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  • receptor
  • Following this first step, a second, more specific interaction with the specific cellular receptor of proteinaceous, lipid or carbohydrate nature promotes viral entry. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The sorting function is exemplified by the asialoglycoprotein receptor of mammalian liver, which mediates clearance of diverse glycoproteins from the circulation triggered by removal of terminal sialic acid residues from complex N-linked oligosaccharides. (searlescholars.net)
  • The extracellular portion of the receptor is composed of 8 consecutive C-type carbohydrate recognition domains (CRDs) closest to the plasma membrane, followed by a single fibronectin type II repeat domain and an N-terminal cysteine-rich domain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Despite the similarities in mannose-binding between the mannose receptor and MBL, these differences suggest that mannose-binding by the mannose receptor evolved separately to that of other C-type lectins. (wikipedia.org)
  • The mating factor peptide may bind to a cell surface receptor on other yeast cells and induce them to prepare for mating. (wikipedia.org)
  • This led to the identification of another mannose 6-phosphate binding receptor, the CD-MPR, which binds its ligand in the presence of a divalent cation such as Mn2+. (wikipedia.org)
  • Once the enzyme has dissociated from the mannose 6-phosphate receptor, it is translocated from the endosome to the lysosome where the phosphate tag is removed from the enzyme. (wikipedia.org)
  • Once it binds to a lysosomal enzyme the receptor becomes internalised rapidly. (wikipedia.org)
  • endocytosis
  • It is thought that foamy viruses (FVs) enter host cells via endocytosis because all FV glycoproteins examined display pH-dependent fusion activities. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Another function of the membrane is to regulate cell growth through the balance of endocytosis and exocytosis . (thoughtco.com)
  • Endocytosis and its counterpart, exocytosis, are used by all cells because most chemical substances important to them are large polar molecules that cannot pass through the hydrophobic plasma or cell membrane by passive means. (wikipedia.org)
  • These processes involve the uptake of larger membrane areas than clathrin-mediated endocytosis and caveolae pathway. (wikipedia.org)

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  • antibody
  • So the best therapy would be a monoclonal antibody that is active against the glycoproteins of all five ebolaviruses-and until our study, no such antibody had demonstrated the ability to do that. (yu.edu)
  • antigen-antibody complex here the complex formed by the noncovalent binding of an antibody and antigen. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The method is described more fully in the article on Far-eastern blotting, but is based on antibody or lectin staining of lipids transferred to PVDF membranes. (wikipedia.org)
  • vesicle
  • The system is defined more accurately as the set of membranes that form a single functional and developmental unit, either being connected directly, or exchanging material through vesicle transport. (wikipedia.org)
  • A vesicle is a relatively small, membrane-enclosed sac that stores or transports substances. (wikipedia.org)
  • ligand
  • It is our aim to determine what changes in CRDs are responsible for this loss of ligand-binding activity. (searlescholars.net)
  • They each contain at least some of the amino acid residues necessary for Ca2+ and ligand binding, common to functional C-type CRDs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Only CRDs 4 and 5 contain all of the residues required for sugar binding, forming a protease-resistant ligand-binding core. (wikipedia.org)
  • The most common ligand is terminal mannose residues, but N-acetylglucosamine and fucose also bind. (wikipedia.org)
  • The main interaction between CRD-4 and its sugar ligand is through direct ligation to the conserved Ca2+ in the sugar-binding site, in a similar way to the binding mechanism of mannan-binding lectin (MBL). (wikipedia.org)
  • While divalent cations are not essential for ligand binding by the human CD-MPR, the nomenclature has been retained. (wikipedia.org)
  • reside
  • There was just one problem: Reflecting Ebola's ingenuity, both targets reside only in lysosomes deep within cells-making them invisible to the immune system and shielded from attack by conventional antibodies. (yu.edu)
  • Cells
  • Cells that lack LAMP2 express normal levels of VAMP8, but fail to accumulate STX17 on autophagosomes, which is the most likely explanation for the lack of fusion between autophagosomes and lysosomes (PubMed:27628032). (genecards.org)
  • Cholesterol is not found in the membranes of plant cells. (thoughtco.com)
  • They can constitute up to a third of the plasma membrane area of the cells of some tissues, being especially abundant in smooth muscle, type I pneumocytes, fibroblasts, adipocytes, and endothelial cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first proposal that the membranes within cells form a single system that exchanges material between its components was by Morré and Mollenhauer in 1974. (wikipedia.org)
  • The binding of glycoproteins on the surface of parasitic cells also is believed to be a function. (wikipedia.org)
  • These membranes are flat sheets that form a continuous barrier around all cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Phospholipids with certain head groups can alter the surface chemistry of a bilayer and can, for example, serve as signals as well as "anchors" for other molecules in the membranes of cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • perinuclear
