• patterns
  • Since these enzymes are essential for generating and maintaining parental gene imprinting in germ cells, the authors' observations point to an intriguing possibility that cocaine may cause paternally induced neuroteratological effects by interfering with gene-imprinting patterns in male gametes. (drugabuse.gov)
  • In spite of its vital nature, the mechanisms by which social environment factors affect sleep behavior patterns have not been studied systematically, especially within the context of individual vulnerabilities and resilience. (nih.gov)
  • As with most other diurnal animals, human activity-rest patterns are endogenously controlled by biological clocks with a circadian (~24-hour) period. (wikipedia.org)
  • SLC6A4
  • 5-HTTLPR (serotonin-transporter-linked polymorphic region) is a degenerate repeat polymorphic region in SLC6A4, the gene that codes for the serotonin transporter. (wikipedia.org)
  • behavioral characteristics
  • That is, some individuals, due to their biological, temperamental and/or behavioral characteristics (i.e., "diathesis" or "risk 1"), are more vulnerable to the adverse effects of negative experiences (i.e., "stress" or "risk 2"), whereas others are relatively resilient with respect to them (see Figure 1, an adaptation of Bakermans-Kranenburg and van IJzendoorn's (2007) Figure 1). (wikipedia.org)
  • behavioural
  • Post-natal behaviours, notably licking and grooming in rats, cause decreased behavioural indices of fear and reduced HPA axis reactivity mediated via increased GR gene expression. (plos.org)
  • functional
  • A functional single-nucleotide polymorphism (a common normal variant) of the gene for catechol-O-methyltransferase results in a valine to methionine mutation at position 158 (Val158Met) rs4680. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some viruses store their genome in RNA instead of DNA and some gene products are functional non-coding RNAs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Study
  • Incorporation of Biological Knowledge Into the Study of Gene-Environment Interactions. (nih.gov)
  • The act specified that the study extend from the prenatal period to adulthood and investigate the short-term and long-term influences of physical, chemical, biological, and psychosocial environmental exposures on children s health and development, including behavioral, emotional, and educational outcomes in addition to physical health. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • unreliable medical source] However, a more recent study cast doubt on the proposed connection between this gene and the effects of cannabis on schizophrenia development. (wikipedia.org)
  • histone
  • Examples of mechanisms that produce such changes are DNA methylation and histone modification, each of which alters how genes are expressed without altering the underlying DNA sequence. (wikipedia.org)
  • Histone deacetylase inhibition induces the accumulation of hyperacetylated nucleosome core histones in most regions of chromatin but affects the expression of only a small subset of genes, leading to transcriptional activation of some genes, but repression of an equal or larger number of other genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • effects
  • A fundamentally different, even if not competing view, of the very same phenomenon is central to Belsky's differential susceptibility hypothesis and Boyce and Ellis' (2005) related notion of biological sensitivity to context: Individuals do not simply vary in the degree to which they are vulnerable to the negative effects of adverse experience but, more generally, in their developmental plasticity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Particularly they identify tests that distinguish differential susceptibility from other interaction effects including diathesis-stress/dual-risk. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pharmacodynamics studies the effects of a drug on biological systems, and Pharmacokinetics studies the effects of biological systems on a drug. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pharmacology, a biomedical science, deals with the research, discovery, and characterization of chemicals which show biological effects and the elucidation of cellular and organismal function in relation to these chemicals. (wikipedia.org)
  • But both are based on the assumption that genes and environment have large independent effects. (wikipedia.org)
  • behavior geneticists will continue to be very limited in their ability to partition the effects of genes, the environment, and their covariance and interaction on human behavior and cognitive ability. (wikipedia.org)
  • pathways
  • Some rare human obesity syndromes are associated with single gene defects within homeostatic pathways, including leptin deficiency, leptin receptor defect, pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) deficit leading to impaired a-MSH production, and a-MSH receptor defects (12). (cdc.gov)
  • susceptibility
  • While diathesis-stress/dual-risk arises when the most vulnerable are disproportionately affected in an adverse manner by a negative environment but do not also benefit disproportionately from positive environmental conditions, differential susceptibility is characterized by a cross-over interaction: the susceptible individuals are disproportionately affected by both negative and positive experiences. (wikipedia.org)
  • expression
  • We have developed EAGLE, a hierarchical Bayesian model for identifying GxE interactions based on associations between environmental variables and allele-specific expression. (stanford.edu)
  • Using family relationships, we identified 809 segregating expression outliers (median z score of 2.97), averaging 13.3 genes per individual. (stanford.edu)
