• receptor
  • Following this first step, a second, more specific interaction with the specific cellular receptor of proteinaceous, lipid or carbohydrate nature promotes viral entry. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The sorting function is exemplified by the asialoglycoprotein receptor of mammalian liver, which mediates clearance of diverse glycoproteins from the circulation triggered by removal of terminal sialic acid residues from complex N-linked oligosaccharides. (searlescholars.net)
  • The extracellular portion of the receptor is composed of 8 consecutive C-type carbohydrate recognition domains (CRDs) closest to the plasma membrane, followed by a single fibronectin type II repeat domain and an N-terminal cysteine-rich domain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Despite the similarities in mannose-binding between the mannose receptor and MBL, these differences suggest that mannose-binding by the mannose receptor evolved separately to that of other C-type lectins. (wikipedia.org)
  • The mating factor peptide may bind to a cell surface receptor on other yeast cells and induce them to prepare for mating. (wikipedia.org)
  • This led to the identification of another mannose 6-phosphate binding receptor, the CD-MPR, which binds its ligand in the presence of a divalent cation such as Mn2+. (wikipedia.org)
  • Once the enzyme has dissociated from the mannose 6-phosphate receptor, it is translocated from the endosome to the lysosome where the phosphate tag is removed from the enzyme. (wikipedia.org)
  • Once it binds to a lysosomal enzyme the receptor becomes internalised rapidly. (wikipedia.org)

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  • cell
  • (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • NPC1, which normally helps transport cholesterol within the cell, offers Ebola virus its only means of escaping the lysosome and multiplying. (yu.edu)
  • Cell membrane expression of LAMP-1 observed in the following cancer types: Human fibrosarcoma, Colon adenocarcinoma, Melanoma, Pancreatic adenocarcinoma, and Astrocytoma. (wikipedia.org)
  • They will therefore have a large surface area provided by the microvilli and due to the need for active transport across their cell membranes they will contain a large number of mitochondria providing them with ATP. (biologyguide.net)
  • Thus the cell membrane also serves to help support the cell and help maintain its shape. (thoughtco.com)
  • Another function of the membrane is to regulate cell growth through the balance of endocytosis and exocytosis . (thoughtco.com)
  • Cholesterol is another lipid component of animal cell membranes. (thoughtco.com)
  • They are embedded in the cell membrane and help in cell to cell communications and molecule transport across the membrane. (thoughtco.com)
  • Some cell organelles are also surrounded by protective membranes. (thoughtco.com)
  • The cell membrane is only one component of a cell. (thoughtco.com)
  • The best studied example of carbohydrate-based cell adhesion is the initiation of extravasation resulting from binding of moving leukocytes to endothelial cells, which is mediated by selectin cell adhesion molecules. (searlescholars.net)
  • For example, A,B, and O blood group antigens give rise to the various blood types and these arise from carbohydrates on their cell surfaces. (oregonstate.edu)
  • 17. N-linked glycoproteins have glycosylation (addition of carbohydrate residues) occurring in the endoplamic reticulum and Golgi complex of the cell. (oregonstate.edu)
  • Endocytosis and its counterpart, exocytosis, are used by all cells because most chemical substances important to them are large polar molecules that cannot pass through the hydrophobic plasma or cell membrane by passive means. (wikipedia.org)
  • Caveolae are the most common reported non-clathrin-coated plasma membrane buds, which exist on the surface of many, but not all cell types. (wikipedia.org)
  • Macropinocytosis, which usually occurs from highly ruffled regions of the plasma membrane, is the invagination of the cell membrane to form a pocket, which then pinches off into the cell to form a vesicle (0.5-5 µm in diameter) filled with a large volume of extracellular fluid and molecules within it (equivalent to ~100 CCVs). (wikipedia.org)
  • Phagocytosis is the process by which cells bind and internalize particulate matter larger than around 0.75 µm in diameter, such as small-sized dust particles, cell debris, micro-organisms and apoptotic cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cell membrane is a protective barrier that regulates what enters and leaves the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • This proposal was made as a way of explaining how the various lipid membranes are assembled in the cell, with these membranes being assembled through lipid flow from the sites of lipid synthesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • This overexpression of sialic acid on surfaces creates a negative charge on cell membranes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since water is a polar molecule with partial positive charges on both hydrogen atoms, it is attracted to cell surfaces and membranes. (wikipedia.org)
  • binding can prevent their attachment to the carbohydrates within the cell membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is believed that these cell-surface receptors are responsible for the removal of certain glycoproteins from the circulatory system. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is hypothesized that some hepatitis C viral glycoproteins attach to C-type lectins on the host cell surface (liver cells) for infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • Studies of I-cell disease led to the discovery of the receptors that bind to this specific tag. (wikipedia.org)
