• caudate nucleus
  • Reviews of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies suggest that long-term treatment with amphetamine decreases abnormalities in brain structure and function found in subjects with ADHD, and improves function in several parts of the brain, such as the right caudate nucleus of the basal ganglia. (wikipedia.org)
  • Parkinson's Disease
  • The exact function of the basal ganglia is something that is still being studied and observed, though it has been determined that the area plays some part in disease, including Parkinson's Disease and Huntington's Disease. (reference.com)
  • New research is showing how the basal ganglia, deep inside the brain below the cortex, are important in learning from feedback, in the formation of good and bad habits, and even in brain disorders as diverse as Parkinson's disease, ADHD, and addiction. (dana.org)
  • The muscle rigidity, tremor at rest, and slowness in initiation and execution of movement that are the cardinal motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease are attributed to a reduction in dopaminergic activity in the basal ganglia motor areas, particularly the putamen, due to gradually reduced innervation from SNc. (wikipedia.org)
  • Also, several major degenerative diseases of the basal ganglia, including Parkinson's disease and Huntington's disease, are specific to humans, although "models" of them have been proposed for other species. (wikipedia.org)
  • hemorrhage
  • During his initial hospitalization for further evaluation, an MRI brain (Figure 1 ) showed evidence of bilateral basal ganglia and thalamic AVMs with evidence of hemorrhage and a small area of encephalomalacia adjacent to the AVM on the right. (hindawi.com)
  • ganglia's
  • Reflexes deserve respect, writes the author, and understanding how people differ in learning from positive or negative feedback may have implications for education as well as for treating diseases in which the basal ganglia's systems go awry. (dana.org)
  • Tourette
  • Though motor disorders are the most common associated with the basal ganglia, recent research shows that basal ganglia disorders can lead to other dysfunctions such as obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) and Tourette syndrome. (wikipedia.org)
  • lateral
  • During development, the cells that migrate tangentially to form the basal ganglia are directed by the lateral and medial ganglionic eminences. (wikipedia.org)
  • involvement
  • One possible factor could be the natural accumulation of iron in the basal ganglia, causing neurodegeneration due to its involvement in toxic free-radical reactions. (wikipedia.org)
  • distinct
  • The basal ganglia have a limbic sector whose components are assigned distinct names: the nucleus accumbens, ventral pallidum, and ventral tegmental area (VTA). (wikipedia.org)
  • motor
  • It seems to be generally agreed that the basal ganglia have something to do with the creation and execution of motor plans. (cerebromente.org.br)
  • The basal ganglia are associated with a variety of functions including: control of voluntary motor movements, procedural learning, routine behaviors or "habits" such as teeth grinding, eye movements, cognition, and emotion. (wikipedia.org)
  • several
  • Popular theories implicate the basal ganglia primarily in action selection - in helping to decide which of several possible behaviors to execute at any given time. (wikipedia.org)
  • loop
  • The loop was originally proposed as a part of a model of the basal ganglia called the parallel processing model, which has been criticized and modified into another model called the center surround model. (wikipedia.org)