• regulation
  • These effects have been shown to be mediated via fetal programming of the HPA axis through decreased glucocorticoid receptor (GR) gene expression, resulting in impairments in feedback regulation of the HPA axis and elevated corticotrophin releasing factor (CRF) secretion in the hypothalamus . (plos.org)
  • This funding opportunity announcement (FOA) issued by the Basic Behavioral and Social Sciences Research Opportunity Network (OppNet), National Institutes of Health (NIH), solicits Research Project Grant (R21) applications from institutions/organizations that propose to investigate the reciprocal interactions of the processes of sleep and circadian regulation and function with behavioral and social environment processes. (nih.gov)
  • There is a need for greater understanding of the dynamic relationships between behavioral and social environment factors on the one hand and the basic mechanisms of sleep-wake and circadian regulation and function on the other. (nih.gov)
  • The open chromatin resulting from inhibition of histone deacetylases can result in either the up-regulation or the repression of genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Histone acetylation and deacetylation play important roles in the modulation of chromatin topology and the regulation of gene transcription. (wikipedia.org)
  • With the exception of the most extreme and rigid chronotypes regulation is likely due to gene-environment interactions. (wikipedia.org)
  • patterns
  • Since these enzymes are essential for generating and maintaining parental gene imprinting in germ cells, the authors' observations point to an intriguing possibility that cocaine may cause paternally induced neuroteratological effects by interfering with gene-imprinting patterns in male gametes. (drugabuse.gov)
  • In spite of its vital nature, the mechanisms by which social environment factors affect sleep behavior patterns have not been studied systematically, especially within the context of individual vulnerabilities and resilience. (nih.gov)
  • As with most other diurnal animals, human activity-rest patterns are endogenously controlled by biological clocks with a circadian (~24-hour) period. (wikipedia.org)
  • mechanisms
  • Our focus is on the mechanisms that may be useful for understanding how socioenvironmental factors interact with biological processes to affect energy balance. (cdc.gov)
  • Examples of mechanisms that produce such changes are DNA methylation and histone modification, each of which alters how genes are expressed without altering the underlying DNA sequence. (wikipedia.org)
  • In contrast to previous debates, Moffitt and Caspi were now using the statistical analysis to prove that interaction existed and could be used to uncover the mechanisms of a vulnerability trait. (wikipedia.org)
  • SLC6A4
  • 5-HTTLPR (serotonin-transporter-linked polymorphic region) is a degenerate repeat polymorphic region in SLC6A4, the gene that codes for the serotonin transporter. (wikipedia.org)
  • behavioral characteristics
  • That is, some individuals, due to their biological, temperamental and/or behavioral characteristics (i.e., "diathesis" or "risk 1"), are more vulnerable to the adverse effects of negative experiences (i.e., "stress" or "risk 2"), whereas others are relatively resilient with respect to them (see Figure 1, an adaptation of Bakermans-Kranenburg and van IJzendoorn's (2007) Figure 1). (wikipedia.org)
  • behavioural
  • Post-natal behaviours, notably licking and grooming in rats, cause decreased behavioural indices of fear and reduced HPA axis reactivity mediated via increased GR gene expression. (plos.org)
  • citation needed] Behavioural genetics Biological determinism Eugenics Planned Parenthood Scientific racism Social Darwinism Sociobiology We Are Doomed: Reclaiming Conservative Pessimism (book) Bailey, Robert C. (1997-06-01). (wikipedia.org)
  • effects
  • unreliable medical source] However, a more recent study cast doubt on the proposed connection between this gene and the effects of cannabis on schizophrenia development. (wikipedia.org)
  • Particularly they identify tests that distinguish differential susceptibility from other interaction effects including diathesis-stress/dual-risk. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pharmacodynamics studies the effects of a drug on biological systems, and Pharmacokinetics studies the effects of biological systems on a drug. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pharmacology, a biomedical science, deals with the research, discovery, and characterization of chemicals which show biological effects and the elucidation of cellular and organismal function in relation to these chemicals. (wikipedia.org)
  • But both are based on the assumption that genes and environment have large independent effects. (wikipedia.org)
  • behavior geneticists will continue to be very limited in their ability to partition the effects of genes, the environment, and their covariance and interaction on human behavior and cognitive ability. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecular
  • and to enhance opportunities for translation to treatment, prevention, gene-finding and molecular studies. (nih.gov)
  • Tremendous strides have been made in molecular, neural and medical aspects of biological rhythmicity. (wikipedia.org)
  • putative
  • The 1,384-amino acid protein, also designated p190 or CASPR for 'contactin-associated protein,' includes an extracellular domain with several putative protein-protein interaction domains, a putative transmembrane domain, and a 74-amino acid cytoplasmic domain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Study
  • More specifically, it is the study of the interactions that occur between a living organism and chemicals that affect normal or abnormal biochemical function. (wikipedia.org)
  • histone
  • Histone deacetylase inhibition induces the accumulation of hyperacetylated nucleosome core histones in most regions of chromatin but affects the expression of only a small subset of genes, leading to transcriptional activation of some genes, but repression of an equal or larger number of other genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • obesity
  • Some rare human obesity syndromes are associated with single gene defects within homeostatic pathways, including leptin deficiency, leptin receptor defect, pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) deficit leading to impaired a-MSH production, and a-MSH receptor defects (12). (cdc.gov)
