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  • genomic
  • DO NOT VORTEX (this will shear genomic DNA into fragments that will co-purify with plasmid DNA, which we do not want). (joannecpratt.com)
  • Dot-blot DNA hybridizations between pXO2 ORF fragments and total genomic DNA from AWO6 were consistent with the PCR assay results for this isolate and also revealed nine additional ORFs shared between these two bacteria. (biomedcentral.com)
  • CRISPR comes at a likely cost of reduced genomic plasticity for its bacterial hosts, who can no longer use plasmid acquisition to rapidly evolve. (grantome.com)
  • multi-drug resi
  • By experimentally assaying the anti-plasmid and anti-viral efficienc of CRISPR in an Enterococcus genome, I will definitively test whether selection for CRISPR's antiviral immunity can inhibit the emergence of deadly multi-drug resistant pathogens. (grantome.com)
  • The plasmid profile of these multi-drug resistant isolates was determined and results revealed that both isolates harboured plasmid of size 4.5kb. (ijmicrobio.org)
  • antibiotics
  • Yet, there is a fundamental gap in our understanding of how to robustly block plasmid acquisition, especially with the selective pressure that antibiotics provide. (grantome.com)
  • Urban Wastewater Treatment Plants as Hotspots for Antibiotics Resistance Bacteria and Genes Spread into the Environment. (ijmicrobio.org)
  • NDM-1 is an enzyme that makes bacteria resistant to a broad range of beta-lactam antibiotics. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since many antibiotics lead to DNA damage, and all bacteria rely on RecA to fix this damage, inhibitors of RecA could be used to enhance the toxicity of antibiotics. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nearly all quinolone antibiotics in modern use are fluoroquinolones, which contain a fluorine atom in their chemical structure and are effective against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • vectors
  • Plant transformation vectors are plasmids that have been specifically designed to facilitate the generation of transgenic plants. (wikipedia.org)
  • Organisms
  • Plasmids as Organisms. (moluna.de)
  • DNA Manipulation and GMO's - This 23 slide Senior Biology PowerPoint Lesson package looks at Diseases such as diabetes which can be treated with Genetic Engineering, how animals are used, the pharmaceutical drugs which can be produced using Bacteria Plasmids, what Biopharming is, Transgenic Organisms, Knockout Mice and Cloning. (tes.com)
  • Bacteriophages (phages) and bacteria are the most abundant organisms on Earth ( 1 , 2 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • Beneficial rare and transferable plasmids have a higher fixation probability, whereas deleterious transferable genetic elements have a lower fixation probability to avoid lethality to the host organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Infect
  • Phages infect bacteria and often kill them by using the cell as a factory to manufacture hundreds of new viruses and dissolving the cellular envelope to release the progeny. (sciencemag.org)
  • By removing the genes in the plasmid that caused the tumor and adding in novel genes researchers were able to infect plants with A. tumefaciens and let the bacteria insert their chosen DNA into the genomes of the plants. (wikipedia.org)
  • Initiation
  • This finding suggested that there were two basic aspects necessary for a plasmid to move from one cell to another: An origin of transfer - The oriT (or bom) site must be located on the plasmid itself to allow recognition of the plasmid and initiation of transfer. (wikipedia.org)
  • genome
  • Bacteria and bacteriophages arm themselves with various defensive and counterdefensive mechanisms to protect their own genome and degrade the other's. (sciencemag.org)
  • Bacteria have evolved strategies to defend themselves against this onslaught by phages, such as the production of restriction endonucleases that can digest the phage genome ( 4 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • When a phage infects a bacterium, it incorporates short 20- to 40-base pair (bp) segments of phage genome ("spacers") into a CRISPR array present in the bacterial genome. (sciencemag.org)
  • The existence of the tra region of a plasmid genome was first discovered in 1979 by David H. Figurski and Donald R. Helinski In the course of their work, Figurski and Helinski also discovered a second key fact about the tra region - that it can act in trans to the mobilization marker which it affects. (wikipedia.org)
  • The transfer genes - Though a functioning set of tra genes is necessary for plasmid transfer, they may be located in a variety of places including the plasmid in question, another plasmid in the same host cell, or even in the bacterial genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • transfer
  • The influence of substrate concentration on plasmid transfer frequency in the rhizosphere was investigated using a physical model employing a hollow fiber membrane instead of a real root. (northumbria.ac.uk)
