• Genes
  • The 2002 Nobel Prize in Medicine was awarded to Sydney Brenner, Horvitz and John E. Sulston for their work identifying genes that control apoptosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • The genes were identified by studies in the nematode C. elegans and homologues of these genes function in humans to regulate apoptosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • cellular
  • This complex plays a key role in the maintenance of protein homeostasis by removing misfolded or damaged proteins, which could impair cellular functions, and by removing proteins whose functions are no longer required. (uniprot.org)
  • In contrast to necrosis, which is a form of traumatic cell death that results from acute cellular injury, apoptosis is a highly regulated and controlled process that confers advantages during an organism's lifecycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • TIGAR transcription is rapidly activated by the p53 tumour suppressor protein in response to low levels of cellular stress, such as that caused by exposure to low doses of UV. (wikipedia.org)
  • Calcium ions are important for cellular signalling, as once they enter the cytosol of the cytoplasm they exert allosteric regulatory effects on many enzymes and proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • cells
  • Acting through ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) and its downstream effectors, T-oligos induced apoptosis and senescence of MCF-7 cells but not NME cells, in which these signaling pathways were induced to a far lesser extent. (biomedcentral.com)
  • deletion of individual cells by fragmentation into membrane-bound particles, which are phagocytized by other cells. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Whereas some cells (for example, cardiac and skeletal muscle fibers, CNS neurons) last a lifetime, others (for example, epithelial and glandular cells, erythrocytes) have limited life-spans, at the end of which they are genetically programmed for self-destruction by apoptosis, usually to be replaced by others formed by mitosis from surviving cells. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Apoptosis also plays an essential role in morphogenesis and tissue homeostasis by eliminating transitory organs and tissues (for example, pronephros and mesonephros) and cells formed in excess of bodily needs during embryogenesis, as well as cells that have been damaged or virally infected. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • It is developed by Pfizer and made in such a way that it protects liver cells from excessive apoptosis. (drugbank.ca)
  • We found that BV inhibited growth of colon cancer cells through induction of apoptosis. (blogspot.co.nz)
  • Between 50 and 70 billion cells die each day due to apoptosis in the average human adult. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unlike necrosis, apoptosis produces cell fragments called apoptotic bodies that phagocytic cells are able to engulf and remove before the contents of the cell can spill out onto surrounding cells and cause damage to them. (wikipedia.org)
  • Expression of this protein also protects cells from DNA damaging reactive oxygen species and provides some protection from DNA damage-induced apoptosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Increased expression levels of the Ifi202 mRNA and nuclear localization of p202 protein in immune cells are associated with the development of autoimmunity in certain strains of mice. (wikipedia.org)
  • Overexpression of p202 in cells decreased the p53 mediated apoptosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • CD47 interacts with signal-regulatory protein alpha (SIRPα), an inhibitory transmembrane receptor present on myeloid cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The activation of CD47 induces rapid apoptosis of T cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Jurkat cells and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) incubated with the monoclonal antibody Ad22 results in apoptosis within 3 hours. (wikipedia.org)
  • Betulin causes some types of tumor cells to start a process of self-destruction called apoptosis, and can slow the growth of several types of tumor cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Apoptosis Immune system Immune tolerance T-cell Autoimmunity Fas receptor Caspase Zhang J, Xu X, Liu Y. (2004), Activation-Induced Cell Death in T Cells and Autoimmunity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Viral nonstructural proteins are proteins coded for by the genome of the virus and are expressed in infected cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Once the whole complex is completed the system switches to secreting proteins that are intended to be delivered into host cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • apoptotic
  • The prevalence of apoptosis and expression of the pro-apoptotic factor PUMA were significantly reduced in Atm-deficient mice fed the high fat diet when compared with wild type controls. (biomedsearch.com)
  • This gene encodes a protein with an important role in the apoptotic (programmed cell death) pathway induced by the CD27 antigen, a member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor (TFNR) superfamily. (wikipedia.org)
  • Caspase 7 (Apoptotic Protease Mch 3 or ICE Like Apoptotic Protease 3 or CMH 1 or CASP7 or EC 3.4.22.60) - Caspase-7 (CASP7) is a human protein encoded by the CASP7 gene. (researchandmarkets.com)
  • adaptor protein
  • FADD is an adaptor protein that bridges members of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily, such as the Fas-receptor, to procaspases 8 and 10 to form the death-inducing signaling complex (DISC) during apoptosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Another DD-containing adaptor protein named TRADD, along with other proteins, binds to activated TNF1R, forming what is known as complex I. This results in activation of the NFκB pathway, which promotes cell survival. (wikipedia.org)
  • initiates
