• doses
  • As the only TB vaccine, BCG has been in use since 1921,[ and is now the most widely used vaccine worldwide, with more than 3 billion total doses given. (clinicalcorrelations.org)
  • Overall, the rate of any adverse reaction has been reported to be between 0.1% and 19% and serious adverse reactions such as osteitis, osteomyelitis, and disseminated BCG infection are rare and estimated to occur less than once per 1 million doses given. (clinicalcorrelations.org)
  • The study involves random allocation of up to 36 subjects (4 vaccine groups of 9 volunteers fulfilling the inclusion criteria) to MTBVAC (tested at three separate doses) or standard dose BCG (on a 3 verum : 1control basis) in a dose-escalation manner to one of three cohorts. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The National Business Group on Health (NBGH) states an analysis of pregnant women who received at least two doses had 98% effectiveness of the tetanus vaccine(NBGH, 2011). (wikipedia.org)
  • In some human trials, BCG was not found to prevent type 1 diabetes, or lead to type 1 diabetes remission in those who are newly diagnosed, although one study from Israel showed disease remission in newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes, and an observational study from Turkey suggestsed that multiple doses of the BCG vaccine in childhood may protect against the development of type 1 diabetes. (wikipedia.org)
  • anthrax vaccine
  • Pasteur had already discovered molecular chirality, investigated fermentation, refuted spontaneous generation, inspired Lister's introduction of antisepsis, introduced pasteurization to France's wine industry, answered the silkworm diseases blighting France's silkworm industry, applied bacteriology to attenuate a Pasteurella species and introduce chicken cholera vaccine (1879), and introduced anthrax vaccine (1881). (wikipedia.org)
  • In July 1880 Toussaint reported developing a technique of chemical deactivation to produce anthrax vaccine that successfully protected dogs and cattle, and was praised by the Academy of Science, but Pasteur attacked the feat-chemical deactivation and not virulence attenuation to make a vaccine-as impossible. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pasteur soon introduced his own anthrax vaccine in a highly successful public experiment, and entered commerce with it. (wikipedia.org)
  • The anthrax vaccine was administered to 25 sheep while another 25 were used as a control. (wikipedia.org)
  • tumour
  • A sample of the tumour mixed with formalin and BCG marks the malignant cells so the immune system might react and attack the cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • dose
  • Dose-Escalation Study to Evaluate the Safety and Immunogenicity of MTBVAC Vaccine in Comparison With BCG Vaccine. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Each cohort includes 9 subjects set to receive MTBVAC lowest dose 5x10E03, or MTBVAC intermediate dose 5x10E04, or high dose 5x10E05 colony forming units (CFU) in 0.1 mL and 3 subjects set to receive standard dose BCG (5x10E05 CFU in 0.1 mL). (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Faustman hypothesizes that the optimal dose of BCG was not utilized in previous trials. (wikipedia.org)
  • complication
  • This complication carries a high mortality rate of 80-83%, and the incidence of fatality is estimated at 0.19-1.56 cases per 1 million vaccines given. (clinicalcorrelations.org)
  • This study confirms a high perioperative complication rate associated with the primary surgical treatment of BCG lymphadenitis in both HIV-positive and negative patients. (scielo.org.za)
  • trials
  • Genetic variation in BCG strains: Genetic variation in the BCG strains used may explain the variable efficacy reported in different trials. (wikipedia.org)
  • meningitis
  • It is currently accepted that the BCG vaccine provides protection against TB meningitis and disseminated TB in children, as well as leprosy in endemic areas such as Brazil, India, and Africa. (clinicalcorrelations.org)
  • infants
  • This route of administration was stopped in 1930 following the Lübeck (Germany) disaster, in which 27% of 249 infants receiving the vaccine developed and died from TB. (clinicalcorrelations.org)
  • widely
  • Although widely used, the efficacy of the vaccine in preventing pulmonary TB is uncertain, with studies showing 0-80% protective benefit. (clinicalcorrelations.org)
  • Other reasons why the observed efficacy of BCG vaccines may vary so widely is that they are produced at different sites around the world, with inconsistent quality control. (clinicalcorrelations.org)
  • immune
  • Hepatitis B immune globulin may interfere with the immune response to BCG. (drugs.com)