  • The absolute number of transconjugants produced increased with increasing substrate (glucose) concentration, but the plasmid transfer frequency decreased exponentially with increasing substrate concentration from 4.4 × 10-3 at 90 μg ml-1 glucose to 1.35 × 10-5 at 3600 μg ml-1 glucose. (northumbria.ac.uk)
  • These observations also show that plasmid transfer frequency is reduced at high substrate concentrations, which suggests that plasmid transfer is either stimulated when growth limiting nutrient is scarce or inhibited when it is abundant. (northumbria.ac.uk)
  • Tazzyman and Bonhoeffer found that fixation (receiving) of the transferred plasmids in a new organism is just as important as the ability to transfer them. (wikipedia.org)
  • A plasmid with no origin of transfer is non-mobilizable. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cell
  • Partitioning of the pSC101 Plasmid During Cell Division. (moluna.de)
  • Just as higher forms of life have evolved a complex mitotic apparatus to partition duplicated DNA during cell division, bacteria require a specialized apparatus to partition their duplicated DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • These systems preferentially guarantee growth of plasmid-carrying daughter cells in a bacterial population by killing newborn bacteria that have not inherited a plasmid copy at cell division (post-segregational killing). (wikipedia.org)
  • Transformants retain the plasmid throughout cell divisions such that it can be recovered and used in other applications. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is done by transforming plant cells in culture, selecting transformed cells and regenerating an entire plant from the transformed cell (e.g. tobacco) When the bacteria with the desired, implanted gene are grown, they are made containing a selector. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the best case scenario, each bacterial cell should have several copies of the plasmid. (wikipedia.org)
  • The tra genes encode proteins which are useful for the propagation of the plasmid from the host cell to a compatible donor cell or maintenance of the plasmid. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is interesting to note that L-form bacteria that lack a cell wall do not require FtsZ for division, which implies that bacteria may have retained components of an ancestral mode of cell division. (wikipedia.org)
  • uptake
  • The long-term goal of this proposal is to develop the information that will allow new therapies and approaches to be designed that limit plasmid uptake, substantially extending the lifetime of last-line antibiotic drugs. (grantome.com)
  • Griffiths experiment had already shown that some bacteria had the ability to naturally uptake and express foreign DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mechanisms
  • Mechanisms of Transposition in Bacteria. (moluna.de)
  • The specific goal of this proposal is thus to define the mechanisms and selective pressures allowing bacteria to maintain CRISPR despite its costs. (grantome.com)
  • Although the molecular mechanisms of many of these innate defensive strategies are well understood, how the bacteria and phages, despite this perpetual "arms race," have evolved to dominate Earth's biomass remains poorly understood. (sciencemag.org)
  • found
  • It was one of the earlier bacteria in which penicillin resistance was found-in 1947, just four years after the drug started being mass-produced. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bacteria are one of the world's oldest forms of life, and are found virtually everywhere in nature. (wikipedia.org)
  • fungi
  • Actinomycetes are Gram-positive bacteria that resemble fungi in structure with a complex branched network of cells called a mycelium. (wikipedia.org)
  • isolates
  • The Plasmid mediated multidrug resistant status of some of the isolates is a threat to chemotherapy and is a cause for public health concern. (ijmicrobio.org)
  • Pseudomonas
  • The ubiquitous soil bacterium Pseudomonas putida can metabolize a wide range of natural and synthetic organic compounds and may play a central role in the natural degradation of soil pollutants. (micrornainhibitors.com)
  • Malgorzata Adamczyk and Grazyna Jagura-Burdzy: "Spread and survival of promiscuous IncP-1 plasmids", Acta Biochimica Polonica, Vol 50, no. 2/2003, p. 425-453 LEWIS C. INGRAM, M. H. RICHMOND, AND R. B. SYKES: "Molecular Characterization of the R Factors Implicated in the Carbenicillin Resistance of a Sequence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Strains Isolated from Burns", ANTIMICROBIAL AGENTS AND CHEMOTHERAPY, Feb. 1973, p. 279-288 Thomas CM et al. (wikipedia.org)
  • coli
  • Various virulence factors (stx, eae, ehxA, astA, EAF plasmid, bfp) of different categories of pathogenic E. coli were screened by different PCR systems. (uzh.ch)
  • Although it is often studied in the model organism E. coli, other bacteria show many similarities. (wikipedia.org)
  • In E. coli, multiple plasmid copies appear to cluster together, creating a few multiplasmid clusters in each cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Two such mutants, PFF1cop254D and PFF1cop271C, increase the copy number of PFF1 in E. coli from approximately 39-40 to about 501 and 113 plasmids per cell, respectively. (wikipedia.org)
