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  • thalamus
  • Dilated ventricles theoretically impair perfusion in ventricular walls, generating hypoperfusional states especially in frontal lobes, basal ganglia and thalamus, thus resulting classic symptomatology 7 . (scielo.br)
  • In contrast to the cortical layer that lines the surface of the forebrain, the basal ganglia are a collection of distinct masses of gray matter lying deep in the brain not far from the junction of the thalamus. (wikipedia.org)
  • limbic
  • The basal ganglia have a limbic sector whose components are assigned distinct names: the nucleus accumbens, ventral pallidum, and ventral tegmental area (VTA). (wikipedia.org)
  • The leading hypotheses propose the involvement of the orbitofrontal cortex, basal ganglia, and/or the limbic system, with discoveries being made in the fields of neuroanatomy, neurochemistry, neuroimmunology, neurogenetics, and neuroethology. (wikipedia.org)
  • occur
  • If too little blood is delivered to the basal ganglia, a stroke can occur. (wikipedia.org)
  • Athetoid cerebral palsy or dyskinetic cerebral palsy (sometimes abbreviated ADCP) is a type of cerebral palsy primarily associated with damage, like other forms of CP, to the basal ganglia in the form of lesions that occur during brain development due to bilirubin encephalopathy and hypoxic-ischemic brain injury. (wikipedia.org)
  • subcortical
  • New research shows that the basal ganglia can be modeled as a group of components of parallel, reentrant cortico-subcortical circuits, which originate in cortical areas, traverse the basal ganglia and terminate in specific areas in the frontal lobe. (wikipedia.org)
  • Brain
  • The basal ganglia is a collective group of structures in the brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • The "behavior switching" that takes place within the basal ganglia is influenced by signals from many parts of the brain, including the prefrontal cortex, which plays a key role in executive functions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Like most parts of the brain, the basal ganglia consist of left and right sides that are virtual mirror images of each other. (wikipedia.org)
  • inhibition
  • Experimental studies show that the basal ganglia exert an inhibitory influence on a number of motor systems, and that a release of this inhibition permits a motor system to become active. (wikipedia.org)
  • Putamen
  • The muscle rigidity, tremor at rest, and slowness in initiation and execution of movement that are the cardinal motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease are attributed to a reduction in dopaminergic activity in the basal ganglia motor areas, particularly the putamen, due to gradually reduced innervation from SNc. (wikipedia.org)
  • neuronal
  • These results demonstrate that chorea is associated with focal neuronal changes that are not complemented by global changes in the BG nuclei. (physiology.org)
  • neuropsychiatric
  • In 1916, von Economo described encephalitis lethargica (EL), a CNS disorder presenting with pharyngitis followed by sleep disorder, basal ganglia signs (particularly parkinsonism) and neuropsychiatric sequelae. (wikipedia.org)
  • pathway
  • Chorea and other behavioral abnormalities may be induced by local disruptions of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) transmission in the indirect pathway. (physiology.org)
  • mutations
  • Chorea acanthocytosis is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in the VPS13A, also called CHAC, on chromosome 9q21. (wikipedia.org)
  • syndromes
  • The 'core' neuroacanthocytosis syndromes, in which acanthocytes are a typical feature, are chorea acanthocytosis and McLeod syndrome. (wikipedia.org)
  • In neuroacanthocytosis, acanthocytes are caused by protein but not lipid membrane abnormalities The 'core' neuroacanthocytosis syndromes are chorea acanthocytosis and McLeod syndrome. (wikipedia.org)
  • pregnancy
  • It is not an causal or pathologically distinct entity but a generic term for chorea of any cause starting during pregnancy. (wikipedia.org)
  • antibodies
  • The proposed link between infection and these disorders is that an initial autoimmune reaction to a GABHS infection produces antibodies that interfere with basal ganglia function, causing symptom exacerbations. (wikipedia.org)
  • primarily
  • Popular theories implicate the basal ganglia primarily in action selection - in helping to decide which of several possible behaviors to execute at any given time. (wikipedia.org)
  • distinct
  • It is not an causal or pathologically distinct entity but a generic term for chorea of any cause starting during pregnancy. (wikipedia.org)
  • The basal ganglia have a limbic sector whose components are assigned distinct names: the nucleus accumbens, ventral pallidum, and ventral tegmental area (VTA). (wikipedia.org)
  • gradually
  • The muscle rigidity, tremor at rest, and slowness in initiation and execution of movement that are the cardinal motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease are attributed to a reduction in dopaminergic activity in the basal ganglia motor areas, particularly the putamen, due to gradually reduced innervation from SNc. (wikipedia.org)
  • brain
  • The "behavior switching" that takes place within the basal ganglia is influenced by signals from many parts of the brain, including the prefrontal cortex, which plays a key role in executive functions. (wikipedia.org)
  • severe
  • However, the difference is not obvious because proximal ballismic movements may exist along with distal chorea, symptoms may be intermittent in more severe cases, and in many patients a change of ballismus to chorea can be seen readily or in response to treatment. (healthgala.info)
  • citation needed] Drug treatment is indicated for patients with severe disabling chorea. (wikipedia.org)
  • cases
  • There are about 500-1,000 cases of chorea acanthocytosis worldwide and it is not specific to any particular ethnic group. (wikipedia.org)
  • The association of chorea with rheumatism was first recognized in 1802 and several cases were reported by French and English workers during the nineteenth century. (wikipedia.org)
  • areas
  • In more specific terms, the basal ganglia's primary function is likely to control and regulate activities of the motor and premotor cortical areas so that voluntary movements can be performed smoothly. (wikipedia.org)
  • studies
  • Other SPECT studies have been cited showing hyperactivity in the basal ganglia. (wikipedia.org)
  • Experimental studies show that the basal ganglia exert an inhibitory influence on a number of motor systems, and that a release of this inhibition permits a motor system to become active. (wikipedia.org)