org)
  • Metal ions have been associated with biological systems for billions of years, but only in the last century have scientists began to truly appreciate the scale of their influence. (wikipedia.org)
  • role
  • Polanyi emphasized the important role of information in biological phenomena but considered this notion as something alien to physics 3 . (springer.com)
  • study
  • This debate between acclimatization and adaptation is at the crux of what a biological anthropologist might study. (howstuffworks.com)
  • One study has suggested that a single ancestral enzyme could have diverged into several families, while another suggests that a stable TIM-barrel structure has evolved through convergent evolution. (wikipedia.org)
  • organisms
  • Biological organisms are highly complex and are comprised of many different parts that function together to ensure the survival and reproduction of the whole. (eurekalert.org)
  • With selection, evolution can also produce more complex organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Indeed, some computer models have suggested that the generation of complex organisms is an inescapable feature of evolution. (wikipedia.org)
  • Particular
  • Indeed, as for all comparative methods, phylogenetic methods can integrate information from multiple genomes, and in particular integrate them using a model of evolution. (wikipedia.org)
  • understand
  • both factors need to be taken into account when trying to understand the evolution of real music, real language, and, more broadly, real culture ( 5 ). (pnas.org)
  • years
  • Over four billion years of evolution, plants and animals grew far more complex than their single-celled ancestors. (redorbit.com)
  • features
  • It is the only national natural areas program that identifies and recognizes the best examples of biological and geological features in both public and private ownership. (wikipedia.org)
  • population
  • Some of these changes can be attributed to individuals' bodies making physiological adjustments to their environment ( acclimatization ), not an actual adaptation in the population that demonstrates evolution. (howstuffworks.com)
  • Thought
  • I hope that it causes us to pause and think about how evolution operates in new ways that we haven't thought about before. (redorbit.com)