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  • diplopia
  • Orthoptics aims to treat binocular vision disorders such as strabismus, and diplopia. (wikipedia.org)
  • Patients who experience eyestrain, "tired" eyes, or diplopia (double vision) while reading or performing other near work, and who have convergence insufficiency may benefit from orthoptic treatment. (wikipedia.org)
  • Patients sometimes adopt a face turned towards the side of the affected eye, moving the eye away from the field of action of the affected lateral rectus muscle, with the aim of controlling diplopia and maintaining binocular vision. (wikipedia.org)
  • parallax
  • Vision that perceives three-dimensional depth requires more than parallax. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is three-dimensional and various co-ordinate systems like the Cartesian x,y,z (with a defined origin in relation to an observer's head or eyes), or bipolar with angles of elevation, azimuth and binocular parallax (based on the separation of the two eyes) are interchangeable. (wikipedia.org)
  • perceptual
  • The maximum variation in perceptual score across distances occurred for monofocal corrections (4.5) followed by modified MV (3), MV (0.9) and Binocular SV (0.8). (arvojournals.org)
  • The distinction is mandatory between what the eye professions call visual field, the area or extent of physical space that is available to the eye or that is being imaged on the retina, and the virtual, perceptual visual space in which visual percepts are located, the subject of this entry. (wikipedia.org)
  • retina
  • If one subtends a larger visual angle on the retina than the other, the object which subtends the larger visual angle appears closer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Familiar size - Since the visual angle of an object projected onto the retina decreases with distance, this information can be combined with previous knowledge of the objects size to determine the absolute depth of the object. (wikipedia.org)
  • The fovea is typically located at the center of the retina and is the point of clearest vision. (wikipedia.org)
  • Methods
  • Here we use computer-vision-based methods and miniature GPS tracking to study, respectively, social dominance and in-flight leader-follower relations in pigeons. (jove.com)
  • Vision therapy encompasses a wide variety of non-surgical methods which may be divided into several broad categories: Orthoptic vision therapy, also known as orthoptics. (wikipedia.org)
  • He is also credited with several breakthroughs in the study of what is known as subjective contours or illusory contours Later Coren and A. Ralph Hakstian developed methods for screening vision and hearing without the use of technical equipment, using behaviorally validated questionnaires. (wikipedia.org)
  • compensate
  • Secondly, strabismus surgery may also result in subjective and objective cyclodeviation, possibly resulting in cyclotropia and rotational double vision (cyclodiplopia) if the visual system cannot compensate for it. (wikipedia.org)
  • temporal
  • Perceived visual quality and pattern preference were measured in 8 cyclopeged subjects using a custom-developed portable binocular see-thru device, based on temporal multiplexing of 2 synchronized tunable lenses. (arvojournals.org)
  • field
  • Influence of glaucomatous visual field loss on health-related quality of life. (springer.com)
  • Correlation of visual field with quality-of-life measures at diagnosis in the Collaborative Initial Glaucoma Treatment Study (CIGTS). (springer.com)
  • Ringsdorf L, McGwin G, Owlsey C. Visual field defects and vision-specific health-related quality of life in African Americans and whites with glaucoma. (springer.com)
  • Impact of visual field loss on health-related quality of life in glaucoma: the Los Angeles Latino Eye Study. (springer.com)
  • Garway-Heath D, Poinoosawmy D, Fitzke F, Hitchings R. Mapping the visual field to the optic disc in normal tension glaucoma eyes. (springer.com)
  • inputs
  • 2004) visual inputs have been removed with blindfolds or low light intensity, and effects of remaining sensory modalities have been elucidated. (jove.com)
  • This approach aims to identify the exclusive role of visual inputs. (jove.com)
  • Binocular summation also increases the perceived brightness of the flicker when both inputs are in phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • B S R = C S b i n o c u l a r / C S b e t t e r e y e {\displaystyle BSR=CS_{binocular}/CS_{better\ eye}} One might expect the inputs from each eye to simply add together, and that the perceived brightness with two eyes is twice that of a single eye. (wikipedia.org)
  • Additionally, it has been argued that the visual system takes advantage of redundancies in inputs in order to transmit as much information as possible while using the fewest resources. (wikipedia.org)
  • discomfort
  • Tears are secreted from the lacrimal gland (LG), a dysfunction in which induces dry eye, resulting in ocular discomfort and visual impairment. (jove.com)
  • Convergence insufficiency is a common binocular vision disorder characterized by asthenopia, eye fatigue and discomfort. (wikipedia.org)
  • pathway
  • Specifically, we suggest that the principle of parallel visual streams originated in the tectofugal pathway rather than the thalamofugal pathway. (jneurosci.org)
  • For example, inattentional blindness suggests that there must be data deletion early on in the visual pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • representation
  • Considering how it arises (see below), visual space seems, as an immediate, unmediated experience, to provide a remarkably true and unproblematic representation of a real world of objects. (wikipedia.org)
  • eyes
  • That is the set of points that appear to have the same visual direction in both eyes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although neither study examined reading efficiency or comprehension, both demonstrated that computerized home orthoptic exercises, when combined with weekly in-office vision therapy, were more effective than "pencil pushups" (a commonly prescribed home-based treatment) for improving the symptoms of asthenopia and the convergence ability of the eyes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Eyes begin moving together in unison (binocular vision). (wikipedia.org)
