• protein
  • both of which yield case dynamics and viral diversity patterns that are qualitatively similar to those observed and phylogenies that resemble the known topology of influenza's haemagglutinin (HA) protein. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • If it is a positive test, then we see a dot or a line on the test that results from seeing the gold nanoparticles that signal the antibodies recognising the viral protein," said Gehrke. (indianexpress.com)
  • Fusion protein (GST-tag) corresponding to Viral jun-transforming protein. (abcam.cn)
  • Genetic mutations in this region prevent viral protein production. (wikipedia.org)
  • These receptors belong to the seven transmembrane G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) family and are predominantly expressed on human T-cells, dendritic cells and macrophages, Langerhans cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Also, protein σA, which is a core protein of the S1133 strain, binds to dsRNA irreversibly. (wikipedia.org)
  • Removing this protein from this particular viral strain disables the posttranslational capacity of infected cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • One molecule of each protein associates noncovalently with the other on the viral membrane, and three of these units aggregate to form the gp120/gp41 heterotrimer, which traps the gp41 in a conformationally metastable state. (wikipedia.org)
  • The two coreceptors involved in the entry of HIV-1, CCR5 and CXCR4, belong to the larger family of 7-transmembrane segment (7TM) G-protein coupled receptors. (wikipedia.org)
  • In cp viruses the NS2/3 protein is either cleaved to NS2 and NS3 or there is a duplication of viral RNA containing an additional NS3 region. (wikipedia.org)
  • The structure of the envelope is characterized by the spike-like projections of two viral proteins, the fusion protein (F) and hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (Hn) protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • The matrix protein (M) is believed to form the inner layer of the envelope and interacts with the F and Hn proteins on the outside of the viral envelope during viral entry. (wikipedia.org)
  • The viral genomes of most paramyxovirus serotypes encode genes for a nucleocapsid protein (N), a phosphoprotein (P), a matrix protein (M), a fusion protein (F), a hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (Hn) protein and a large polymerase protein (L). A common feature of all paramyxoviruses is the presence of two membrane-anchored glycoproteins, one required for virion attachment and one required for fusion. (wikipedia.org)
  • The fusion protein (F) is an integral membrane protein, sharing many features similar to other viral fusion proteins and is directly involved in virus fusion. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is believed that two heptad repeat regions (HR1) and (HR2) form a six-helix bundle structure that helps to induce fusion of the viral membrane with the host cell membrane .The Hn protein is made up of a stalk and a globular head that contains receptor-binding capabilities that bind to sialic acid receptors located on cells in the upper respiratory tract of the host. (wikipedia.org)
  • In general, SRLVs enter the cell through the interaction of their glycosylated envelope protein with a cellular receptor on the cell's plasma membrane facilitating fusion of the viral and cellular membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • Upon viral entry into the host cell, the virus uncoats its outer protein shell and releases the viral RNA into the host cell's cytoplasm. (wikipedia.org)
  • avian paramyxovirus
  • Avian paramyxovirus 2 has been known to cause disease, specifically mild respiratory infections in domestic poultry, including turkeys and chickens, and has many economic effects on egg production and poultry industries.The virus was first isolated from a strain in Yucaipa, California in 1956. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, other isolated strains of avian paramyxovirus 2 have been isolated that contain genomes of similar, but different, lengths. (wikipedia.org)
  • polymerase
  • With the advent of highly sensitive molecular techniques, such as reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP), it became possible to detect the vvIBDV, to differentiate IBDV strains, and to use such information in studying the molecular epidemiology of the virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2002
  • In 2002, local doctors conducted a viral sequence analysis with over 1000 serum samples from asymptomatic chronic HBV carriers. (hindawi.com)
  • In 2002 a strain of Sindbis was isolated from patients during an outbreak of the Pogosta disease in Finland, confirming the hypothesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • genomes
  • A substantial proportion (8/40, 20%) of the newly characterized PUUV strains possessed reassortant genomes such as SBMALA, SAMBLB or SBMALB. (helsinki.fi)
  • rapid viral
  • However, viral changes from CCR5 to CXCR4 coreceptor usage have been associated with a faster rate of CD4+ T-cell loss, rapid viral progression, and an increased rate of development of AIDS and death. (wikipedia.org)
  • subtypes
  • The high percentage of homologies between HTLV-1 and STLV-1 strains, led to the demonstration that most HTLV-1 subtypes arose from interspecies transmission between monkeys and humans. (mdpi.com)
  • latent
  • Here we review our current knowledge of the factors contributing to viral persistence, the latent reservoir, and blips, and mathematical models developed to explore them and their relationships. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • family
  • Zika and dengue both belong to the same viral family called flaviviruses. (indianexpress.com)
  • The present invention relates to a novel method of inserting viral DNA, which optionally may contain cargo-DNA, into plants or viable parts thereof, but preferably into plants of the monocotyledon class, and most preferably into plants of the family Gramineae, using suitable transfer microorganisms. (google.com)
  • From a range of eight different strains belonging to the Chlamydomonadaceae family, TsV was only able to infect T. striata. (mdpi.com)
  • Belongs to the bZIP family. (abcam.cn)
  • It is generated from alpha-1-antitrypsin, a protease inhibitor that belongs to the serine family, by matrix metalloproteinases. (wikipedia.org)
  • Alpha and beta interferons belong to a family of multifunctional cytokines, which are expressed and activated/distributed by fibroblasts and leukocytes in response to infections. (wikipedia.org)
