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  • proliferation
  • Through her work with two genera of retroviruses, Quackenbush determined mutations to Gammaretrovirus (feline leukemia virus) makes them less lethal, and Epsilretrovirus (walleye dermal sarcoma virus) contains sequences that encode for cyclin proteins, leading to the proliferation of normal cells and eventually giving a means for cancer cells to become abundant Her most notable work focuses on feline leukemia virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • As well as its most well known role in apoptosis, FADD has also been seen to play a role in other processes including proliferation, cell cycle regulation and development. (wikipedia.org)
  • Binding of TSP-1 to CD47 influences several fundamental cellular functions including cell migration and adhesion, cell proliferation or apoptosis, and plays a role in the regulation of angiogenesis and inflammation. (wikipedia.org)
  • It exerts its biological functions through binding to signalling proteins of the MAPKK level of the MAPK pathway, therefore eliciting a regulatory role in the function of this pathway which mediates proliferation, apoptosis and differentiation in cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Procaspase
  • The DED binds to the DED of intracellular molecules such as procaspase 8. (wikipedia.org)
  • FADD binds to the DD of this trimeric structure via its death domain resulting in unmasking of FADD's DED and subsequent recruitment of procaspase 8 and 10 via an interaction between the DEDs of both FADD and the procaspases. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cell
  • This gene encodes a protein with an important role in the apoptotic (programmed cell death) pathway induced by the CD27 antigen, a member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor (TFNR) superfamily. (wikipedia.org)
  • Apoptosis (from Ancient Greek ἀπόπτωσις "falling off") is a process of programmed cell death that occurs in multicellular organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • In contrast to necrosis, which is a form of traumatic cell death that results from acute cellular injury, apoptosis is a highly regulated and controlled process that confers advantages during an organism's lifecycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unlike necrosis, apoptosis produces cell fragments called apoptotic bodies that phagocytic cells are able to engulf and remove before the contents of the cell can spill out onto surrounding cells and cause damage to them. (wikipedia.org)
  • While studying tissues using electron microscopy, John Foxton Ross Kerr at University of Queensland was able to distinguish apoptosis from traumatic cell death. (wikipedia.org)
  • Kerr had initially used the term programmed cell necrosis, but in the article, the process of natural cell death was called apoptosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • For many years, neither "apoptosis" nor "programmed cell death" was a highly cited term. (wikipedia.org)
  • Normally, TIGAR manufacture by the body is activated by the p53 tumour suppressor protein after a cell has experienced a low level of DNA damage or stress. (wikipedia.org)
  • Another DD-containing adaptor protein named TRADD, along with other proteins, binds to activated TNF1R, forming what is known as complex I. This results in activation of the NFκB pathway, which promotes cell survival. (wikipedia.org)
  • CD47 ligation leads to cell death in many normal and tumor cell lines via apoptosis or autophagy. (wikipedia.org)
  • instead, Tribbles proteins function as scaffold proteins, which bind their substrates to localize them to or from their function Expression of Tribbles-1 is highly variable, constantly changing with respect to time and cell-type, which suggests a large amount of regulation that exists in the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • The ER's structural characteristics, ability to act as a Ca2+ sink, and specific Ca2+ releasing proteins, serve to create a system that may produce regenerative waves of Ca2+ release that may communicate both locally and globally in the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chk2 as well as ATR/ATM can activate p53 which leads to permanent cell cycle arrest or apoptosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • cellular
  • TIGAR transcription is rapidly activated by the p53 tumour suppressor protein in response to low levels of cellular stress, such as that caused by exposure to low doses of UV. (wikipedia.org)
  • Calcium ions are important for cellular signalling, as once they enter the cytosol of the cytoplasm they exert allosteric regulatory effects on many enzymes and proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • FADD
  • Fas-associated protein with death domain (FADD), also called MORT1, is encoded by the FADD gene on the 11q13.3 region of chromosome 11 in humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • FADD is a 23 kDa protein, made up of 280 amino acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • This complex is then internalised, and FADD binds to TRADD via an interaction of the DD's of the two adapter proteins, forming what is known as complex II. (wikipedia.org)
  • FADD can also bind to RIPK1 and RIPK3 directly, however the significance of this interaction is currently unclear. (wikipedia.org)
  • Using its DD, FADD interacts with ATG5, a protein involved in autophagy. (wikipedia.org)
  • mediates