  • Schrödinger (1926) put forth an equation for binocular brightness and contrast combination where each monocular input is weighted by the ratio of the signal strength from that eye to the sum of the signal from both eyes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The likelihood that the eyes will stay aligned over the longer term is higher if the patient is able to achieve some degree of binocular fusion after surgery than if not. (wikipedia.org)
  • As the two images captured by each eye is incompatible for stereo processing, they fight for visual dominance over the other eye's side view, resulting in alternating views from the two eyes, where the non-dominant view is almost unseen. (wikipedia.org)
  • Prey animals, with laterally positioned eyes, have little binocular vision, so there is a more complete crossover of visual signals[citation needed]. (wikipedia.org)
  • neural
  • Regular eye movement alternates between saccades and visual fixations, the notable exception being in smooth pursuit, controlled by a different neural substrate that appears to have developed for hunting prey. (wikipedia.org)
  • examining the efficacy
  • In 2005, the Convergence Insufficiency Treatment Trial (CITT) published two large, randomized clinical studies examining the efficacy of orthoptic vision therapy in the treatment of symptomatic convergence insufficiency. (wikipedia.org)
  • Color
  • Color vision adult-like. (wikipedia.org)
  • suggests that the caudal Ec should be important for visual motion processing, whereas the rostral Ec should be important for spatial-pattern vision and color. (jneurosci.org)
  • We demonstrate that a binocular color difference can be used to express the surface glossiness of an object on 3D display devices without being accompanied by a specular reflection pattern. (osapublishing.org)
  • A simple image with a binocular color difference provides a similar surface appearance impression to a real object that has the same binocular color difference. (osapublishing.org)
  • optic nerve
  • Caprioli J. Correlation of visual function with optic nerve and nerve fiber layer structure in glaucoma. (springer.com)
  • The net result of optic nerve crossing over at the optic chiasm is for the right cerebral hemisphere to sense and process left hemispheric vision, and for the left cerebral hemisphere to sense and process right hemispheric vision. (wikipedia.org)
  • system
  • The robotic vision system is constructed by employing a combinational strategy of neuromorphic engineering and conventional digital technology. (igi-global.com)
  • The implications of these findings with respect to the evolution of the visual system are discussed. (jneurosci.org)
  • A large body of evidence has outlined that there are parallel streams in the mammalian geniculo-striate system, each associated with specific visual functions ( Livingstone and Hubel, 1988 ). (jneurosci.org)
  • Like the Ten-m family, Ten-m3 plays a critical role in regulating connectivity of the nervous system, particularly in axon pathfinding and synaptic organisation in the motor and visual system. (wikipedia.org)
  • Evidence suggests that our visual processing system engages in bottom-up selection. (wikipedia.org)
  • This also gives our visual system the property of being goal-directed. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many have suggested that the visual system is able to work efficiently by breaking images down into distinct components. (wikipedia.org)
  • single
  • He built on the binocular vision work of Ptolemy and discovered that objects lying on a horizontal line passing through the fixation point resulted in single images, while objects a reasonable distance from this line resulted in double images. (wikipedia.org)
  • Images from one object stimulate both cells, which transmit the information to the brain, permitting a single visual impression localized in the same direction in space. (wikipedia.org)
  • fusion
  • Binocular summation can increase the critical flicker fusion rate (CFF) which is the highest perceivable flicker rate before the image appears continuous. (wikipedia.org)
  • depth
  • His most influential works include the demonstration of adaptation to invisible visual patterns (such as gratings), and the depth of invisible processing during binocular suppression. (wikipedia.org)
  • behavior
  • In his career, Coren has produced research papers and published items in a wide range of psychological areas including sensory processes (vision and hearing), neuropsychology (handedness, sleep, birth stress effects and behavior genetics) and cognition (information processing and intelligence). (wikipedia.org)
  • This behavior compensates for non-uniform vision within the foveola. (wikipedia.org)
  • evidence
  • There is tentative evidence that children with infantile esotropia patients achieve better binocular vision post-operatively if the surgical treatment is performed early (see: Infantile esotropia#Surgery). (wikipedia.org)
  • condition
  • Separate groups of participants were provided vision during response planning and control (i.e., closed-loop condition: CL), or during response planning only (i.e., open-loop condition: OL). (arvojournals.org)
  • parallel
  • An example illustrates the relationship between the concepts of object and visual space: Two straight lines are presented to an observer who is asked to set them so that they appear parallel. (wikipedia.org)
  • When this has been done, the lines are parallel in visual space and now a comparison is feasible with the physical lines' setting in object space. (wikipedia.org)
  • studies
  • Some of the exercises involve the use of: Marsden balls Rotation trainers Syntonics Balance board/beams Saccadic fixators Directional sequencers Behavioral vision therapy is practiced primarily by optometrists after doing extra studies in this area. (wikipedia.org)
  • object
  • When features are sufficiently singular and distinct, there is no problem about a correspondence between an individual item A in object space and its correlate A' in visual space. (wikipedia.org)
  • tasks
  • While a PHMD provide an additional, always-available visual output channel, it does not limit the user performing real world tasks. (wikipedia.org)
  • Regular saccades are produced during the active exploration of the eye, during non-fixation tasks such as free viewing or visual search. (wikipedia.org)
  • work
  • Much of his early work dealt with various visual illusions, and was done in collaboration with Joan. (wikipedia.org)