  • Haemophilus influenzae (formerly called Pfeiffer's bacillus or Bacillus influenzae) is a Gram-negative, coccobacillary, facultatively anaerobic pathogenic bacterium belonging to the Pasteurellaceae family. (wikipedia.org)
  • chickens
  • Based on their pathogenicity in chickens, NDV strains can be categorized into three different pathotypes: lentogenic (low virulence), mesogenic (moderate virulence) and velogenic (high virulence) ( Alexander, 2003 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • membrane
  • Attached to the host cell membrane, entry of the viral nucleic acid was thought to occur one of two ways: via the formation of a pore in the plasma membrane through which the RNA is then "injected" into the host cell cytoplasm, or that the virus is taken up by receptor-mediated endocytosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Viral entry to the CD4+ cell begins with attachment of the R5 HIV-1 glycoprotein 120 (gp120) to the CD4+ T-cell receptor, which produces a conformational change in gp120 and allows it to bind to CCR5, thereby triggering glycoprotein 41 (gp41) mediated fusion of the viral envelope with the cell membrane and the nucleocapsid enters the host cell (Figure 1). (wikipedia.org)
  • antibodies
  • Immunological typing of 15 Japanese encephalitis (JE) virus strains was done by HI and AGDP tests with preliminary cross adsorption of antibodies with antigens, observing standard quantitative adsorption conditions. (mysciencework.com)
  • After 2-3 weeks, antibodies effectively neutralise viral particles, promote clearance of virus and prevent seeding of target organs. (wikipedia.org)
  • outbreak
  • An endemic viral outbreak progressed throughout the Eastern African coastal cassava-growing areas from Southern Kenya, through Tanzania to the Zambezi river in Mozambique. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bovine
  • Bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) or bovine viral diarrhoea (UK English), and previously referred to as bovine virus diarrhoea (BVD), is a significant economic disease of cattle that is endemic in the majority of countries throughout the world. (wikipedia.org)
  • antigenic
  • Although these agents can be distinguished by their molecular and antigenic properties, all types of viral hepatitis produce clinically similar illnesses. (mhmedical.com)
  • particles
  • The virus can live on hard surfaces for several weeks and as few as 18 viral particles (virons) are enough to make a person sick (compared to 1,000 for the common flu). (wikipedia.org)
  • However
  • Quinolones are not effective against fungal or viral infections, however. (wisegeek.com)
  • However, virulent NDV strains are still isolated frequently in the birds under backyard and also in commercial venture which demonstrates that NDV remains an on-going threat to commercial as well as backyard poultry flocks. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • However, under such rule, some recombinant strains were misclassified into subgenotypes. (hindawi.com)
  • genotypes
  • genotypes affecting humans, all strains of this virus are immunologically indistinguishable and belong to one serotype. (mhmedical.com)
  • Viral genotypes in these samples were identified. (hindawi.com)
  • Current studies have suggested a causal relationship between HBV genotypes and the spectrum of HBV related diseases, leading us to further investigation in viral genotypes [ 9 - 14 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • vaccine
  • Unencapsulated H. influenzae strains are unaffected by the Hib vaccine and cause ear infections (otitis media), eye infections (conjunctivitis), and sinusitis in children, and are associated with pneumonia. (wikipedia.org)
  • cytopathic
  • In addition to the possible disruption of IFN-induced cellular responses, chicken embryo fibroblasts that are infected with strain S1133 have displayed significant cytopathic effects. (wikipedia.org)
  • induces
  • Mammalian orthoreovirus type 3 (strain dearing-T3D) induces cell death preferentially in transformed cells and therefore displays inherent oncolytic properties. (wikipedia.org)
  • emergence
  • We show how mathematical modeling can help improve our understanding of HIV-1 dynamics in patients on HAART and of the quantitative events underlying HIV-1 latency, reservoir stability, low-level viremic persistence, and emergence of intermittent viral blips. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • pandemic
  • The findings help address a major question facing public health officials: How to protect against a possible pandemic caused by a virus whose precise viral make-up won't be known until it has already become a threat? (innovations-report.com)
  • host
  • The severity of disease produced varies with both host and strain of virus. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • They play an important role as co-receptors that HIV type 1 (HIV-1) uses to attach to cells before viral fusion and entry into host cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • VIR-576 belongs to a kind of drugs categorized as antiretroviral, specifically it is an anchoring inhibitor that blocks HIV-1 entry into the host cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • disease
  • Pogosta disease is a viral disease, established to be identical with other diseases, Karelian fever and Ockelbo disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • different
  • Although these multi-strain models, among others, have been able to simulate dynamics that are consistent with particular features of the observed data, many of these models embody different mechanistic hypotheses about what factors play dominant roles in shaping the dynamics. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • The test can tell Zika from dengue, and also can distinguish among four different strains of dengue, Gehrke added. (indianexpress.com)
  • commonly
  • Ciprofloxacin, commonly called Cipro®, belongs to the fluoroquinolone group of antibiotics, which are frequently used to treat respiratory infections because of the wide range of bacterial organisms they destroy. (wisegeek.com)
  • In 1996, it was demonstrated that CCR5 serves as a co-receptor for the most commonly transmitted HIV-1 strains, R5. (wikipedia.org)
  • manifestations
  • The recombination regions were always the essential functioning regions affecting viral biological characteristics, and these characteristics lead to various manifestations in patients [ 19 , 20 ]. (hindawi.com)