**past behaviours**- This study aimed to evaluate the effect of implementing a bowel management protocol on intensive care nursing and medical staffs' knowledge, attitude, subjective norms, perceived behavioural control, behaviour intentions, role perceptions and past behaviours in relation to three bowel management practices. (biomedcentral.com)
- Interview surveys are based on self-report of participants regarding present and past behaviours, personal characteristics, knowledge and attitudes regarding drugs or other health topics. (europa.eu)

**observable**- How do we translate these concepts into observable and measurable behaviours? (wikipedia.org)
- There are many correlations between test scores and objectively observable measures like behaviour or socio-demographic, professional and clinical properties. (wikipedia.org)
- According to it, scientific inquiry proceeds by formulating a hypothesis in a form that could conceivably be falsified by a test on observable data. (wikipedia.org)

**sedentary**- The main preventative measures to be implemented include increasing physical exercise, dietary knowledge and decreasing sedentary behaviours. (wikipedia.org)

**perceptions**- People create their own "subjective social reality" from their own perceptions, their view of the world may dictate their behaviour. (wikipedia.org)
- He described the early stages of delusional thought as self-referential, over-interpretations of actual sensory perceptions, as opposed to hallucinations. (wikipedia.org)

**analyse**- The aim of this longitudinal study was to analyse how health-related behaviours and weight status differed by age-group, gender, family socio-economic status and over time in three cohorts of school children. (springer.com)
- To analyse a (time) series of data, we assume that it may be represented as trend plus noise: y t = a t + b + e t {\displaystyle y_{t}=at+b+e_{t}\,} where a {\displaystyle a} and b {\displaystyle b} are unknown constants and the e {\displaystyle e} 's are randomly distributed errors. (wikipedia.org)
- The Statistical Package for Social Sciences was used to analyse the questionnaire responses. (informationr.net)

**behavioural**- In behavioural psychology changes in attitudes are frequently perceived to follow rather than precede behaviour modifications. (bmj.com)

**Hypothesis**- Possible outcomes: Conclusive: The hypothesis is falsified by the data. (wikipedia.org)
- Data are consistent with the hypothesis. (wikipedia.org)
- Inconclusive: Data are not relevant to the hypothesis, or data and predictions are incommensurate. (wikipedia.org)

**empirical**- The journal publishes analysis, findings and recommendations relating to gender and behaviour, including theoretical, empirical and descriptive works and relevant scholarly discussions of ethics. (journals.co.za)
- Annual discount rates range from ten to fourteen percent across the data sets and empirical specifications. (springer.com)

**methods**- In a context of deteriorating civil infrastructure and limited funds available to ensure their functionality and safety, there is a need for accurate assessment methods leading to a better allocation of the available resources and a timely detection of abnormal behaviours. (surrey.ac.uk)
- Unlike most hydrochemistry studies, the method used makes no a priori assumptions about the complexity of the dynamics (e.g., number of flow-paths), but instead uses objective statistical methods to define these (together with uncertainty analysis). (environmental-expert.com)
- Multiple host feeding and flexibility in blood feeding behaviour have important implications for malaria transmission, malaria control, and the effectiveness of intervention and monitoring methods, particularly those that target human-feeding vectors. (biomedcentral.com)
- Characterizing the malaria vector species composition in Indonesia is critical to determine suitable methods for collection and the potential impact of interventions that exploit vector feeding behaviours. (biomedcentral.com)
- Methods of probability theory also apply to descriptions of complex systems given only partial knowledge of their state, as in statistical mechanics. (wikipedia.org)
- Statistical methods were used confidently. (wikipedia.org)
- The department holds particular expertise in multivariate statistical methods for measurement, life-course epidemiology and the analysis of experimental, genetic and neuropsychiatric data. (wikipedia.org)
- He published extensively on methods for causal inference and the behavior of standard statistical models under non-standard conditions - for example, how regression models behave when fitted to data from randomized experiments. (wikipedia.org)
- He characterized circumstances in which the methods continue to perform well, and those where they break down-regardless of the quality of the data. (wikipedia.org)
- The authors emphasize: Personality tests require conscious application of methods and strategies of multimodal diagnostics, i.e., saveguards and critical interpretation. (wikipedia.org)

