• carcinoma
  • In our experience, there have been some long-term survivors with residual carcinoma in situ present at bile duct stumps, although patients with a residual invasive ductal lesion always faced a poor outcome. (wiley.com)
  • inflammatory
  • Known risk factors for cholangiocarcinoma include primary sclerosing cholangitis (an inflammatory disease of the bile ducts), infection with the parasitic liver flukes Opisthorchis viverrini or Clonorchis sinensis, some congenital liver malformations, and exposure to Thorotrast (thorium dioxide), a chemical formerly used in medical imaging. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the Western world, the most common of these is primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC), an inflammatory disease of the bile ducts which is closely associated with ulcerative colitis (UC). (wikipedia.org)
  • invasive
  • For example, neoplasms characterized by high-grade features, invasive glands and or signet ring cells, are termed adenocarcinoma in pathology literature. (wikipedia.org)