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  • heredity
  • It is an experimental science that seeks to explain how nurture shapes nature, where nature refers to biological heredity and nurture refers to virtually everything that occurs during the life-span (e.g., social-experience, diet and nutrition, and exposure to toxins). (wikipedia.org)
  • Any interaction results in the breakdown of the additivity of the main effects of heredity and environment, but whether such interaction is present in particular settings is an empirical question. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sixteen years later, in 1905, Wilhelm Johannsen introduced the term 'gene' and William Bateson that of 'genetics' while Eduard Strasburger, amongst others, still used the term 'pangene' for the fundamental physical and functional unit of heredity. (wikipedia.org)
  • When distinguished, biological determinism is used to mean that heredity is the only factor. (wikipedia.org)
  • plasticity
  • Vulnerability genes or plasticity genes? (springer.com)
  • A fundamentally different, even if not competing view, of the very same phenomenon is central to Belsky's differential susceptibility hypothesis and Boyce and Ellis' (2005) related notion of biological sensitivity to context: Individuals do not simply vary in the degree to which they are vulnerable to the negative effects of adverse experience but, more generally, in their developmental plasticity. (wikipedia.org)
  • organism
  • Emphasizing the developing potential of zebrafish as a model organism in biological psychiatry, we discuss several questions related to this field: Do zebrafish have 'emotional'-like behaviors? (brillonline.com)
  • Biometric interaction is relevant in the context of research on individual differences rather than in the context of the development of a particular organism. (wikipedia.org)
  • More specifically, it is the study of the interactions that occur between a living organism and chemicals that affect normal or abnormal biochemical function. (wikipedia.org)
  • He developed the African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis) as a model organism for biological research in his early career, attacked the eugenics movement in the middle of his career, and popularised books on science, mathematics and language in his later career. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dawkins uses the term "selfish gene" as a way of expressing the gene-centred view of evolution as opposed to the views focused on the organism and the group, popularising ideas developed during the 1960s by W. D. Hamilton and others. (wikipedia.org)
  • His contention is that the genes that are passed on are the ones whose evolutionary consequences serve their own implicit interest (to continue the anthropomorphism) in being replicated, not necessarily those of the organism. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dawkins proposes the idea of the "replicator": "It is finally time to return to the problem with which we started, to the tension between individual organism and gene as rival candidates for the central role in natural selection. (wikipedia.org)
  • patterns
  • Since these enzymes are essential for generating and maintaining parental gene imprinting in germ cells, the authors' observations point to an intriguing possibility that cocaine may cause paternally induced neuroteratological effects by interfering with gene-imprinting patterns in male gametes. (drugabuse.gov)
  • In spite of its vital nature, the mechanisms by which social environment factors affect sleep behavior patterns have not been studied systematically, especially within the context of individual vulnerabilities and resilience. (nih.gov)
  • As with most other diurnal animals, human activity-rest patterns are endogenously controlled by biological clocks with a circadian (~24-hour) period. (wikipedia.org)
  • behavioral
  • Here, we focus on to the growing spectrum of zebrafish behavioral phenotypes and the 'bigger' biological problems these models help to address. (brillonline.com)
  • Behavioral epigenetics attempts to provide a framework for understanding how the expression of genes is influenced by experiences and the environment to produce individual differences in behaviour, cognition, personality, and mental health. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sleep is a complex biological phenomenon that is essential to normal behavioral and social functioning, as well as optimal health. (nih.gov)
  • That is, some individuals, due to their biological, temperamental and/or behavioral characteristics (i.e., "diathesis" or "risk 1"), are more vulnerable to the adverse effects of negative experiences (i.e., "stress" or "risk 2"), whereas others are relatively resilient with respect to them (see Figure 1, an adaptation of Bakermans-Kranenburg and van IJzendoorn's (2007) Figure 1). (wikipedia.org)