  • Since it is known that p53 mediates the expression of proapoptotic proteins, the increased p202 correlates with increased p53 levels. (wikipedia.org)
  • membrane
  • CD47 belongs to the immunoglobulin superfamily and partners with membrane integrins and also binds the ligands thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1) and signal-regulatory protein alpha (SIRPα). (wikipedia.org)
  • Viral membrane fusion proteins act as catalysts to overcome this high energy barrier. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most viral membrane fusion proteins would end up in a hairpin-like conformation after fusion, in which FLs/FPs and the transmembrane domain are all on the same side of the protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • Viral membrane fusion proteins have been grouped into four different classes, and each class is identified by characteristic structural conformations: Class I: Post-fusion conformation has a distinct central coiled-coil structure composed of signature trimer of α-helical hairpins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Class III: Structural conformation is a combination of features from Class I and Class II viral membrane fusion proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • winged-helix domain
  • APAF1 contains a CARD domain with a Greek key motif composed of six helices, a Rossman fold nucleotide binding domains, a short helical motif and a winged-helix domain. (wikipedia.org)
  • encodes a protein
  • This gene is regulated as part of the p53 tumor suppressor pathway and encodes a protein with sequence similarity to the bisphosphate domain of the glycolytic enzyme that degrades fructose-2,6-bisphosphate. (wikipedia.org)
  • pathway
  • The protein functions by blocking glycolysis and directing the pathway into the pentose phosphate shunt. (wikipedia.org)
  • Apoptosis induction appears to be regulated by the hypoxia inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tribbles-1 plays a role in regulating its own expression by binding to its substrate, which not only produces its function on the MAPK pathway, but also works to protect it from degradation whilst binding. (wikipedia.org)
  • substrates
  • Recent crystal structures show that Tribbles 1 has an unusual 3D structure, containing a 'broken' C-helix region, a binding site for ubiquitinated substrates such as C/EBPalpha and a key regulatory C-tail region. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2002
  • The 2002 Nobel Prize in Medicine was awarded to Sydney Brenner, Horvitz and John E. Sulston for their work identifying genes that control apoptosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • tumor
  • Betulin causes some types of tumor cells to start a process of self-destruction called apoptosis, and can slow the growth of several types of tumor cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • cells
  • Between 50 and 70 billion cells die each day due to apoptosis in the average human adult. (wikipedia.org)
  • Expression of this protein also protects cells from DNA damaging reactive oxygen species and provides some protection from DNA damage-induced apoptosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Increased expression levels of the Ifi202 mRNA and nuclear localization of p202 protein in immune cells are associated with the development of autoimmunity in certain strains of mice. (wikipedia.org)
  • Overexpression of p202 in cells decreased the p53 mediated apoptosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • The activation of CD47 induces rapid apoptosis of T cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Jurkat cells and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) incubated with the monoclonal antibody Ad22 results in apoptosis within 3 hours. (wikipedia.org)
  • Viral nonstructural proteins are proteins coded for by the genome of the virus and are expressed in infected cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Once the whole complex is completed the system switches to secreting proteins that are intended to be delivered into host cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • receptor
  • The other option is regulation of the signal emanating from the death receptor itself, controlling sensitivity to the induction of apoptosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genes
  • The genes were identified by studies in the nematode C. elegans and homologues of these genes function in humans to regulate apoptosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • capsid
  • Most viral structural proteins are components for the capsid and the envelope of the virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • The genetic material of a virus is stored within a viral protein structure called the capsid. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many copies of a single viral protein or a number of different viral proteins make up the capsid, and each of these viral proteins are coded for by one gene from the viral genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • Three asymmetric and nonidentical viral protein units make up each of the twenty identical triangular faces in the icosahedral capsid. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cleavage
  • These are inactive molecules, but when bought into close proximity with other procaspases of the same type, autocatalytic cleavage occurs at an aspartate residue within their own structures, resulting in an activated protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, its active site contains a cysteine residue (Cys-163) and histidine residue (His-121) that stabilize the peptide bond cleavage of a protein sequence to the carboxy-terminal side of an aspartic acid when it is part of a particular 4-amino acid sequence. (wikipedia.org)
