• PMID
  • Insulin exerts its effects by interaction with a cell-surface receptor, which may also result in the promotion of cell growth [ PMID: 6243748 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • The sequence of prosinsulin contains 2 well-conserved regions (designated A and B), separated by an intervening connecting region (C), which is variable between species [ PMID: 503234 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • The connecting region is cleaved, liberating the active protein, which contains the A and B chains, held together by 2 disulphide bonds [ PMID: 503234 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • This region, comprised of Val49, Tyr50, Pro62 and Lys68-Leu75, forms a hydrophobic patch on the surface of the protein [ PMID: 9822601 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • sequence
  • Insulin is synthesised as a prepropeptide from which an endoplasmic reticulum-targeting sequence is cleaved to yield proinsulin. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Protein members within the group might be originated from a common ancestor and share a high degree of similarity in their amino acid sequence. (wikipedia.org)
  • genes
  • Apart from being regulated by different transcription factors, FHL2 is itself involved extensively in regulating the expression of other genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • FHL2 exerts its transcriptional regulatory effects by functioning as an adaptor protein interacting indirectly with the targeted genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Therefore, FHL2 can contribute to human carcinogenesis by interacting with transcription factors of cancer-related genes and modulates the signaling pathways underlying the expression of these genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • mammals
  • LIN28 can regulate glucose homeostasis in mammals by increasing insulin-PI3K-mTOR signaling and insulin sensitivity, thereby promoting resistance to high fat diet-induced obesity and type 2 diabetes. (wikipedia.org)
  • apoptosis
  • Several growth factors and hormones are involved in this overall process, and IGF-1R is believed to have roles in the differentiation of the cells and a key role in inhibiting apoptosis until weaning is complete. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since the editing site occurs within this proposed heparin binding region the effects of editing may have implications for heparin binding and proteolytic clevage and therefore have other affects downstream.Since the protein has been implicated in these processes it is believed editing might effect apoptosis, regulation of cell growth and angiogenesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • chromosomal
  • Even with these similarities, some characteristics are different: chromosomal location, heparin binding domains, RGD recognition site, preference for binding IGF-I or IGF-II, and glycosylation and phosphorylation differences. (wikipedia.org)
  • domain
  • While the N-terminal ( IPR000867 , IGF binding protein domain), and the C-terminal ( IPR000716 , thyroglobulin type-1 repeat) domains are conserved across vertebrate species, the mid-region is highly variable with respect to protease cleavage sites and phosphorylation and glycosylation sites. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • LIM proteins contain a highly conserved double zinc finger motif called the LIM domain. (wikipedia.org)
  • These proteins are defined by the presence of the four and a half cysteine-rich LIM homeodomain with the half-domain always located in the N-terminal. (wikipedia.org)
  • The name LIM was derived from the first letter of the transcription factors LIN-11, ISL-1 and MEC-3, from which the domain was originally characterized. (wikipedia.org)
  • In fact, LIM domain is a platform for the formation of multimeric protein complexes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Inter-domain interactions also block all kringle ligand-binding sites apart from that of KR-1, suggesting that the latter domain governs pro-enzyme recruitment to targets. (wikipedia.org)
  • Two additional events occur as a consequence of bait region cleavage, namely (i) a h-cysteinyl-g-glutamyl thiol ester of the α2-macroglobulin becomes highly reactive and (ii) a major conformational change exposes a conserved COOH-terminal receptor binding domain. (wikipedia.org)
  • DLM1 then binds to cytosolic Viral DNA using two Z-DNA-binding domains (Zα and Zβ) at its N-terminus along with a DNA binding domain (D3). (wikipedia.org)
  • The edited sites are found within the insulin growth factor binding domain of IGFBP7 and also Heparin binding domain.This region is also a site for proteolytic cleavage.Structural analysis of the edited sites determined that the two amino acids that corresponded to the edited sites are not directly involved in binding to IGF-1 but are found in regions flanking them. (wikipedia.org)
  • peptide
  • Crystal structures of TG2 with bound GDP, GTP, or ATP have demonstrated that these forms of TG2 adopt a "closed" conformation, whereas TG2 with the active site occupied by an inhibitory gluten peptide mimic or other similar inhibitors adopts an "open" conformation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The thiol group attacks the carboxamide of a glutamine residue on the surface of a protein or peptide substrate, releasing ammonia, and producing a thioester intermediate. (wikipedia.org)
  • liver
  • While IGF-2 may be primarily fetal in action it is also essential for development and function of organs such as the brain, liver, and kidney. (wikipedia.org)
  • inhibits
  • In contrast, the binding of one molecule of GTP or GDP inhibits the crosslinking activity of the enzyme. (wikipedia.org)
  • IGFBP-4 is a unique protein and it consistently inhibits several cancer cells in vivo and in vitro. (wikipedia.org)
  • pathway
  • FHL-2 is thought to have a role in the assembly of extracellular membranes and may function as a link between presenilin-2 and an intracellular signaling pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • degradation
  • Like other transglutaminases, it crosslinks proteins between an ε-amino group of a lysine residue and a γ-carboxamide group of glutamine residue, creating an inter- or intramolecular bond that is highly resistant to proteolysis (protein degradation). (wikipedia.org)
  • Pathways
  • The IGF-2 receptor only binds IGF-2 and acts as a "clearance receptor"-it activates no intracellular signaling pathways, functioning only as an IGF-2 sequestering agent and preventing IGF-2 signaling. (wikipedia.org)
  • lysine
  • TG2 is a multifunctional enzyme that belongs to transglutaminases which catalyze the crosslinking of proteins by epsilon-(gamma-glutamyl)lysine isopeptide bonds. (wikipedia.org)
  • regulate
  • Aberrant expression of LIN28 has been seen to regulate aerobic glycolysis to facilitate cancer proliferation Mice genetically altered to produce LIN28 during their lifespan showed improved hair growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • phosphorylation
  • Provided that the existence of posttranscriptional modifications on FHL2 other than phosphorylation is still unclear and FHL2 functions almost exclusively through protein-protein interactions, research works in this direction is still interested. (wikipedia.org)
  • tumor
  • Naturally, a number of clinical trials have sought to directly abrogate insulin-like growth factor receptor 1 (IGF-1R) function and/or indirectly mitigate its downstream mediators such as mTOR, PI3K, MAPK, and others under the assumption that such therapeutic interventions would provide clinical benefit, demonstrable by impaired tumor growth as well as prolonged progression-free and overall survival for patients. (mdpi.com)
  • Thus
  • In the resulting α2-macroglobulin-plasmin complex, the active site of plasmin is sterically shielded, thus substantially decreasing the plasmin's access to protein substrates. (wikipedia.org)
  • cell
  • DNA is normally contained in the nucleus of a cell, and therefore cells use proteins like ZBP1 as an indicator of a viral infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • functional
  • It also interacts with other proteinaceous binding partners belonging to different functional classes including, but not limited to, transcription factors and signal transducers. (wikipedia.org)
  • activates
  • Apart from fibrinolysis, plasmin proteolyses proteins in various other systems: It activates collagenases, some mediators of the complement system, and weakens the wall of the Graafian follicle, leading to ovulation. (wikipedia.org)