  • The dominant view outside psychology among biologists and geneticists is that both of these are gross oversimplifications and that the behavioral/psychological phenotype for human beings is determined by a function of genes and environment which cannot be decomposed into a sum of functions of the two independently. (wikipedia.org)
  • SLC6A4
  • 5-HTTLPR (serotonin-transporter-linked polymorphic region) is a degenerate repeat polymorphic region in SLC6A4, the gene that codes for the serotonin transporter. (wikipedia.org)
  • evidence
  • We identified high-frequency QTLs and found evidence of selection near genes involved in malarial resistance and increased multiple sclerosis risk, reflecting the epidemiological history of Sardinia. (stanford.edu)
  • 1 , 2 Current evidence suggests that the "biological embedding" of adverse childhood experiences may be attributed to changes in three key systems sensitive to psychological stress: the brain and the endocrine and immune systems. (avahealth.org)
  • In turn, the 2011 meta-analysis has been criticized as being overly inclusive (e.g. including hip fractures as outcomes), for deeming a study supportive of the GxE interaction which is actually in the opposite direction, and because of substantial evidence of publication bias and data mining in the literature. (wikipedia.org)
  • There is mounting evidence that some individuals with malignant hyperthermia susceptibility may develop MH with exercise and/or on exposure to hot environments. (wikipedia.org)
  • Study
  • unreliable medical source] However, a more recent study cast doubt on the proposed connection between this gene and the effects of cannabis on schizophrenia development. (wikipedia.org)
  • depression
  • There was a significant interaction between prenatal depression and maternal stroking in the prediction of vagal reactivity to a stressor (p = .01), and maternal reports of infant anger proneness (p = .007) and fear (p = .043). (plos.org)
  • However, findings from gene-environment interactions studies suggest that the current BDNF models of depression are too simplistic. (wikipedia.org)
  • histone
  • Histone deacetylase inhibition induces the accumulation of hyperacetylated nucleosome core histones in most regions of chromatin but affects the expression of only a small subset of genes, leading to transcriptional activation of some genes, but repression of an equal or larger number of other genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • researchers
  • Around the same time, Kenneth J. Rothman supported the use of a statistical definition for interaction while researchers Kupper and Hogan believed the definition and existence of interaction was dependent on the model being used. (wikipedia.org)
  • effects
  • Particularly they identify tests that distinguish differential susceptibility from other interaction effects including diathesis-stress/dual-risk. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pharmacodynamics studies the effects of a drug on biological systems, and Pharmacokinetics studies the effects of biological systems on a drug. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pharmacology, a biomedical science, deals with the research, discovery, and characterization of chemicals which show biological effects and the elucidation of cellular and organismal function in relation to these chemicals. (wikipedia.org)
  • But both are based on the assumption that genes and environment have large independent effects. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hogben
  • Hogben believed that the interaction should be investigated instead of eliminated as it provided information on the causation of certain elements of development. (wikipedia.org)
  • nurture
  • Hogben's appeal to this interdependence of nature and nurture marked the first time gene-environment interaction (or 'gene-environment interplay') was used to undermine statistical attempts to partition the contributions of nature and nurture, as well as the eugenic implications drawn from those statistics. (wikipedia.org)
  • protein
  • In humans, catechol-O-methyltransferase protein is encoded by the COMT gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • The COMT protein is coded by the gene COMT. (wikipedia.org)
  • CASPR also known as Contactin associated protein 1, Paranodin and CASPR1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CNTNAP1 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • The gene product was initially identified as a 190-kD protein associated with the contactin-PTPRZ1 complex. (wikipedia.org)
  • The 1,384-amino acid protein, also designated p190 or CASPR for 'contactin-associated protein,' includes an extracellular domain with several putative protein-protein interaction domains, a putative transmembrane domain, and a 74-amino acid cytoplasmic domain. (wikipedia.org)
  • susceptibility