  • The mechanism involves two metal ions binding and activating water, which initiates a nucleophilic attack on the phosphorus atom. (wikipedia.org)
  • pathway
  • section describes the metabolic pathway(s) associated with a protein. (uniprot.org)
  • This protein is involved in the pathway protein neddylation, which is part of Protein modification. (uniprot.org)
  • View all proteins of this organism that are known to be involved in the pathway protein neddylation and in Protein modification . (uniprot.org)
  • The protein functions by blocking glycolysis and directing the pathway into the pentose phosphate shunt. (wikipedia.org)
  • Apoptosis induction appears to be regulated by the hypoxia inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tribbles-1 plays a role in regulating its own expression by binding to its substrate, which not only produces its function on the MAPK pathway, but also works to protect it from degradation whilst binding. (wikipedia.org)
  • FADD
  • FADD is a 23 kDa protein, made up of 280 amino acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • This complex is then internalised, and FADD binds to TRADD via an interaction of the DD's of the two adapter proteins, forming what is known as complex II. (wikipedia.org)
  • FADD can also bind to RIPK1 and RIPK3 directly, however the significance of this interaction is currently unclear. (wikipedia.org)
  • FADD binds to ATG5 in a complex which also contains ATG12, Caspase 8 and RIPK1. (wikipedia.org)
  • mediates
  • Since it is known that p53 mediates the expression of proapoptotic proteins, the increased p202 correlates with increased p53 levels. (wikipedia.org)
  • membrane
  • CD47 belongs to the immunoglobulin superfamily and partners with membrane integrins and also binds the ligands thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1) and signal-regulatory protein alpha (SIRPα). (wikipedia.org)
  • DAG recruits protein kinase C (PKC), attaching it to the plasma membrane IP3 diffuses to the endoplasmic reticulum, and binds to an IP3 receptor, The IP3 receptor serves as a Ca2+ channel, and releases Ca2+ from the endoplasmic reticulum. (wikipedia.org)
  • Viral membrane fusion proteins act as catalysts to overcome this high energy barrier. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most viral membrane fusion proteins would end up in a hairpin-like conformation after fusion, in which FLs/FPs and the transmembrane domain are all on the same side of the protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • Viral membrane fusion proteins have been grouped into four different classes, and each class is identified by characteristic structural conformations: Class I: Post-fusion conformation has a distinct central coiled-coil structure composed of signature trimer of α-helical hairpins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Class III: Structural conformation is a combination of features from Class I and Class II viral membrane fusion proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • winged-helix domain
  • APAF1 contains a CARD domain with a Greek key motif composed of six helices, a Rossman fold nucleotide binding domains, a short helical motif and a winged-helix domain. (wikipedia.org)
  • receptor
  • Promising novel therapies directed at specific malfunctioning proteins, including anti-receptor tyrosine kinase antibodies [ 7 ], will no doubt greatly improve treatment outcomes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • transcription factors
  • Activating Protein 2 (AP-2) is a family of closely related transcription factors which plays a critical role in regulating gene expression during early development. (wikipedia.org)
  • The transcriptional regulation of the genome is controlled primarily at the preinitiation stage by binding of the core transcriptional machinery proteins (namely, RNA polymerase, transcription factors, and activators and repressors) to the core promoter sequence on the coding region of the DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • Methylation of specific lysine residues in H3 and H4 causes further condensation of DNA around histones, and thereby preventing binding of transcription factors to the DNA leading to gene repression. (wikipedia.org)
  • neuronal
  • Immunohistochemistry for IENF was performed on the glabrous skin of the hind-paw foot pad using the pan-neuronal marker, protein gene product 9.5. (blogspot.com.ar)
  • It is the predominant caspase involved in the cleavage of amyloid-beta 4A precursor protein, which is associated with neuronal death in Alzheimer's disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • substrates
  • Recent crystal structures show that Tribbles 1 has an unusual 3D structure, containing a 'broken' C-helix region, a binding site for ubiquitinated substrates such as C/EBPalpha and a key regulatory C-tail region. (wikipedia.org)
  • instead, Tribbles proteins function as scaffold proteins, which bind their substrates to localize them to or from their function Expression of Tribbles-1 is highly variable, constantly changing with respect to time and cell-type, which suggests a large amount of regulation that exists in the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • degradation
  • The loss rate was determined by accelerated thermal degradation test, that is, incubate the protein at 37°C for 48h, and no obvious degradation and precipitation were observed. (uscnk.com)
  • Component of the 26S proteasome, a multiprotein complex involved in the ATP-dependent degradation of ubiquitinated proteins. (uniprot.org)
  • transcriptional
  • Expression of this gene has been shown to be repressed by B-cell CLL/lymphoma 6 (BCL6), a transcriptional repressor required for lymph node germinal center development, suggesting that BCL6 regulates apoptosis by its effects on this protein. (cancerindex.org)
  • helical
  • This protein contains (from the N terminal) a caspase recruitment domain (CARD), an ATPase domain (NB-ARC), few short helical domains and then several copies of the WD40 repeat domain. (wikipedia.org)