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  • 1865
  • However, he did not propose it as the structure of benzene, and in fact he supported the correct structure previously proposed by August Kekulé in 1865. (wikipedia.org)
  • After Kekulé's proposal for benzene structure in 1865, Thiele suggested a "Partial Valence Hypothesis", which concerned double and triple carbon-carbon bonds with which he explains their particular reactivity. (wikipedia.org)
  • exposure
  • D.E. Rickert, T.S. Baker, J.S. Bus, C.S. Barrow, and R.D. Irons, Benzene disposition in the rat after exposure by inhalation, Toxicol. (springer.com)
  • B192-652) alleging her husband developed chronic lymphocytic leukemia and died as a result of his regular exposure to benzene during work at the Port Arthur facilities of the defendants. (prweb.com)
  • In the Report on Carcinogens , Twelfth Edition (2011) it is mentioned that the strongest epidemiological evidence that benzene causes cancer is from several cohort studies in various industries and geographical locations, which found that occupational exposure to benzene increased the risk of mortality from leukemia (mainly acute myelogenous leukemia). (prweb.com)
  • Benzene in soft drinks has to be seen in the context of other environmental exposure. (wikipedia.org)
  • Daily personal exposure to benzene is determined by adding exposure from all sources. (wikipedia.org)
  • Smoking: For smokers, cigarette smoking is the main source of exposure to benzene. (wikipedia.org)
  • organic
  • Bis(trifluoroacetoxy)iodo)benzene, C 6H 5I(OCOCF 3) 2, is a hypervalent iodine compound used as a reagent in organic chemistry. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many people in the area of Price Landfill own residential wells, which were found to be contaminated with volatile organic compounds, including benzene & chloroform, and arsenic in 1980. (wikipedia.org)
  • hydrogen
  • citation needed] The proposed mechanism begins with hydrogen abstraction by the hydroxyl radical, which itself is produced by the Cu2+-catalysed reduction of dioxygen by ascorbic acid: Other factors that affect the formation of benzene are heat and light. (wikipedia.org)
  • compound
  • The compound has nevertheless considerable strain energy and reverts to benzene with a chemical half-life of two days. (wikipedia.org)
  • The resulting organolithium compound can then be used as a nucleophile in various reactions, for example, with trimethylsilyl chloride: (Benzene)tricarbonylchromium is a useful catalyst for the hydrogenation of 1,3-dienes. (wikipedia.org)
  • found
  • Taking the worst example found to date of a soft drink containing 87.9 ppb benzene, someone drinking a 350 ml (12 oz) can would ingest 31 μg (micrograms) of benzene, almost equivalent to the benzene inhaled by a motorist refilling a fuel tank for three minutes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Air: A European study found that people breathe in 220 μg of benzene every day due to general atmospheric pollution. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1990, a study reported having found benzene in bottles of Perrier for sale in the United States, resulting in a voluntary product recall. (wikipedia.org)
  • form
  • In 1993, research showed how benzene can form from benzoic acid in the presence of vitamin C. In the summer of 1998, a number of well known soft drinks manufacturers had to withdraw large quantities of their products from sale after benzene contamination in some production plants was discovered. (wikipedia.org)
  • evidence
  • Citric acid is not thought to induce significant benzene production in combination with benzoic acid, but some evidence suggests that in the presence of ascorbic or erythorbic acid and benzoic acid, citric acid may accelerate the production of benzene. (wikipedia.org)
  • According
  • Benzene is also a known carcinogen according to the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services National Toxicology Program. (prweb.com)
  • According to the Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC), products containing 5% or more by weight of benzene are considered hazardous and require special labeling. (prweb.com)
  • formation
  • Storing soft drinks in warm conditions speeds up the formation of benzene. (wikipedia.org)
  • The International Council of Beverages Associations (ICBA) has produced advice to prevent or minimize benzene formation. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the early 1990s, the soft drink industry initially approached FDA with concerns about benzene formation in soft drinks. (wikipedia.org)
  • People
  • No one knows this better than the widow of Ricky Perrio, Diana Perrio and people who suffer from Benzene Side Effects . (prweb.com)
  • The UK Food Standards Agency has stated that people would need to drink at least 20 litres (5.5 gal) per day of a drink containing benzene at 10 μg to equal the amount of benzene they would breathe from city air every day. (wikipedia.org)
  • rings
  • Unlike benzene, Dewar benzene is not flat because the carbons where the rings join are bonded to four atoms rather than three. (wikipedia.org)
  • With his associate Otto Holzinger, he synthesised an iminodibenzyl nucleus: two benzene rings attached together by a nitrogen atom and an ethylene bridge. (wikipedia.org)
  • Health
  • World Health Organization (WHO): 10 ppb (WHO notes that benzene should be avoided whenever technically feasible. (wikipedia.org)
  • Republic of Korea (South Korea): 10 ppb Canada: 5 ppb United States: 5 ppb European Union: 1 ppb State limits within the United States: California, Connecticut, New Jersey, and Florida: 1 ppb The EPA and California have set public health goals for benzene of 0 ppb and 0.15 ppb. (wikipedia.org)
  • While there are alternatives to using sodium benzoate as a preservative, the casual consumption of such a drink is unlikely to pose a significant health hazard to a particular individual (see, for example, the EPA IRIS document on benzene). (wikipedia.org)
  • major
  • The major cause of benzene in soft drinks is the decarboxylation of benzoic acid in the presence of ascorbic acid (vitamin C, E300) or erythorbic acid (a diastereomer of ascorbic acid, E315). (wikipedia.org)
  • presence
  • The benzene forms from decarboxylation of the preservative benzoic acid in the presence of ascorbic acid (vitamin C) and metal ions (iron and copper) that act as catalysts, especially under heat and light. (wikipedia.org)
  • several
  • In November 2005, the FDA received test results conducted by private citizens that benzene was forming at low levels in several types of beverages. (wikipedia.org)
  • example
  • For example, it can be used to prepare (bis(trifluoroacetoxy)iodo)benzene (phenyliodine(III) bis(trifluoroacetate), PIFA) by heating in trifluoroacetic acid: PIFA can be used to carry out the Hofmann rearrangement under mildly acidic conditions, rather than the strongly basic conditions traditionally used. (wikipedia.org)
  • production
  • This discussion will consider mechanisms by which benzene produces decrements in bone marrow function, alters the production of cytokines, and impairs the hematopoietic system. (springer.com)
  • Calcium disodium EDTA and sugars have been shown to inhibit benzene production in soft drinks. (wikipedia.org)