• subunits
  • For example, if the α1 and β2 subunits are expressed together they have high sensitivity to GABA, but low channel conductance. (wikipedia.org)
  • modulator
  • Because neuronal L-VGCC function is up-regulated after long-term GABA A R modulator exposure, an interaction with L-VGCCs may also play a role in physical dependence. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Bicuculline US Patent 6649626 N-substituted 1-(lactone) isoquinolones for treating nervous disorders Thomet U, Baur R, Razet R, Dodd RH, Furtmüller R, Sieghart W, Sigel E. A novel positive allosteric modulator of the GABA(A) receptor: the action of (+)-ROD188. (wikipedia.org)
  • synthesis
  • Vitamin B6, manganese, taurine and lysine can increase both GABA synthesis and effects, while aspartic acid and glutamic acid probably inhibit GABA effects. (hmdb.ca)
  • VALIUM
  • Benzodiazepines include: Alprazolam (Xanax) Bromazepam (Lectopam, Lexotan) Chlordiazepoxide (Librium) Clonazepam (Klonopin, Rivotril) Clorazepate (Tranxene) Diazepam (Valium) Flurazepam (Dalmane) Lorazepam (Ativan) Oxazepam (Serax, Serapax) Temazepam (Restoril) Triazolam (Halcion) Benzodiazepines exert their anxiolytic properties at moderate dosage. (wikipedia.org)
  • anticonvulsant
  • Medical treatment of poisoning may include the use of activated charcoal to decrease gastrointestinal absorption of the toxic principle along with supportive care including anticonvulsant drugs such as a benzodiazepine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tolerance develops within days or weeks to the anticonvulsant, hypnotic muscle relaxant and after 4 months there is little evidence that benzodiazepines retain their anxiolytic properties. (wikipedia.org)
  • synaptic
  • Calabresi P, Mercuri NB, De Murtas M, Bernardi G (1991): Involvement of GABA systems in feedback regulation of glutamate- and GABA-mediated synaptic potentials in rat neostriatum. (springer.com)
  • withdrawal
  • Protracted withdrawal syndrome is noted to be most often caused by benzodiazepines. (wikipedia.org)
  • A physical dependence on alcohol is often managed with a cross tolerant drug, such as long acting benzodiazepines to manage the alcohol withdrawal symptoms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Benzodiazepine withdrawal syndrome-often abbreviated to benzo withdrawal-is the cluster of symptoms that emerge when a person who has taken benzodiazepines, either medically or recreationally, and has developed a physical dependence undergoes dosage reduction or discontinuation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Benzodiazepine withdrawal can be severe and can provoke life-threatening withdrawal symptoms, such as seizures, particularly with abrupt or overly rapid dosage reduction from high doses or long time users. (wikipedia.org)
  • A minority of individuals will experience a protracted withdrawal syndrome whose symptoms may persist at a sub-acute level for months, or years after cessation of benzodiazepines. (wikipedia.org)
  • Failure to recognize discontinuation symptoms can lead to false evidence for the need to take benzodiazepines, which in turn leads to withdrawal failure and reinstatement of benzodiazepines, often to higher doses. (wikipedia.org)
  • Awareness of the withdrawal reactions, individualized taper strategies according to withdrawal severity, the addition of alternative strategies such as reassurance and referral to benzodiazepine withdrawal support groups, all increase the success rate of withdrawal. (wikipedia.org)
  • Onset of symptoms from long half-life benzodiazepines might be delayed for up to three weeks, although withdrawal symptoms from short-acting ones often present early, usually within 24-48 hours. (wikipedia.org)
  • Benzodiazepine dependence or benzodiazepine addiction is when one has developed one or more of either tolerance, withdrawal symptoms, drug seeking behaviors, such as continued use despite harmful effects, and maladaptive pattern of substance use, according to the DSM-IV. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the case of benzodiazepine dependence, however, the continued use seems to be associated with the avoidance of unpleasant withdrawal reaction rather than from the pleasurable effects of the drug. (wikipedia.org)
  • When benzodiazepines are stopped, these neuroadaptations are "unmasked" leading to hyper-excitability of the nervous system and the appearance of withdrawal symptoms. (wikipedia.org)
  • It can include both a physical dependence as well as a psychological dependence and is typified by a withdrawal syndrome upon a fall in blood plasma levels of benzodiazepines, e.g., during dose reduction or abrupt withdrawal. (wikipedia.org)
  • Benzodiazepine dependence and withdrawal have been associated with suicide and self-harming behaviors, especially in young people. (wikipedia.org)
  • Benzodiazepine dependence is a frequent complication for those prescribed for or using for longer than four weeks, with physical dependence and withdrawal symptoms being the most common problem, but also occasionally drug-seeking behavior. (wikipedia.org)
  • If benzodiazepines are discontinued rapidly after being taken daily for two or more weeks there is some risk of benzodiazepine withdrawal and rebound syndrome, which varies by the specific drug. (wikipedia.org)
  • sites
  • It likely acts within the ion channels themselves, rather than at GABA recognition sites. (wikipedia.org)