  • Interestingly, virions harboring fusion-defective glycoproteins still promoted virus attachment and uptake, but failed to show syncytia formation and perinuclear capsid accumulation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The space between the outer and inner membranes is called the perinuclear space and is joined with the lumen of the rough ER. (wikipedia.org)
  • Antigen
  • Antigen 'cleaning' and VSG recycling-VSG is efficiently recycled through the trypanosome flagellar pocket, allowing antibodies to be 'cleaned' from VSG before re-incorporation back into the cellular membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • homologous
  • The N-terminal cysteine-rich domain is homologous to the ricin B chain and binds to sulphated sugar moieties, with particularly high affinity for N-Acetylgalactosamine and galactose residues sulphated at positions 3 and 4 of their pyranose rings. (wikipedia.org)
  • viruses
  • Once safely inside the lysosomes, the viruses transform and expose key portions of their exterior that the research team successfully targeted using monoclonal antibodies. (yu.edu)
  • Knowing precisely where the antibodies attach to the glycoprotein molecules and when and how they act to neutralise Ebola viruses, we can begin to craft broadly effective immunotherapies,' said John M Dye, from the US Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases. (tribuneindia.com)
  • Lectins also mediate attachment and binding of bacteria and viruses to their intended targets. (wikipedia.org)
  • amino
  • The C-type CRDs are each separated by linker regions of 10-20 amino acids containing a number of proline residues, whose cyclic side chain is fairly rigid and favours a conformation in which the N-terminal cysteine-rich domain is extended as far away from the plasma membrane as possible. (wikipedia.org)
  • outer membrane
  • The outer membrane is also continuous with the inner nuclear membrane since the two layers are fused together at numerous tiny holes called nuclear pores that perforate the nuclear envelope. (wikipedia.org)
  • One common example of such a modification in nature is the lipopolysaccharide coat on a bacterial outer membrane, which helps retain a water layer around the bacterium to prevent dehydration. (wikipedia.org)
  • phagocytosis
  • Phagocytosis is the process by which cells bind and internalize particulate matter larger than around 0.75 µm in diameter, such as small-sized dust particles, cell debris, micro-organisms and apoptotic cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • glycoconjugates
  • 2001) Eastern blotting was described as a technique for detecting glycoconjugates generated by blotting BSA onto PVDF membranes, followed by periodate treatment. (wikipedia.org)
  • outer
  • The outer membrane is also continuous with the inner nuclear membrane since the two layers are fused together at numerous tiny holes called nuclear pores that perforate the nuclear envelope. (wikipedia.org)
  • The space between the outer and inner membranes is called the perinuclear space and is joined with the lumen of the rough ER. (wikipedia.org)
  • ligand
  • While divalent cations are not essential for ligand binding by the human CD-MPR, the nomenclature has been retained. (wikipedia.org)
  • They each contain at least some of the amino acid residues necessary for Ca2+ and ligand binding, common to functional C-type CRDs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Only CRDs 4 and 5 contain all of the residues required for sugar binding, forming a protease-resistant ligand-binding core. (wikipedia.org)
  • The main interaction between CRD-4 and its sugar ligand is through direct ligation to the conserved Ca2+ in the sugar-binding site, in a similar way to the binding mechanism of mannan-binding lectin (MBL). (wikipedia.org)
  • terminal
  • Binds in a calcium-dependent manner to terminal galactose and N-acetylgalactosamine units, linked to serine or threonine. (genecards.org)
  • Normally they can be found as components of oligosaccharide chains of mucins, glycoproteins and glycolipids occupying terminal, nonreducing positions of complex carbohydrates on both external and internal membrane areas where they are very exposed and develop important functions. (wikipedia.org)
  • The N-terminal cysteine-rich domain is homologous to the ricin B chain and binds to sulphated sugar moieties, with particularly high affinity for N-Acetylgalactosamine and galactose residues sulphated at positions 3 and 4 of their pyranose rings. (wikipedia.org)
  • divalent cation
  • A hallmark of this class is the presence of a von Willebrand factor type A domain (Pfam:PF00092) (I-domain) of approximately 200 amino acid residues at the N terminus, which confers divalent cation binding properties. (githubusercontent.com)
  • uptake
  • These processes involve the uptake of larger membrane areas than clathrin-mediated endocytosis and caveolae pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • antibodies
  • The membrane is then probed with antibodies for epitopes of interest. (wikipedia.org)
  • Antigen 'cleaning' and VSG recycling-VSG is efficiently recycled through the trypanosome flagellar pocket, allowing antibodies to be 'cleaned' from VSG before re-incorporation back into the cellular membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • Importantly
  • Importantly, the endomembrane system does not include the membranes of chloroplasts or mitochondria, but might have evolved from the latter (see below: Evolution). (wikipedia.org)
  • functional
  • The system is defined more accurately as the set of membranes that form a single functional and developmental unit, either being connected directly, or exchanging material through vesicle transport. (wikipedia.org)