• alcohol
  • Physical dependence can develop from low-dose therapeutic use of certain medications such as benzodiazepines, opioids, antiepileptics and antidepressants, as well as the recreational misuse of drugs such as alcohol, opioids, and benzodiazepines. (wikipedia.org)
  • A physical dependence on alcohol is often managed with a cross tolerant drug, such as long acting benzodiazepines to manage the alcohol withdrawal symptoms. (wikipedia.org)
  • anticonvulsant
  • Medical treatment of poisoning may include the use of activated charcoal to decrease gastrointestinal absorption of the toxic principle along with supportive care including anticonvulsant drugs such as a benzodiazepine. (wikipedia.org)
  • VALIUM
  • Benzodiazepines include: Alprazolam (Xanax) Bromazepam (Lectopam, Lexotan) Chlordiazepoxide (Librium) Clonazepam (Klonopin, Rivotril) Clorazepate (Tranxene) Diazepam (Valium) Flurazepam (Dalmane) Lorazepam (Ativan) Oxazepam (Serax, Serapax) Temazepam (Restoril) Triazolam (Halcion) Benzodiazepines exert their anxiolytic properties at moderate dosage. (wikipedia.org)
  • synthesis
  • Vitamin B6, manganese, taurine and lysine can increase both GABA synthesis and effects, while aspartic acid and glutamic acid probably inhibit GABA effects. (hmdb.ca)
  • 1990
  • Baumann PA, Wicki P, Stierlin C, Waldmeier PC (1990): Investigations on GABA B receptor-mediated autoinhibition of GABA release. (springer.com)
  • Davies CH, Davies SN, Collingridge GL (1990): Paired-pulse depression of monosynaptic GABA-mediated inhibitory postsynaptic responses in rat hippocampus. (springer.com)
  • synaptic
  • Calabresi P, Mercuri NB, De Murtas M, Bernardi G (1991): Involvement of GABA systems in feedback regulation of glutamate- and GABA-mediated synaptic potentials in rat neostriatum. (springer.com)
  • sensitivity
  • For example, if the α1 and β2 subunits are expressed together they have high sensitivity to GABA, but low channel conductance. (wikipedia.org)
  • sites
  • It likely acts within the ion channels themselves, rather than at GABA recognition sites. (wikipedia.org)
  • withdrawal
  • Protracted withdrawal syndrome is noted to be most often caused by benzodiazepines. (wikipedia.org)
  • Benzodiazepine withdrawal syndrome-often abbreviated to benzo withdrawal-is the cluster of symptoms that emerge when a person who has taken benzodiazepines, either medically or recreationally, and has developed a physical dependence undergoes dosage reduction or discontinuation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Benzodiazepine withdrawal can be severe and can provoke life-threatening withdrawal symptoms, such as seizures, particularly with abrupt or overly rapid dosage reduction from high doses or long time users. (wikipedia.org)
  • A minority of individuals will experience a protracted withdrawal syndrome whose symptoms may persist at a sub-acute level for months, or years after cessation of benzodiazepines. (wikipedia.org)
  • Failure to recognize discontinuation symptoms can lead to false evidence for the need to take benzodiazepines, which in turn leads to withdrawal failure and reinstatement of benzodiazepines, often to higher doses. (wikipedia.org)
  • Awareness of the withdrawal reactions, individualized taper strategies according to withdrawal severity, the addition of alternative strategies such as reassurance and referral to benzodiazepine withdrawal support groups, all increase the success rate of withdrawal. (wikipedia.org)
  • Onset of symptoms from long half-life benzodiazepines might be delayed for up to three weeks, although withdrawal symptoms from short-acting ones often present early, usually within 24-48 hours. (wikipedia.org)
  • If benzodiazepines are discontinued rapidly after being taken daily for two or more weeks there is some risk of benzodiazepine withdrawal and rebound syndrome, which varies by the specific drug. (wikipedia.org)