  • This vector overcomes traditional barriers to gene delivery by combining E. coli with a synthetic polymer to create a vector that maintains plasmid DNA while having an increased ability to avoid degradation by target cell lysosomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • protein
  • The MerC protein encoded on the IncJ plasmid pMERPH of the Shewanella putrefaciens mercuric resistance operon is 137 amino acids in length and possesses four putative transmembrane α-helical spanners (TMSs). (wikipedia.org)
  • Recently an actin-like protein has been found in a gram-positive bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis, which forms a microtubule-like structure and is involved in plasmid segregation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because the plasmid is the "vehicle" from which the immunogen is expressed, optimising vector design for maximal protein expression is essential. (wikipedia.org)
  • Organisms
  • The RK2 Plasmid is a broad-host-range plasmid belonging to the incP incompatibility group It is notable for its ability to replicate in a wide variety of single-celled organisms, which makes it suitable as a genetic engineering tool. (wikipedia.org)
  • Like other organisms, bacteria also breed true and maintain their characteristics from generation to generation, yet at same time, exhibit variations in particular properties in a small proportion of their progeny. (wikipedia.org)
  • One source of infectious organisms is bacteraemia, the presence of bacteria in the blood of slaughtered animals. (wikipedia.org)
  • infect
  • The large intestine of animals contains some 3.3×1013 viable bacteria, which may infect the flesh after death if the carcass is improperly dressed. (wikipedia.org)
  • eukaryotic
  • Nuclear and mitochondrial DNA are thought to be of separate evolutionary origin, with the mtDNA being derived from the circular genomes of the bacteria that were engulfed by the early ancestors of today's eukaryotic cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • resistant
  • New Delhi metallo-beta-lactamase 1 (NDM-1) is an enzyme that makes bacteria resistant to a broad range of beta-lactam antibiotics. (wikipedia.org)
  • In initial assays the bacterium was fully resistant to all antibiotics tested, while later tests found that it was susceptible to tigecycline and colistin. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, US experts stated that it is unclear as to whether this strain is any more dangerous than existing antibiotic-resistant bacteria such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, which are already common in the USA. (wikipedia.org)
  • As previously, the bacteria were fully resistant to all the aminoglycoside β-lactam and quinolone antibiotics, but were susceptible to tigecycline and colistin. (wikipedia.org)
  • cell
  • Carbapenems are a class of beta-lactam antibiotics that are capable of killing most bacteria by inhibiting the synthesis of one of their cell wall layers. (wikipedia.org)
  • Both methods utilize plasmids, which carry DNA inside a cell that can replicate independently of chromosomal DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • formation
  • 2003). The observation that carriage of conjugal plasmids can enhance biofilm formation, then, suggests a simple way by which an organism can be engineered into a stronger biofilm former. (micrornainhibitors.com)
  • another
  • Try to use a positive control (ask some college to give you another ampR plasmid) , you mention something but it is not clear if is working or not. (protocol-online.org)
  • RK2 may sometimes be referred to as pRK2, which is also the name of another, unrelated plasmid. (wikipedia.org)
  • often
  • Bacteria that produce carbapenemases are often referred to in the news media as "superbugs" because infections caused by them are difficult to treat. (wikipedia.org)
  • Infected meat, however, should be eliminated through systematic meat inspection in production, and consequently, consumers will more often encounter meat exogenously spoiled by bacteria or fungi after the death of the animal. (wikipedia.org)
  • structure
  • J A Kornacki, C H Chang, and D H Figurski: "kil-kor regulon of promiscuous plasmid RK2: structure, products, and regulation of two operons that constitute the kilE locus. (wikipedia.org)
  • growth
  • When this plasmid is inserted into a plant, the T-DNA tumor production region causes uncontrolled tumor growth normally at its base (crown) in a process known as Crown Gall Disease (Figure 3). (macalester.edu)
  • Media conditions that support fast growth in bacteria also couples with shorter inter-initiation time in them, i.e. the doubling time in fast growing cells is less as compared to the slow growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • direct
  • Testing methods applied include phage and serological typing, direct epifluorescence filter techniques (DEFT) and plasmid profiling. (wikipedia.org)
  • animal
  • Spoilage is caused by the practically unavoidable infection and subsequent decomposition of meat by bacteria and fungi, which are borne by the animal itself, by the people handling the meat, and by their implements. (wikipedia.org)