• soil
  • Tetanus occurs in all parts of the world but is most frequent in hot and wet climates where the soil contains a lot of organic matter. (wikipedia.org)
  • bacterial
  • Most bacteria have not been characterised, and only about half of the bacterial phyla have species that can be grown in the laboratory. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, gene sequences can be used to reconstruct the bacterial phylogeny, and these studies indicate that bacteria diverged first from the archaeal/eukaryotic lineage. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gram-negative bacteria secrete a variety of virulence factors at host-pathogen interface, via membrane vesicle trafficking as bacterial outer membrane vesicles for invasion, nutrition and other cell-cell communications. (wikipedia.org)
  • Among them were the bacterial agents of Clostridium tetani and Clostridum difficile. (wikipedia.org)
  • Usually, an endotoxin is part of the bacterial outer membrane, and it is not released until the bacterium is killed by the immune system. (wikipedia.org)
  • Toxinosis is pathogenesis caused by the bacterial toxin alone, not necessarily involving bacterial infection (e.g. when the bacteria have died, but have already produced toxin, which are ingested). (wikipedia.org)
  • Clostridium endospores have a distinct bowling pin or bottle shape, distinguishing them from other bacterial endospores, which are usually ovoid in shape. (wikipedia.org)
  • exotoxins
  • Some are chromosomally encoded and intrinsic to the bacteria (e.g. capsules and endotoxin), whereas others are obtained from mobile genetic elements like plasmids and bacteriophages (e.g. some exotoxins). (wikipedia.org)
  • Bacteria generate toxins which can be classified as either exotoxins or endotoxins. (wikipedia.org)
  • vaccination
  • DPT vaccination in childhood immunizes against tetanus. (sciencephoto.com)
  • Tetanus is uncommon in the United States , with nearly all cases occurring in adults who were not vaccinated as children, or in those who have not had a booster vaccination in 10 years. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Due mainly to political and economic conditions, tetanus vaccination rates in Haiti are low (about 50% in children). (sciencebasedmedicine.org)
  • For over 50 years, babies and young children have been routinely vaccinated against tetanus as part of the national childhood vaccination programme. (hse.ie)
  • All young children are offered the tetanus vaccine as part of the routine childhood vaccination programme. (hse.ie)
  • After the fifth dose, immunity remains for life and further boosters are not usually required, unless there is doubt about a person's vaccination history or you are travelling to a remote area of the world where treatment for a tetanus infection may not be readily available. (hse.ie)
  • See Tetanus: prevention for more information and advice about the tetanus vaccination. (hse.ie)
  • wounds
  • Deep puncture wounds and wounds with a lot of dead tissue provide an oxygen-free environment for the bacteria to grow. (encyclopedia.com)
  • These bacteria live in most soils, especially rich soils, and can easily infect small wounds. (sciencebasedmedicine.org)
  • The usual locations for the bacteria to enter the body are puncture wounds , such as those caused by rusty nails, splinters , or even insect bites . (emedicinehealth.com)
  • During the mid-1940s, the incidence of tetanus dropped even further to .44 cases per 100,000 wounds. (whale.to)
  • Tdap
  • With whooping cough epidemics all over the country it is best to get a tdap shot (tetanus+whooping cough) anyway. (healthtap.com)
  • manifests
  • citation needed] Sympathetic overactivity (SOA) is common in severe tetanus and manifests as labile hypertension, tachycardia, dysrhythmia, peripheral vasculature constriction, profuse sweating, fever, increased carbon dioxide output, increased catecholamine excretion and late development of hypotension. (wikipedia.org)
  • severe
  • This report describes severe, generalized tetanus in a 29-year old man who had received a primary series as a child and two booster injections. (whale.to)
  • Tetanus is a serious, acute (severe but short-lived) condition that is caused by infection with a bacterium known as Clostridium tetani. (hse.ie)
  • Clostridium difficile can flourish when other gut flora bacteria are killed during antibiotic therapy, leading to superinfection and potentially fatal pseudomembranous colitis (a severe necrotizing disease of the large intestine). (wikipedia.org)