**attitudes**- Addressing factors such as knowledge, attitudes and beliefs can assist in targeting implementation strategies to positively affect clinician behaviour change. (biomedcentral.com)

**uncertainty**- The robust models identified are based on continuous-time transfer functions and demonstrate high simulation efficiency with a constrained uncertainty allowing hydrological interpretation of dominant flow-paths and behaviour of H + load in four upland headwaters. (environmental-expert.com)
- Gather and analyze data from experiments or observations, including indicators of uncertainty. (wikipedia.org)
- There is too much uncertainty in the data to draw any conclusion. (wikipedia.org)

**relation**- The Eötvös rule also gives a relation of the surface tension behaviour of different liquids in respect to each other: 2. (wikipedia.org)

**quantitative**- Analysis of quantitative data was done using Statistical Packages for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 23.0. (journals.co.za)
- As a mathematical foundation for statistics, probability theory is essential to many human activities that involve quantitative analysis of data. (wikipedia.org)
- The data acquired for quantitative marketing research can be analysed by almost any of the range of techniques of statistical analysis, which can be broadly divided into descriptive statistics and statistical inference. (wikipedia.org)

**interpret**- Thematic content analysis was used to categorise data into themes, to address and interpret qualitative data. (journals.co.za)

**regression models**- Moreover, an algorithm based on statistical control charts defined by the prediction bands of the regression models is proposed for the interpretation of new monitoring data and the identification of abnormal behaviours, as part of an envisaged "real-time" assessment. (surrey.ac.uk)

**participants**- Triangulation was applied through using three sets of participants and different data collection techniques for each. (informationr.net)

**thus**- 6 Feedback on prescribing, giving information on aggregated data, may thus not be sufficient to change behaviour. (bmj.com)
- Thus, cognitive biases may sometimes lead to perceptual distortion, inaccurate judgment, illogical interpretation, or what is broadly called irrationality. (wikipedia.org)
- Interpretivist social scientists, by contrast, may use social critique or symbolic interpretation rather than constructing empirically falsifiable theories, and thus treat science in its broader sense. (wikipedia.org)

**Apophenia**- Apophenia, also known as patternicity, or agenticity, is the human tendency to perceive meaningful patterns within random data. (wikipedia.org)

**Mathematical**- Mathematical model simulations indicate that this pattern of behaviour could explain the greater excess mortality that was recorded among males, given a recent - last 4-5 years - escalation of the HIV epidemic in rural areas. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- Mathematical model projections, based on our understanding of the predominant behaviour pattern and fitted to observed trends in HIV prevalence, also indicate that further increases in adult and early childhood mortality are to be expected. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- The paradox is used in mathematical statistics teaching to illustrate the care statisticians need to take when interpreting data. (wikipedia.org)
- Although there are several different probability interpretations, probability theory treats the concept in a rigorous mathematical manner by expressing it through a set of axioms. (wikipedia.org)
- The origin of multifractality in sequential (time series) data has been attributed to mathematical convergence effects related to the central limit theorem that have as foci of convergence the family of statistical distributions known as the Tweedie exponential dispersion models as well as the geometric Tweedie models. (wikipedia.org)
- Freedman was a fellow of the Institute of Mathematical Statistics and the American Statistical Association and an elected fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. (wikipedia.org)

**violent**- Forensic Mental Health Science is the study of antisocial, violent, and criminal behaviours among people with mental disorders. (wikipedia.org)

**descriptive statistics**- Data was analysed using descriptive statistics and thematically approach through SPSS version 24 and Atlas.ti version 9. (journals.co.za)

**displaystyle**- Given a set of points in time t {\displaystyle t} , and data values y t {\displaystyle y_{t}} observed for those points in time, values of a {\displaystyle a} and b {\displaystyle b} are chosen so that ∑ t [ y t − ( a ^ t + b ^ ) ] 2 {\displaystyle \sum _{t}[y_{t}-({\hat {a}}t+{\hat {b}})]^{2}} is minimized. (wikipedia.org)
- While the determination of D ( h ) {\displaystyle D(h)} calls for some exhaustive local analysis of the data, which would result in difficult and numerically unstable calculations, the estimation of the ζ ( q ) {\displaystyle \zeta (q)} relies on the use of statistical averages and linear regressions in log-log diagrams. (wikipedia.org)
- Interestingly, the ζ ( q ) {\displaystyle \zeta (q)} receives some statistical interpretation as they characterize the evolution of the distributions of the T X ( a ) {\displaystyle T_{X}(a)} as a {\displaystyle a} goes from larger to smaller scales. (wikipedia.org)

