• vitro assays
  • General significance: In vitro assays offering low volume sampling and rapid analysis in a high-throughput manner are of great interest in a wide range of single-cell applications. (diva-portal.org)
  • In vitro assays with rat mesenchymal stem cells (rMSCs) and rat endothelial progenitor cells (rEPCs) also showed that rMSCs attached and proliferated on the materials influenced by the calcium content in the environment. (rsc.org)
  • bioassay
  • The term dilution assay is generally used to designate a special type of bioassay in which one or more preparations (e.g. a drug) are administered to experimental units at different dose levels inducing a measurable biological response. (wikipedia.org)
  • Probes
  • The hyperpolarized probes are produced ex situ , introduced into biological systems and detected with high sensitivity and contrast against background signals using high resolution NMR spectroscopy. (mdpi.com)
  • A variety of natural, derivatized and designed hyperpolarized probes has emerged for diverse biological studies including assays of intracellular reaction progression, pathway kinetics, probe uptake and export, pH, redox state, reactive oxygen species, ion concentrations, drug efficacy or oncogenic signaling. (mdpi.com)
  • These probes are readily used directly under natural conditions in biofluids and are often directly developed and optimized for cellular assays, thus leaving little doubt about their specificity and utility under biologically relevant conditions. (mdpi.com)
  • Hyperpolarized molecular probes for biological NMR spectroscopy enable the unbiased detection of complex processes by virtue of the high spectral resolution, structural specificity and quantifiability of NMR signals. (mdpi.com)
  • Here, we provide a survey of strategies used for the selection, design and use of hyperpolarized NMR probes in biological assays, and describe current limitations and developments. (mdpi.com)
  • Lerche, M.H. Hyperpolarized NMR Probes for Biological Assays. (mdpi.com)
  • specimens
  • Lack of biological assays to measure many of these contaminants in tissue specimens, the high cost of using these assays in large epidemiologic studies when they were available, and challenges related to the interpretation of the results when exposures were measured after the adverse reproductive event occurred limit the conclusions that can be drawn from these investigations. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • quantitative
  • The biological response may be quantal (e.g. positive/negative) or quantitative (e.g. growth). (wikipedia.org)
  • This assay provides both a qualitative (visible observation of colour gradient) for screening purposes, or quantitative measurement (spectrophotometry) for calculation of commonly accepted metrics. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the quantitative assay, the dose-response (colour production linked to beta-galactosidase production) of a compound is plotted, with the slope of the initial linear region used as a universal parameter, the SOS-inducing potency (SOSIP), which reflects the ability of a compound to induce the SOS response (measured indirectly through production of beta-galactosidase and the breakdown of a lactose analog). (wikipedia.org)
  • tissue
  • The Canadian team of organic chemists and enzymologists developed drug design motifs, and pursued preparative chemistry, enzymology, molecular biology, and tissue culture studies that were interfaced with biological assays and pharmacokinetic studies carried out in Syntex, Palo Alto, CA. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to enrich tissue homogenates for cholinesterase while depleting the sample of sulfhydryl groups eliminates unwanted interactions with DTNB, making it possible to measure low cholinesterase activity in biological samples. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • In addition to the bovine and porcine tissue from which pharmaceutical-grade heparin is commonly extracted, it has also been extracted and characterised from: Turkey Whale Dromedary camel Mouse Humans Lobster Fresh water mussel Clam Shrimp Mangrove crab Sand dollar Atlantic salmon Zebra fish The biological activity of heparin within species 6-11 is unclear and further supports the idea that the main physiological role of heparin is not anticoagulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • compound
  • The test serves as a quick and convenient assay to estimate the carcinogenic potential of a compound because standard carcinogen assays on mice and rats are time-consuming (taking two to three years to complete) and expensive. (wikipedia.org)
  • protein
  • A diverse and large set of data ranging from chemistry leads to biological assays and protein sequencing will now be managed and analysed through the Dotmatics Platform. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Since the chemical tested may inhibit protein synthesis at higher concentrations, which would lead to an underestimation of B-galactosidase induction, alkaline phosphatase is assayed simultaneously with β-galactosidase in order to scale the data to survivability of the cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • hormone
  • In 1949, he began post-graduate studies at the University of Edinburgh, returning to Sri Lanka in 1952 with a PhD. His doctorate thesis was a study of biological assays of cortical hormone and their application. (wikipedia.org)
  • observation
  • For a mathematical definition of a dilution assay an observation space U {\displaystyle U} is defined and a function f : U → R {\displaystyle f:U\rightarrow \mathbb {R} } so that the responses u ∈ U {\displaystyle u\in U} are mapped to the set of real numbers. (wikipedia.org)
  • dose
  • 2. The application of a progressively increasing dose method to the biological assay of epinephrine may be an improvement upon the U.S.P.XI procedure. (aspetjournals.org)
  • In a direct dilution assay the amount of dose needed to produce a specific (fixed) response is measured, so that the dose is a stochastic variable defining the tolerance distribution. (wikipedia.org)
  • suitable
  • 10 The suitable biological performance of these scaffolds was mainly attributed to their stiffness and the ions released from the glass, in particular calcium ions, as well as the intrinsic surface properties of the materials. (rsc.org)
  • method
  • A method for the quantitation of the effects on a biological system by its exposure to a substance, as well as the quantitation of the concentration of a substance by some observable effect on a biological system. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • standard
  • To eliminate possible interference of DTNB with enzyme hydrolysis, we introduce a modification of the standard Ellman's assay. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • complex
  • In analogy to digital microelectronics, these basic instructions can be combined and reused within hierarchical design structures so that complex procedures (e.g. chemical synthesis or biological assays) can be built up step-by-step. (wikipedia.org)
  • background
  • This data taken together with the long luminescence lifetimes and narrow emission bands associated with lanthanides make this technology an excellent tool for time resolved, low-background, multiplexed assays and biomedical imaging. (umich.edu)
  • range
  • The biological material in which the effect is measured can range from subcellular components and microorganisms to groups of animals. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Of notable importance in this respect is the theory of Generalized Linear Models with which a wide range of dilution assays can be modelled. (wikipedia.org)
  • wide
  • Many parallel biochemical assays rely on thin aqueous films to spread a reactant solution over a wide area decorated with multiple distinct substrates. (cornell.edu)
  • blood
  • In vivo assays showed that hybrid composite PLA-ORMOGLASS fibers were able to promote the formation of blood vessels. (rsc.org)
  • expression
  • One of the simplest assays consists of monitoring the expression of an SOS gene by means of fusion with lacZ, the structural gene for E. coli β-galactosidase. (wikipedia.org)
  • response
  • The biological response u {\displaystyle u} is in this case the zone of inhibition and the diameter of this zone f ( u ) {\displaystyle f(u)} can be used as the measurable response. (wikipedia.org)