• sensory
  • Vision is one of the most important sensory systems used to perceive the external world for both robots and humans. (igi-global.com)
  • The visual system should cut out any redundancies in the sensory input. (wikipedia.org)
  • In his career, Coren has produced research papers and published items in a wide range of psychological areas including sensory processes (vision and hearing), neuropsychology (handedness, sleep, birth stress effects and behavior genetics) and cognition (information processing and intelligence). (wikipedia.org)
  • diplopia
  • Patients who experience eyestrain, "tired" eyes, or diplopia (double vision) while reading or performing other near work, and who have convergence insufficiency may benefit from orthoptic treatment. (wikipedia.org)
  • Patients sometimes adopt a face turned towards the side of the affected eye, moving the eye away from the field of action of the affected lateral rectus muscle, with the aim of controlling diplopia and maintaining binocular vision. (wikipedia.org)
  • parallax
  • Vision that perceives three-dimensional depth requires more than parallax. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is three-dimensional and various co-ordinate systems like the Cartesian x,y,z (with a defined origin in relation to an observer's head or eyes), or bipolar with angles of elevation, azimuth and binocular parallax (based on the separation of the two eyes) are interchangeable. (wikipedia.org)
  • retina
  • If one subtends a larger visual angle on the retina than the other, the object which subtends the larger visual angle appears closer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Familiar size - Since the visual angle of an object projected onto the retina decreases with distance, this information can be combined with previous knowledge of the objects size to determine the absolute depth of the object. (wikipedia.org)
  • The distinction is mandatory between what the eye professions call visual field, the area or extent of physical space that is available to the eye or that is being imaged on the retina, and the virtual, perceptual visual space in which visual percepts are located, the subject of this entry. (wikipedia.org)
  • The fovea is typically located at the center of the retina and is the point of clearest vision. (wikipedia.org)
  • clinical
  • The ability to evaluate visual function is one of several important clinical components for the detection, management, and treatment of glaucoma. (springer.com)
  • In 2005, the Convergence Insufficiency Treatment Trial (CITT) published two large, randomized clinical studies examining the efficacy of orthoptic vision therapy in the treatment of symptomatic convergence insufficiency. (wikipedia.org)
  • inputs
  • Binocular summation also increases the perceived brightness of the flicker when both inputs are in phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • B S R = C S b i n o c u l a r / C S b e t t e r e y e {\displaystyle BSR=CS_{binocular}/CS_{better\ eye}} One might expect the inputs from each eye to simply add together, and that the perceived brightness with two eyes is twice that of a single eye. (wikipedia.org)
  • Additionally, it has been argued that the visual system takes advantage of redundancies in inputs in order to transmit as much information as possible while using the fewest resources. (wikipedia.org)
  • field
  • Influence of glaucomatous visual field loss on health-related quality of life. (springer.com)
  • Correlation of visual field with quality-of-life measures at diagnosis in the Collaborative Initial Glaucoma Treatment Study (CIGTS). (springer.com)
  • Ringsdorf L, McGwin G, Owlsey C. Visual field defects and vision-specific health-related quality of life in African Americans and whites with glaucoma. (springer.com)
  • Impact of visual field loss on health-related quality of life in glaucoma: the Los Angeles Latino Eye Study. (springer.com)
  • Garway-Heath D, Poinoosawmy D, Fitzke F, Hitchings R. Mapping the visual field to the optic disc in normal tension glaucoma eyes. (springer.com)
  • During Dr. Kong's research on visual fields in children, he has developed an LED based device which uses variable flicker frequencies and illumination in order to capture and map out gross field of vision in children with special needs. (neco.edu)
  • pathway
  • The in vivo enucleation technique described in this manuscript has recently been successfully applied with minor modifications in rats and appears useful to study the afferent visual pathway of rodents in general. (jove.com)
  • For example, inattentional blindness suggests that there must be data deletion early on in the visual pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • optic nerve
  • Caprioli J. Correlation of visual function with optic nerve and nerve fiber layer structure in glaucoma. (springer.com)
  • Repka, 2010 ) Optic nerve gliomas invade the optic nerve tissue and impair visual functions. (frontiersin.org)
  • The net result of optic nerve crossing over at the optic chiasm is for the right cerebral hemisphere to sense and process left hemispheric vision, and for the left cerebral hemisphere to sense and process right hemispheric vision. (wikipedia.org)
  • spatial
  • Detailed analyses of reaching trajectories (i.e., 10% through 100% of MT) indicated that CL binocular trials produced greater spatial variability in the primary movement axis than CL monocular trials or OL (i.e., binocular or monocular) trials. (arvojournals.org)
  • The novelty in our implementation is that RFID readers are built directly into artificial flowers that are capable of displaying several distinct visual properties such as color, pattern type, spatial frequency ( i.e. , "busyness" of the pattern), and symmetry (spatial frequency and symmetry were not manipulated in this experiment). (jove.com)
  • interactions
  • Patients perform a simple signal/noise task that allows for a precise measurement of the strength of excitatory binocular interactions. (jove.com)
  • mammalian
  • It provides a valuable tool to study the different aspects of visual, cross-modal and developmental plasticity along the mammalian visual system 1-4 . (jove.com)
  • Multiple strategies were employed to identify thirty-six candidate mammalian vision genes in giraffe and okapi genomes. (peerj.com)
  • demonstrate
  • We demonstrate that a binocular color difference can be used to express the surface glossiness of an object on 3D display devices without being accompanied by a specular reflection pattern. (osapublishing.org)
  • representation
  • Considering how it arises (see below), visual space seems, as an immediate, unmediated experience, to provide a remarkably true and unproblematic representation of a real world of objects. (wikipedia.org)