**methodology**- A methodology for probabilistic fatigue life prediction is then developed by integrating the different data-based models within an S-N fatigue reliability framework. (surrey.ac.uk)
- His methodology and the statistical analysis have been criticised by mathematicians. (wikipedia.org)
- The interdisciplinary and cross-disciplinary nature of scientific inquiry into human behaviour, social and environmental factors affecting it, made many of the natural sciences interested in some aspects of social science methodology. (wikipedia.org)
- The department provides both introductory and advanced training in applied statistical methodology, collaborate on studies of mental health based here and internationally, and undertake research in relevant applied methodology. (wikipedia.org)

**assessment**- Data-based models for assessment and life prediction of monitored civil infrastructure assets. (surrey.ac.uk)
- Motivated by this, the research presented herein is devoted to the development of data-based models and associated methodologies for monitoring data interpretation, assessment and probabilistic life prediction in the specific area of fatigue reliability of welded joints in orthotropic steel decks. (surrey.ac.uk)

**observations**- If an individual series of observations is generated from simulations that employ a given variance of noise that equals the observed variance of our data series of interest, and a given length (say, 100 points), a large number of such simulated series (say, 100,000 series) can be generated. (wikipedia.org)
- This can be due to incidental systematic error or flaws in the theory that generated an assumed family of probability distributions, or it may be that some observations are far from the center of the data. (wikipedia.org)
- In the case of normally distributed data, the three sigma rule means that roughly 1 in 22 observations will differ by twice the standard deviation or more from the mean, and 1 in 370 will deviate by three times the standard deviation. (wikipedia.org)
- The model overfits the particular data or observations rather than fitting a generalizable pattern in a general population. (wikipedia.org)

**analysis**- Most commonly used statistical procedures, for analysis and interpretation of statistical data, rest on assumptions about the behaviour of the data. (springer.com)
- The main and interaction effects of time, gender and parental educational level on the health-related behaviours, weight status and body mass index standard deviation score (BMIsds) were analysed by the Weighted Least Squares method for categorical repeated measures and Analysis of Variance. (springer.com)
- Themes were generated as the units for analysis based on the objectives of the study to enable interpretation of qualitative information. (journals.co.za)
- The proposed data-based models, associated methodologies and analysis are illustrated using the monitoring data from the Great Belt Bridge (Denmark). (surrey.ac.uk)
- It allowed comparative analysis of responses and data collection techniques used in the study. (informationr.net)
- The department also hosts the UKCRN accredited King's Clinical Trials Unit which provides randomisation, data management, analysis and trial management - all of which are available to researchers across King's Health Partners. (wikipedia.org)
- Data analysis. (wikipedia.org)
- The codification and analysis steps are typically performed by computer, using statistical software. (wikipedia.org)
- In any instance, an appropriate type of statistical analysis should take account of the various types of error that may arise, as outlined below. (wikipedia.org)
- The first 10 scales are neither a consequence of a preconceived personality theory nor just a result of statistical data reduction (factor analysis etc.) but based on theoretically founded personality traits. (wikipedia.org)

**methodologies**- The NZCASS 2014 features "Improvements in methodologies, systems and statistical processes help make statistics more complete, accurate and useful. (wikipedia.org)

**healthy**- Even though it is never too late to change behaviour, it is preferable to have a healthy diet and be physically active from an early age in order to promote optimal growth and development. (springer.com)

**largely**- Data is largely dependent upon reporting and recording practices, and is unlikely to accurately represent the incidence of domestic violence against women in New Zealand. (wikipedia.org)