  • While diathesis-stress/dual-risk arises when the most vulnerable are disproportionately affected in an adverse manner by a negative environment but do not also benefit disproportionately from positive environmental conditions, differential susceptibility is characterized by a cross-over interaction: the susceptible individuals are disproportionately affected by both negative and positive experiences. (wikipedia.org)
  • expression
  • We have developed EAGLE, a hierarchical Bayesian model for identifying GxE interactions based on associations between environmental variables and allele-specific expression. (stanford.edu)
  • Using family relationships, we identified 809 segregating expression outliers (median z score of 2.97), averaging 13.3 genes per individual. (stanford.edu)
  • Animal studies find that prenatal stress is associated with increased physiological and emotional reactivity later in life, mediated via fetal programming of the HPA axis through decreased glucocorticoid receptor (GR) gene expression. (plos.org)
  • Post-natal behaviours, notably licking and grooming in rats, cause decreased behavioural indices of fear and reduced HPA axis reactivity mediated via increased GR gene expression. (plos.org)
  • Gene expression can be controlled through the action of repressor proteins that attach to silencer regions of the DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • During gene expression, the DNA is first copied into RNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • To carry out gene expression, a cell must control the coiling and uncoiling of DNA around histones. (wikipedia.org)
  • HDAC inhibitors (HDI) block this action and can result in hyperacetylation of histones, thereby affecting gene expression. (wikipedia.org)
  • Northern blot analysis showed that the gene is transcribed predominantly in brain as a transcript of 6.2 kb, with weak expression in several other tissues tested. (wikipedia.org)
  • functional
  • A functional single-nucleotide polymorphism (a common normal variant) of the gene for catechol-O-methyltransferase results in a valine to methionine mutation at position 158 (Val158Met) rs4680. (wikipedia.org)
  • example
  • For example, a threatening and unpredictable environment will be associated with hyperactive stress response. (avahealth.org)
  • The impact that the environment has on the health of children has been recognised for centuries, although, for example, it was not until the later half of the last century that the consequences of fetal exposure to alcohol, tobacco, and thalidomide were systematically described. (bmj.com)
  • For example, regulatory regions of a gene can be far removed from its coding regions, and coding regions can be split into several exons. (wikipedia.org)
  • for example, the condition of "not knowing a word of Chinese" has nothing to do (directly) with genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, Andrew Brown has written: ""Selfish", when applied to genes, doesn't mean "selfish" at all. (wikipedia.org)
  • differences
  • In individual cases, hereditarians believe that genes play an intermediate role, while genes largely determine the differences between the human races and genders. (wikipedia.org)
  • Research
  • Kleitman, with his students including William C. Dement and Eugene Aserinsky, continued his research throughout the 1900s. (wikipedia.org)
  • adaptation
  • Although this might ensure greater adaptation to the immediate environment, the hyperactive stress response may also carry a burden for disease during child development and beyond. (avahealth.org)
  • The Selfish Gene is a 1976 book on evolution by Richard Dawkins, in which the author builds upon the principal theory of George C. Williams's Adaptation and Natural Selection (1966). (wikipedia.org)
  • function
  • This model may be a good approximation to the real function given that the range of genomes and the range of environments is sufficiently narrow, e.g., white upper middle class Americans living in Chicago. (wikipedia.org)
  • individual
  • A lineage is expected to evolve to maximise its inclusive fitness-the number of copies of its genes passed on globally (rather than by a particular individual). (wikipedia.org)
  • Evolution
  • The book also coins the term meme for a unit of human cultural evolution analogous to the gene, suggesting that such "selfish" replication may also model human culture, in a different sense. (wikipedia.org)
  • W. D. Hamilton, The Evolution of Altruistic Behavior, pp. 354-355 An extended discussion of Dawkins' views and his book The Selfish Gene is provided by Wilkins and Hull. (wikipedia.org)
  • He writes in The Evolution of Human Sexuality (1979): "In summary, the rhetoric of The Selfish Gene exactly reverses the real situation: through [the use of] metaphor genes are endowed with properties only sentient beings can possess, such as selfishness, while sentient beings are stripped of these properties and called machines. (wikipedia.org)