  • Hogben
  • Hogben believed that the interaction should be investigated instead of eliminated as it provided information on the causation of certain elements of development. (wikipedia.org)
  • protein
  • In humans, catechol-O-methyltransferase protein is encoded by the COMT gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • The COMT protein is coded by the gene COMT. (wikipedia.org)
  • CASPR also known as Contactin associated protein 1, Paranodin and CASPR1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CNTNAP1 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • The gene product was initially identified as a 190-kD protein associated with the contactin-PTPRZ1 complex. (wikipedia.org)
  • susceptibility
  • While diathesis-stress/dual-risk arises when the most vulnerable are disproportionately affected in an adverse manner by a negative environment but do not also benefit disproportionately from positive environmental conditions, differential susceptibility is characterized by a cross-over interaction: the susceptible individuals are disproportionately affected by both negative and positive experiences. (wikipedia.org)
  • expression
  • We have developed EAGLE, a hierarchical Bayesian model for identifying GxE interactions based on associations between environmental variables and allele-specific expression. (stanford.edu)
  • Using family relationships, we identified 809 segregating expression outliers (median z score of 2.97), averaging 13.3 genes per individual. (stanford.edu)
  • 3 , 4 Experimental research has shown that mice exposed to early life stress undergo biochemical changes in their genetic material that result in abnormal expression of key genes regulating the biological response to stress. (avahealth.org)
  • Behavioral epigenetics attempts to provide a framework for understanding how the expression of genes is influenced by experiences and the environment to produce individual differences in behaviour, cognition, personality, and mental health. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gene expression can be controlled through the action of repressor proteins that attach to silencer regions of the DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • During gene expression, the DNA is first copied into RNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • To carry out gene expression, a cell must control the coiling and uncoiling of DNA around histones. (wikipedia.org)
  • HDAC inhibitors (HDI) block this action and can result in hyperacetylation of histones, thereby affecting gene expression. (wikipedia.org)
  • Northern blot analysis showed that the gene is transcribed predominantly in brain as a transcript of 6.2 kb, with weak expression in several other tissues tested. (wikipedia.org)
  • functional
  • A functional single-nucleotide polymorphism (a common normal variant) of the gene for catechol-O-methyltransferase results in a valine to methionine mutation at position 158 (Val158Met) rs4680. (wikipedia.org)
  • differences
  • Statistical analysis of the genetic and environmental differences contributing to the phenotype would have to be used to confirm these as gene-environment interactions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Biometric interaction is relevant in the context of research on individual differences rather than in the context of the development of a particular organism. (wikipedia.org)
  • In individual cases, hereditarians believe that genes play an intermediate role, while genes largely determine the differences between the human races and genders. (wikipedia.org)
  • example
  • For example, a threatening and unpredictable environment will be associated with hyperactive stress response. (avahealth.org)
  • The impact that the environment has on the health of children has been recognised for centuries, although, for example, it was not until the later half of the last century that the consequences of fetal exposure to alcohol, tobacco, and thalidomide were systematically described. (bmj.com)
  • While often discussed as an example of gene-environment interaction, this contention is contested. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, regulatory regions of a gene can be far removed from its coding regions, and coding regions can be split into several exons. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, individuals who are characteristically extroverted may seek out very different social environments than those who are shy and withdrawn. (wikipedia.org)
  • for example, the condition of "not knowing a word of Chinese" has nothing to do (directly) with genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Research
  • Kleitman, with his students including William C. Dement and Eugene Aserinsky, continued his research throughout the 1900s. (wikipedia.org)
  • function
  • The gene variant has been shown to affect cognitive tasks broadly related to executive function, such as set shifting, response inhibition, abstract thought, and the acquisition of rules or task structure. (wikipedia.org)
  • The dominant view outside psychology among biologists and geneticists is that both of these are gross oversimplifications and that the behavioral/psychological phenotype for human beings is determined by a function of genes and environment which cannot be decomposed into a sum of functions of the two independently. (wikipedia.org)
  • This model may be a good approximation to the real function given that the range of genomes and the range of environments is sufficiently narrow, e.g., white upper middle class Americans living in Chicago. (wikipedia.org)
  • phenomenon
  • Sleep is a complex biological phenomenon that is essential to normal behavioral and social functioning, as well as optimal health. (nih.gov)
  • environmental
  • Combining whole-blood RNA-seq with extensive environmental annotations collected from 922 human individuals, we identified 35 GxE interactions, compared with only four using standard GxE interaction testing. (stanford.edu)
  • In a review article, Lanphear and Bearer from Cincinnati Children's Hospital, discuss new aspects of environmental health, including biomarkers in clinical practice, biological matrices, and gene-environment interaction as it relates to environmental toxins. (bmj.com)