• CYP1A1
  • The mechanism of action of benzo[a]pyrene-related DNA modification has been investigated extensively and relates to the activity of cytochrome P450 subclass 1A1 (CYP1A1). (wikipedia.org)
  • Seemingly, the high activity of CYP1A1 in the intestinal mucosa prevents major amounts of ingested benzo[a]pyrene from entering portal blood and systemic circulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the first step, a cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1) catalysed oxidation produces several products including (+)-benzo[a]pyrene-7,8-epoxide. (wikipedia.org)
  • Induction of CYP1A1 by benzo[a]pyrene occurs via binding to the aryl hydrocarbon receptor in the cytosol, leading the transformed receptor to translocate to the nucleus where it dimerises with aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator and then binds xenobiotic response elements in DNA located upstream of certain genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Seemingly, CYP1A1 activity in the intestinal mucosa prevents major amounts of ingested benzo[a]pyrene to enter portal blood and systemic circulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • A recent study has found that cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1) and cytochrome P450 1B1 (CYP1B1) are both protective and, confusingly, necessary for benzopyrene toxicity . (primidi.com)
  • Experiments with strains of mice engineered to remove (knockout) CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 reveal that CYP1A1 primarily acts to protect mammals from low doses of benzopyrene, and that removing this protection causes the biological accumulation of large concentrations of benzopyrene. (primidi.com)
  • ubiquitous
  • Benzo[a]pyrene is a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon and the result of incomplete combustion of organic matter at temperatures between 300 °C (572 °F) and 600 °C (1,112 °F). The ubiquitous compound can be found in coal tar, tobacco smoke and many foods, especially grilled meats. (wikipedia.org)
  • Land developers and remediators in Pennsylvania and New Jersey may soon have an easier time addressing soils containing benzo[a]pyrene, one of the most ubiquitous urban contaminants, thanks to updated information that was just released by U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). (lexology.com)
  • The objective of this study was to evaluate the reproductive risk associated with exposure of adult male Fisher-344 (F-344) rats to inhaled benzo(a)pyrene (BaP), a ubiquitous environmental toxicant present in cigarette smoke, automobile exhaust fumes and industrial emissions. (mdpi.com)
  • enzyme
  • We previously reported that overexpression of catalase upregulated xenobiotic- metabolizing enzyme (XME) expression and diminished benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) intermediate accumulation in mouse aortic endothelial cells (MAECs). (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • guanine
  • Benzo[a]pyrene-7,8-dihydrodiol-9,10-epoxide binds to the N2 atom of a guanine nucleobase in DNA, distorting the double helix structure by intercalation of the pyrene moiety between base pairs through π-stacking. (wikipedia.org)
  • The anti-benzo[a]pyrene diol epoxides induce guanine to thymidine transversions in related areas of p53, thereby inactivating its tumor suppression ability in certain cells, leading to genetic mutations and potentially to cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • found
  • Moreover, benzo[a]pyrene has been found to activate a transposon, LINE1, in humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • Benzopyrene was found to be behind the link , since it induces vitamin A deficiency in rats. (primidi.com)
  • A 2001 National Cancer Institute study found levels of benzopyrene to be significantly higher in foods that were cooked well-done on the barbecue, particularly steaks, chicken with skin, and hamburgers. (primidi.com)
  • levels
  • The revised toxicity criteria form the basis for the New Jersey Soil Remediation Standards and the Pennsylvania Statewide Health Standards, which define the acceptable default levels of benzo[a]pyrene that can be present in soil. (lexology.com)
  • link
  • It has been more difficult to link cancers to specific benzopyrene sources, especially in humans, and difficult to quantify risks posed by various methods of exposure (inhalation or ingestion). (primidi.com)
  • effects
  • The production of 3- OH-benzo(a)pyrene (13345216) and 9-OH-benzo(a)pyrene (17573216) was used to evaluate the effects of dimethyl-sulfoxide (DMSO), acetone, methanol, ethanol, and ethyl-acetate on BP-hydroxylase activity. (cdc.gov)
  • include
  • Natural sources of benzo[a]pyrene include forest fires and volcanoes, and anthropogenic sources include stoves/furnaces burning fossil fuels (especially wood and coal), motor vehicle exhaust, and various industrial combustion processes. (epa.gov)