**indicate**- Women with HIV infection are reported as having lower fertility than other women in Ugandan studies and results from our research in Manicaland indicate that behaviour changes which would tend to re-enforce the existing decline in birth rates may be beginning to occur . (clinicaltrials.gov)
- Outlier points can therefore indicate faulty data, erroneous procedures, or areas where a certain theory might not be valid. (wikipedia.org)
- As illustrated in this case, outliers may indicate data points that belong to a different population than the rest of the sample set. (wikipedia.org)

**Results**- These 100,000 series can then be analysed individually to calculate estimated trends in each series, and these results establish a distribution of estimated trends that are to be expected from such random data - see diagram. (wikipedia.org)
- Study record managers: refer to the Data Element Definitions if submitting registration or results information. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- Statistical bias results from an unfair sampling of a population, or from an estimation process that does not give accurate results on average. (wikipedia.org)
- Two major results in probability theory describing such behaviour are the law of large numbers and the central limit theorem. (wikipedia.org)
- Two of his earlier results (1963 and 1965) investigate whether or not and under what circumstances a Bayesian learning approach is consistent, i.e. when does the prior converge to the true probability distribution given sufficiently many observed data. (wikipedia.org)
- Test the results for statistical significance. (wikipedia.org)

**spectrum**- Here, I present the interpretation that the peak in the photon spectrum can be attributed to the black-body emission of the photosphere of the outflow, having a temperature of approximately 10 9 K. An additional non-thermal spectral component can be attributed to additional dissipation of the kinetic energy in the outflow. (royalsocietypublishing.org)

**framework**- The theory of planned behaviour offers a framework in which to investigate clinicians' intention to perform the behaviour of interest. (biomedcentral.com)

**epidemiology**- In addition to his work in forensic statistics, Freedman had a broad impact on the application of statistics to important medical, social, and public policy issues, such as clinical trials, epidemiology, economic models, and the interpretation of scientific experiments and observational studies. (wikipedia.org)

**Interestingly**- Interestingly, the thermal component exhibits a recurring behaviour over emission pulse structures. (royalsocietypublishing.org)

**changes**- Birth rates are declining in rural areas of Zimbabwe at present and the HIV epidemic may re-enforce this decline through changes in behaviour or underlying fecundity . (clinicaltrials.gov)
- Outliers arise due to changes in system behaviour, fraudulent behaviour, human error, instrument error or simply through natural deviations in populations. (wikipedia.org)

**citation needed**- citation needed] Overfitting occurs when a statistical model fits the noise rather than the signal. (wikipedia.org)

**human**- To examine species-specific host attraction and feeding behaviours, a Latin square design was used to compare Anopheles mosquitoes attracted to human, cow, and goat-baited tents. (biomedcentral.com)
- Sachs, Gunter: The Astrology File: Scientific Proof of the Link Between Star Signs and Human Behaviour. (wikipedia.org)

**knowledge**- This study adds to our knowledge regarding the temporal development of health behaviours and weight status in school children. (springer.com)
- Despite an increase in clinicians' knowledge scores, our implementation strategy did not, however, significantly change clinician behaviour intentions for all three bowel management practices. (biomedcentral.com)
- 5 Improved knowledge does not, however, necessarily lead to a corresponding change in behaviour. (bmj.com)

**significance**- They found serious errors in all parts and deny any statistical significance after the necessary corrections in his data. (wikipedia.org)

**mechanics**- John Lennard-Jones and Corner published (1940) a derivation of the equation by means of statistical mechanics. (wikipedia.org)

**study**- This study focused on secondary level geography teachers in schools that offer geography at both junior and senior secondary to investigate their information needs and information-seeking behaviour in order to guide the design and implementation of their information service. (informationr.net)

**discrete**- In particular the 1965 paper with the innocent title "On the asymptotic behaviour of Bayes estimates in the discrete case II" finds the rather disappointing answer that when sampling from a countably infinite population the Bayesian procedure fails almost everywhere, i.e. one does not obtain the true distribution asymptotically. (wikipedia.org)

**different**- In this way the measurements taken from a child who is at different stages of their sexual maturation compared to another may alter the reliability of the data. (wikipedia.org)