  • eyes
  • That is the set of points that appear to have the same visual direction in both eyes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although neither study examined reading efficiency or comprehension, both demonstrated that computerized home orthoptic exercises, when combined with weekly in-office vision therapy, were more effective than "pencil pushups" (a commonly prescribed home-based treatment) for improving the symptoms of asthenopia and the convergence ability of the eyes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Eyes begin moving together in unison (binocular vision). (wikipedia.org)
  • The likelihood that the eyes will stay aligned over the longer term is higher if the patient is able to achieve some degree of binocular fusion after surgery than if not. (wikipedia.org)
  • As the two images captured by each eye is incompatible for stereo processing, they fight for visual dominance over the other eye's side view, resulting in alternating views from the two eyes, where the non-dominant view is almost unseen. (wikipedia.org)
  • Monocular vision is vision in which both eyes are used separately. (wikipedia.org)
  • The eyes of an animal with monocular vision are usually positioned on opposite sides of the animal's head, giving it the ability to see two objects at once. (wikipedia.org)
  • Prey animals, with laterally positioned eyes, have little binocular vision, so there is a more complete crossover of visual signals[citation needed]. (wikipedia.org)
  • neural
  • Regular eye movement alternates between saccades and visual fixations, the notable exception being in smooth pursuit, controlled by a different neural substrate that appears to have developed for hunting prey. (wikipedia.org)
  • cognition
  • Visual cognition is critical to health, survival and evolutionary success of terrestrial vertebrates. (peerj.com)
  • fixation
  • He built on the binocular vision work of Ptolemy and discovered that objects lying on a horizontal line passing through the fixation point resulted in single images, while objects a reasonable distance from this line resulted in double images. (wikipedia.org)
  • An animal can exhibit visual fixation if they possess a fovea in the anatomy of their eye. (wikipedia.org)
  • Regular saccades are produced during the active exploration of the eye, during non-fixation tasks such as free viewing or visual search. (wikipedia.org)
  • system
  • The robotic vision system is constructed by employing a combinational strategy of neuromorphic engineering and conventional digital technology. (igi-global.com)
  • Like the Ten-m family, Ten-m3 plays a critical role in regulating connectivity of the nervous system, particularly in axon pathfinding and synaptic organisation in the motor and visual system. (wikipedia.org)
  • Evidence suggests that our visual processing system engages in bottom-up selection. (wikipedia.org)
  • This also gives our visual system the property of being goal-directed. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many have suggested that the visual system is able to work efficiently by breaking images down into distinct components. (wikipedia.org)
  • single
  • Images from one object stimulate both cells, which transmit the information to the brain, permitting a single visual impression localized in the same direction in space. (wikipedia.org)
  • fusion
  • Binocular summation can increase the critical flicker fusion rate (CFF) which is the highest perceivable flicker rate before the image appears continuous. (wikipedia.org)
  • However
  • However, autoregulatory changes may be responsible for rapid visual loss following decompression for chronic papilledema. (frontiersin.org)
  • examination
  • The computerized database (2003-2008) of a neuro-ophthalmology service of a major pediatric tertiary center was reviewed for all children with severe irreversible visual loss (counting fingers or less) due to brain-tumor-related optic neuropathy at their last follow-up examination. (frontiersin.org)
  • Vision therapy can be prescribed when a comprehensive eye examination indicates that it is an appropriate treatment option. (wikipedia.org)
  • differences
  • Giraffes are closely related to okapi, but the two species have broad range of phenotypic differences including their visual capacities. (peerj.com)
  • Binocular summation decreases with age and when large interocular differences are present. (wikipedia.org)
  • include
  • Complications that occur rarely or very rarely following surgery include: eye infection, hemorrhage in case of scleral perforation, muscle slip or detachment, or even loss of vision. (wikipedia.org)
  • adaptive
  • We hypothesize that requirement for long distance vision associated with predation and communication with conspecifics likely played an important role in the adaptive pressure on giraffe vision genes. (peerj.com)
  • work
  • Much of his early work dealt with various visual illusions, and was done in collaboration with Joan. (wikipedia.org)
  • patients
  • Visual function and quality of life among patients with glaucoma. (springer.com)
  • There is tentative evidence that children with infantile esotropia patients achieve better binocular vision post-operatively if the surgical treatment is performed early (see: Infantile esotropia#Surgery). (wikipedia.org)
  • distinct
  • When features are sufficiently singular and distinct, there is no problem about a correspondence between an individual item A in object space and its correlate A' in visual space. (wikipedia.org)
  • Additionally
  • Additionally, these visual displays in conjunction with the automated systems are capable of recording unrewarded and untrained choice behavior. (jove.com)
  • condition
  • Separate groups of participants were provided vision during response planning and control (i.e., closed-loop condition: CL), or during response planning only (i.e., open-loop condition: OL). (arvojournals.org)
  • function
  • Nelson P, Aspinall P, Papasouliotis O, Worton B, O'Brien C. Quality of life in glaucoma and its relationship with visual function. (springer.com)
  • The lacrimal gland (LG) secretes aqueous tears necessary for maintaining the structure and function of the cornea, a transparent tissue essential for vision. (jove.com)
  • To verify the function of these models in visual computation, one needs to study how the models respond to natural scenes in real-time. (igi-global.com)
  • By taking a systemic approach to gene function in vision, the results provide the first molecular clues associated with giraffe and okapi vision adaptations. (peerj.com)