  • immune
  • This is because the protein IAP produced by CD-47 acts as a don't eat me signal to the immune system and drives organ fibrosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • enzymes
  • Mitochondrial matrix calcium levels can reach the tens of micromolar levels, which is necessary for the activation of isocitrate dehydrogenase, one of the key regulatory enzymes of the Krebs cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • eukaryotic
  • In pathogenic bacteria, the needle-like structure is used as a sensory probe to detect the presence of eukaryotic organisms and secrete proteins that help the bacteria infect them. (wikipedia.org)
  • known
  • Protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) belongs to a certain class of phosphatases known as protein serine/threonine phosphatases. (wikipedia.org)
  • They do not form trimers of hairpins or hairpin structures themselves, and they are the smallest known viral fusion proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • induces
  • We have identified an inducible cancer avoidance mechanism in cells that reduces mutation rate, reduces and delays carcinogenesis after carcinogen exposure, and induces apoptosis and/or senescence of already transformed cells by simultaneously activating multiple overlapping and redundant DNA damage response pathways. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The loop in p73 is changed by a two-residue insertion that also induces repacking around the site of the p53 mutational hotspot R175.Importantly, the binding of ASPP2 is preserved by conformational changes in both the ankyrin repeat and SH3 domains.These results further highlight the structural variation that impacts p53 family interactions within the p53 interactome. (nih.gov)
  • PUMA binding induces partial unfolding within BCL-xL to disrupt p53 binding and promote apoptosis. (nih.gov)
  • The activation of CD47 induces rapid apoptosis of T cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Similarly, CD47 ligation rapidly induces apoptosis in B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Treatment with a disulfide-linked antibody dimer induces apoptosis of CD47-positive primary B-CLL and leukemic cells (MOLT-4 and JOK-1). (wikipedia.org)
  • tumor suppressor
  • Previously, PDCD2 (programmed cell death protein 2) has been identified as a putative tumor suppressor in gastric cancer. (cancerindex.org)
  • This gene is regulated as part of the p53 tumor suppressor pathway and encodes a protein with sequence similarity to the bisphosphate domain of the glycolytic enzyme that degrades fructose-2,6-bisphosphate. (wikipedia.org)
  • PUMA
  • We find that the BH3-only proteins HRK, PUMA, and NOXA are transcriptionally induced in severe hypoxia and that their expression is abrogated by RNA interference against ATF4. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Structural investigations using NMR spectroscopy and X-ray crystallography revealed that PUMA binding induced partial unfolding of two α-helices within BCL-xL. (nih.gov)
  • Our data suggest that PUMA-induced partial unfolding of BCL-xL disrupts interactions between cytosolic p53 and BCL-xL, releasing the bound p53 to initiate apoptosis. (nih.gov)
  • Protein-protein interactions: A PUMA mechanism unfolds. (nih.gov)
  • Structural representation of 1 H- 15 N NMR chemical shift perturbations caused by PUMA BH3 binding to BCL-xLΔLΔC. (nih.gov)
  • Mechanism of PUMA binding-induced p53 release from BCL-xL. (nih.gov)
  • neuronal
  • It is the predominant caspase involved in the cleavage of amyloid-beta 4A precursor protein, which is associated with neuronal death in Alzheimer's disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Amino Acid Seq
  • For example, its active site contains a cysteine residue (Cys-163) and histidine residue (His-121) that stabilize the peptide bond cleavage of a protein sequence to the carboxy-terminal side of an aspartic acid when it is part of a particular 4-amino acid sequence. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some of the proteins participating in T3SS share amino-acid sequence homology to flagellar proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • mitosis
  • Whereas some cells (for example, cardiac and skeletal muscle fibers, CNS neurons) last a lifetime, others (for example, epithelial and glandular cells, erythrocytes) have limited life-spans, at the end of which they are genetically programmed for self-destruction by apoptosis, usually to be replaced by others formed by mitosis from surviving cells. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • scaffold
  • instead, Tribbles proteins function as scaffold proteins, which bind their substrates to localize them to or from their function Expression of Tribbles-1 is highly variable, constantly changing with respect to time and cell-type, which suggests a large amount of regulation that exists in the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • regulation
  • The other option is regulation of the signal emanating from the death receptor itself, controlling sensitivity to the induction of apoptosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Regulation of these different processes is performed by distinct PP1 holoenzymes that facilitate the complexation of the PP1 catalytic subunit to various regulatory subunits. (wikipedia.org)