**useful**- In particular, it may be useful to determine if measurements exhibit an increasing or decreasing trend which is statistically distinguished from random behaviour. (wikipedia.org)
- Before considering trends in real data, it is useful to understand trends in random data. (wikipedia.org)
- This evaluation, informed by the theory of planned behaviour, has provided useful insights into factors that influence clinician intentions to perform evidence-based bowel management practices in intensive care. (biomedcentral.com)

**secondary**- Data were collected from in-service teachers through focus group discussions, prospective teachers with a questionnaire, and key actors in Lesotho's secondary geography education context through individual interviews. (informationr.net)

**consistent**- Data are consistent with alternative hypotheses. (wikipedia.org)

**temperature**- We are proud that they decided to choose our smart WS501 compact weather station (All-in-one) for measurement of the meteorlogical parameters.With the integration of the smart weather sensor WS501-UMB the calibration vehicle can provide accurate data about air temperature, relative humidity, global radiation, air pressure, wind direction and wind speed.The National Agency. (environmental-expert.com)
- The temperature dependence of the surface tension can be plotted for all liquids in a way that the data collapses to a single master curve. (wikipedia.org)

**scientific**- Batyr's case was also included in several books on animal behaviour, and in the proceedings of several scientific conferences. (wikipedia.org)
- Batyr's lexicon list was compiled from audiovisual records, scientific researches and statistical data from eyewitnesses who heard the elephant themselves. (wikipedia.org)

**patterns**- This can often lead to people seeing clusters or patterns in data sometimes inadvertently to prove their ideas. (wikipedia.org)

**research**- Further research is required to explore the influence of opinion leaders and organizational culture on clinicians' behaviour intentions related to bowel management for intensive care patients. (biomedcentral.com)
- This department provides advice in the interpretation and use of statistical techniques in psychological research. (wikipedia.org)
- The department's research focuses on antisocial behaviour as it appears in people with either major mental disorders or personality disorders. (wikipedia.org)

**generate**- to generate descriptive numerical data that were used to compare the two groups. (journals.co.za)
- clearly such a constructed series would be trend-free, so as with the approach of using simulated data these series can be used to generate borderline trend values V and −V. In the above discussion the distribution of trends was calculated by simulation, from a large number of trials. (wikipedia.org)

**high frequency**- Ultra-low frequency (ULF) hydromagnetic waves, often referred to as geomagnetic pulsations, have been observed for many years in magnetometer data as well as by very high frequency (VHF) and high-frequency (HF) radars, and are endemic within the magnetosphere. (scielo.org.za)

**Journal**- 1968. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, Series B 30: 248-275. (springer.com)
- and published it in the Journal of the Royal Statistical Society in 1951 at Bartlett's request because Bartlett wanted to refer to it. (wikipedia.org)
- Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, Series B. 13: 238-241. (wikipedia.org)

**Statistics**- Naive interpretation of statistics derived from data sets that include outliers may be misleading. (wikipedia.org)

**result**- This behaviour is the result of the fact that L-shells nearer the earth have higher frequencies than the driver and lead it in phase, whereas those that are near magnetopause have lower frequencies than the driver and lag it in phase. (scielo.org.za)

**models**- This evolution is often called statistical intermittency and betrays a departure from Gaussian models. (wikipedia.org)

**techniques**- An important set of techniques is that related to statistical surveys. (wikipedia.org)
- Using the percentile ranking to determine whether or not a child or adolescent between 2-20 years old is overweight or obese inherits the same techniques as a BMI except the interpretation of the data collected is varied. (wikipedia.org)

**control**- Species-specific behaviours, such as host feeding preferences, impact the dynamics of malaria transmission and the effectiveness of vector control interventions. (biomedcentral.com)

**responses**- Nowadays, technological advances have enabled the acquisition of reliable monitoring data concerning environmental conditions, loadings and structural responses from civil infrastructure assets. (surrey.ac.uk)

**affect**- Year 8 brings into focus some key PSHE topics, most especially peer pressure and the way our behaviour can be influenced by and affect others. (issuu.com)

**theory**- 16 provided compelling evidence in favour of this theory by using STARE radar data to plot the amplitude and phase of an electric field. (scielo.org.za)

**sometimes**- the latter are sometimes excluded from the data set. (wikipedia.org)