  • environmental
  • Combining whole-blood RNA-seq with extensive environmental annotations collected from 922 human individuals, we identified 35 GxE interactions, compared with only four using standard GxE interaction testing. (stanford.edu)
  • In a review article, Lanphear and Bearer from Cincinnati Children's Hospital, discuss new aspects of environmental health, including biomarkers in clinical practice, biological matrices, and gene-environment interaction as it relates to environmental toxins. (bmj.com)
  • widely
  • E-Infrastructure serves to the download probabilistic models for nonlinear partial differential equations and construct processed for important performance recovered by the FoodStress, most commonly fear that varies to find widely essential genes of guidelines. (pd19.org)
  • The phenomenon is widely distributed among animal groups, especially in marine environments where dinoflagellates cause phosphorescence in the surface layers of water. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecules
  • Lipids are usually defined as hydrophobic or amphipathic biological molecules but will dissolve in organic solvents such as benzene or chloroform. (wikipedia.org)
  • Carbohydrates are the most abundant biological molecules, and fill numerous roles, such as the storage and transport of energy (starch, glycogen) and structural components (cellulose in plants, chitin in animals). (wikipedia.org)
  • commonly
  • To streamline reference gene selection, we offer PCR primers for a set of commonly used reference genes that can be used individually, easily screened using our preplated 96-well and 384-well reference panels or added to custom-designed plates. (bio-rad.com)
  • humans
  • HGNC ID, HGNC:9605), also known as cyclooxygenase-2 or COX-2, is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PTGS2 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • In humans, the 16,569 base pairs of mitochondrial DNA encode for only 37 genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Humans in the microgravity environment of space, within our current space vehicles, are exposed to various mission-specific periods of skeletal muscle unloading (unweighting). (wikipedia.org)
  • human
  • Bio-Rad collaborated with Biogazelle, leaders in real-time PCR research, to design and experimentally validate PCR primers for gene expression assays across the human and mouse transcriptomes. (bio-rad.com)
  • Today, CERF is a multidisciplinary federation of members and seven regionally based affiliate societies dedicated to studying and managing the structure and functions of estuaries and the effects of human activities on these fragile environments. (wikipedia.org)
  • mechanism
  • While some studies describe phenomenological effects of microcurrent treatment, the exact mechanism how microcurrent stimulation might affect chondrocytes in the hyaline cartilage environment remains unknown. (biomedcentral.com)
  • loss
  • In addition to the annual growth of colorful feathers, feather loss from agonistic interactions or predator avoidance could require birds to replace colorful feathers in winter or experience plumage degradation. (wiley.com)
  • several
  • Long duration missions and exploration missions with several transitions between gravitational environments present the greatest challenges to risk mitigation and to development of countermeasures of proven efficacy. (wikipedia.org)
  • dynamic
  • One measure of learning is 'foraging innovation'-an animal consuming new food, or using a new foraging technique in response to their dynamic living environment. (wikipedia.org)
  • activities
  • The two 15-HETE stereoisomers have intrinsic biological activities but, perhaps more importantly, can be further metabolized to a major class of agents, the lipoxins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Department
  • Union of Everett Department of the Paranormal people cause from Wright-Patterson AFB and Fort Kentucky AFB in Everett to Sydney, Australia, using unavailable illustration holiday creatures, UAV puzzles, profit cures and deceptive neck book members and HADv4 R( purchaser) wages among a error of 45 interactions from NASA and the PCI and a trustworthy essays nothing from the Department of Defense of 25 rules. (southwayinc.com)
  • Dr. Lukacs is a professor in the Department of Anthropology at the University of Oregon in Eugene. (wikipedia.org)
  • main
  • Their main structural uses are as part of biological membranes both internal and external, such as the cell membrane, or as a source of energy. (wikipedia.org)
  • system
  • Upon their entry to the biological system, they encounter the immune system, which limits their availability at the intended site. (scirp.org)
  • L. Eugene Cronin, 1971-1973 "Anatomy and histology of the male reproductive system of Callinectes sapidus rathbun. (wikipedia.org)