  • Around 10-20% of the CI-MPR can be found at the cell membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • endocytosis
  • It is thought that foamy viruses (FVs) enter host cells via endocytosis because all FV glycoproteins examined display pH-dependent fusion activities. (biomedcentral.com)
  • These processes involve the uptake of larger membrane areas than clathrin-mediated endocytosis and caveolae pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • antibody
  • So the best therapy would be a monoclonal antibody that is active against the glycoproteins of all five ebolaviruses-and until our study, no such antibody had demonstrated the ability to do that. (yu.edu)
  • antigen-antibody complex here the complex formed by the noncovalent binding of an antibody and antigen. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The method is described more fully in the article on Far-eastern blotting, but is based on antibody or lectin staining of lipids transferred to PVDF membranes. (wikipedia.org)
  • vesicle
  • The system is defined more accurately as the set of membranes that form a single functional and developmental unit, either being connected directly, or exchanging material through vesicle transport. (wikipedia.org)
  • A vesicle is a relatively small, membrane-enclosed sac that stores or transports substances. (wikipedia.org)
  • ligand
  • It is our aim to determine what changes in CRDs are responsible for this loss of ligand-binding activity. (searlescholars.net)
  • They each contain at least some of the amino acid residues necessary for Ca2+ and ligand binding, common to functional C-type CRDs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Only CRDs 4 and 5 contain all of the residues required for sugar binding, forming a protease-resistant ligand-binding core. (wikipedia.org)
  • The most common ligand is terminal mannose residues, but N-acetylglucosamine and fucose also bind. (wikipedia.org)
  • The main interaction between CRD-4 and its sugar ligand is through direct ligation to the conserved Ca2+ in the sugar-binding site, in a similar way to the binding mechanism of mannan-binding lectin (MBL). (wikipedia.org)
  • While divalent cations are not essential for ligand binding by the human CD-MPR, the nomenclature has been retained. (wikipedia.org)
  • reside
  • There was just one problem: Reflecting Ebola's ingenuity, both targets reside only in lysosomes deep within cells-making them invisible to the immune system and shielded from attack by conventional antibodies. (yu.edu)
  • Cells
  • Cells that lack LAMP2 express normal levels of VAMP8, but fail to accumulate STX17 on autophagosomes, which is the most likely explanation for the lack of fusion between autophagosomes and lysosomes (PubMed:27628032). (genecards.org)
  • Cholesterol is not found in the membranes of plant cells. (thoughtco.com)
  • They can constitute up to a third of the plasma membrane area of the cells of some tissues, being especially abundant in smooth muscle, type I pneumocytes, fibroblasts, adipocytes, and endothelial cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first proposal that the membranes within cells form a single system that exchanges material between its components was by Morré and Mollenhauer in 1974. (wikipedia.org)
  • Metastatic cancer cells often express a high density of sialic acid-rich glycoproteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sialic acid can "hide" mannose antigens on the surface of host cells or bacteria from mannose-binding lectin. (wikipedia.org)
  • The binding of glycoproteins on the surface of parasitic cells also is believed to be a function. (wikipedia.org)
  • These membranes are flat sheets that form a continuous barrier around all cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • residues
  • 16. All N-linked glycoproteins have the same core of five carbohydrate residues. (oregonstate.edu)
  • The N-terminal cysteine-rich domain is homologous to the ricin B chain and binds to sulphated sugar moieties, with particularly high affinity for N-Acetylgalactosamine and galactose residues sulphated at positions 3 and 4 of their pyranose rings. (wikipedia.org)
  • The C-type CRDs are each separated by linker regions of 10-20 amino acids containing a number of proline residues, whose cyclic side chain is fairly rigid and favours a conformation in which the N-terminal cysteine-rich domain is extended as far away from the plasma membrane as possible. (wikipedia.org)
  • perinuclear
  • Interestingly, virions harboring fusion-defective glycoproteins still promoted virus attachment and uptake, but failed to show syncytia formation and perinuclear capsid accumulation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The space between the outer and inner membranes is called the perinuclear space and is joined with the lumen of the rough ER. (wikipedia.org)
  • Antigen
  • Antigen 'cleaning' and VSG recycling-VSG is efficiently recycled through the trypanosome flagellar pocket, allowing antibodies to be 'cleaned' from VSG before re-incorporation back into the cellular membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • viruses
  • Once safely inside the lysosomes, the viruses transform and expose key portions of their exterior that the research team successfully targeted using monoclonal antibodies. (yu.edu)
  • Knowing precisely where the antibodies attach to the glycoprotein molecules and when and how they act to neutralise Ebola viruses, we can begin to craft broadly effective immunotherapies,' said John M Dye, from the US Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases. (tribuneindia.com)
  • Lectins also mediate attachment and binding of bacteria and viruses to their intended targets. (wikipedia.org)