  • 3 , 4 Experimental research has shown that mice exposed to early life stress undergo biochemical changes in their genetic material that result in abnormal expression of key genes regulating the biological response to stress. (avahealth.org)
  • Behavioral epigenetics attempts to provide a framework for understanding how the expression of genes is influenced by experiences and the environment to produce individual differences in behaviour, cognition, personality, and mental health. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gene expression can be controlled through the action of repressor proteins that attach to silencer regions of the DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • During gene expression, the DNA is first copied into RNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • To carry out gene expression, a cell must control the coiling and uncoiling of DNA around histones. (wikipedia.org)
  • HDAC inhibitors (HDI) block this action and can result in hyperacetylation of histones, thereby affecting gene expression. (wikipedia.org)
  • example
  • For example, a threatening and unpredictable environment will be associated with hyperactive stress response. (avahealth.org)
  • The impact that the environment has on the health of children has been recognised for centuries, although, for example, it was not until the later half of the last century that the consequences of fetal exposure to alcohol, tobacco, and thalidomide were systematically described. (bmj.com)
  • While often discussed as an example of gene-environment interaction, this contention is contested. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, regulatory regions of a gene can be far removed from its coding regions, and coding regions can be split into several exons. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, individuals who are characteristically extroverted may seek out very different social environments than those who are shy and withdrawn. (wikipedia.org)
  • for example, the condition of "not knowing a word of Chinese" has nothing to do (directly) with genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • genome
  • There is increasing interest in genome-wide interaction analysis as a possible source of finding heritability unexplained by current GWAS. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • However, the existing statistics for testing interaction have low power for genome-wide interaction analysis. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • To meet challenges raised by genome-wide interactional analysis, we have developed a novel statistic for testing interaction between two loci (either linked or unlinked). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • It is expected that genome-wide interaction analysis can be a possible source of finding heritability unexplained by current GWAS. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • To meet challenges raised by genome-wide interactional analysis, we develop a novel statistic for testing interaction between two loci (either linked or unlinked) and validate the null distribution and the type I error rates of the new statistic through simulations. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • mechanisms
  • In contrast to previous debates, Moffitt and Caspi were now using the statistical analysis to prove that interaction existed and could be used to uncover the mechanisms of a vulnerability trait. (wikipedia.org)
  • phenomenon
  • Sleep is a complex biological phenomenon that is essential to normal behavioral and social functioning, as well as optimal health. (nih.gov)
  • environmental
  • Combining whole-blood RNA-seq with extensive environmental annotations collected from 922 human individuals, we identified 35 GxE interactions, compared with only four using standard GxE interaction testing. (stanford.edu)
  • In a review article, Lanphear and Bearer from Cincinnati Children's Hospital, discuss new aspects of environmental health, including biomarkers in clinical practice, biological matrices, and gene-environment interaction as it relates to environmental toxins. (bmj.com)
  • In contrast, the major illnesses and disorders that impair health, growth, and development today are chronic conditions stemming from the complex interaction of environmental exposures and inherent genetic factors. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • cognitive
  • The gene variant has been shown to affect cognitive tasks broadly related to executive function, such as set shifting, response inhibition, abstract thought, and the acquisition of rules or task structure. (wikipedia.org)
  • Research
  • Zalsman is the President of the Israel Society of Biological Psychiatry (ISBP) and an ongoing associate research scientist in the Neuroscience Department at Columbia University. (wikipedia.org)
  • Kleitman, with his students including William C. Dement and Eugene Aserinsky, continued his research throughout the 1900s. (wikipedia.org)
  • physical
  • Although he did not use the term gene, he explained his results in terms of discrete inherited units that give rise to observable physical characteristics. (wikipedia.org)
  • In rare cases, the biological stresses of physical exercise or heat may be the trigger. (wikipedia.org)
  • stress
  • Although this might ensure greater adaptation to the immediate environment, the hyperactive stress response may also carry a burden for disease during child development and beyond. (avahealth.org)
  • The glucocorticoid gene is activated, resulting in lowered stress response. (wikipedia.org)
  • The idea that individuals vary in their responsivity to negative qualities of the environment is generally framed in diathesis-stress or dual-risk terms. (wikipedia.org)