  • Faustman hypothesizes that BCG could induce a permanent gene expression that restores regulatory T cells (Tregs), helping to prevent the immune system attack which characterizes type 1 diabetes. (wikipedia.org)
  • clinical
  • Safety results from a Phase I human clinical trial testing the BCG vaccine in individuals with advanced type 1 diabetes were announced in June 2010. (wikipedia.org)
  • research
  • BCG vaccine research. (sciencephoto.com)
  • A review into haemophilus influenza type B (Hib) and viral influenza found one good piece of research that showed the flu vaccine reduced the number of women and babies who caught flu. (wikipedia.org)
  • There was not enough research found in the review to show whether giving the Hib vaccine reduced the number of mothers and babies with Hib. (wikipedia.org)
  • found
  • BCG was found to be safe as administered in this trial, with no serious adverse events reported and only expected mild inflammation at the injection site. (wikipedia.org)
  • Type
  • In the double-blind, placebo-controlled proof-of-concept study, six participants with long-term (mean duration of disease 15 years) type 1 diabetes were randomized to repeated BCG vaccinations (n=3) or placebo (n=3). (wikipedia.org)
  • study
  • A retrospective study was undertaken of 23 cases of suspected ipsilateral BCG adenitis following neo-natal BCG inoculation (2001 - 2004). (scielo.org.za)
  • A randomized, double-blind, controlled Phase I study conducted at CHUV, Lausanne, Switzerland, to compare MTBVAC to licensed BCG in healthy, PPD-negative adult male and female volunteers. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Years
  • If the work to enable deployment of the vaccine had been commenced at the same time as work began on the DIVA test it could have been deployed three years ago, four more years are expected to pass before its eventual deployment. (bovinetb.co.uk)
  • Venezuela's National Institute of Biomedicine soon published a note clarifying that they have been working for the previous three years on a vaccine against cancer and it is still in development. (wikipedia.org)
  • treatment
  • The BCG vaccine is not used in the US, where TB control emphasizes treatment of latently infected individuals. (clinicalcorrelations.org)
  • primary surgical treatment (incisional drainage or biopsy) is therefore not considered an ideal form of management in BCG lymphadenitis because of the high fistulisation and poor wound healing, especially in the HIV-positive patient. (scielo.org.za)
  • different
  • A number of possible reasons for the variable efficacy of BCG in different countries have been proposed. (wikipedia.org)
  • To enhance the TS of the vaccine, some prevalent stabilizers in different concentrations were added to the final formulation of BCG bulk prior to Freeze-drying process. (ac.ir)
  • Jacinto Convit García (11 September 1913 - 12 May 2014) was a Venezuelan physician and scientist, known for developing a vaccine to fight leprosy and his studies to cure different types of cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • high
  • This vaccine is generally administered to children at birth in countries with high incidence of TB. (medindia.net)
  • shown
  • The trial, based in Birmingham, United Kingdom, examined children born to families who originated from the Indian Subcontinent (where vaccine efficacy had previously been shown to be zero). (wikipedia.org)
  • Koch's bacteriologists regarded a bacterial species' properties as unalterable, a position shown false by Pasteur's modification of virulence to develop vaccine. (wikipedia.org)
  • The tetanus vaccine (tetanus toxoid) has shown to be successful in preventing babies from developing tetanus and deaths from tetanus. (wikipedia.org)
  • prevent
  • On June 7, 2010, a Venezuelan newspaper incorrectly announced the successful development by Convit of a new cancer vaccine intended to prevent colon, stomach and breast cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • develop
  • Pasteur applied the discovery to develop chicken cholera vaccine, introduced in a public experiment, an empirical challenge to the stance of Koch's bacteriologists that bacterial traits were unalterable. (wikipedia.org)
  • protection
  • 0.00001), it is hypothesized that exposure to certain endemic mycobacteria, thought to be more common in lower latitudes, might provide natural immunity to the indigenous people, and the addition of BCG vaccine does not add much to this natural protection. (clinicalcorrelations.org)
  • production
  • Thermal stability (TS) is a part of the BCG vaccine characterization by which the consistency of process in BCG vaccine production could be confirmed. (ac.ir)
  • Like CFA in the mouse (not approved for use in humans), BCG induces TNF-α production in humans. (wikipedia.org)