• gene
  • The goal of this study was to identify the gene(s) contributing to the high-level gentamicin resistance phenotype observed in bacteria from environmental samples with turtle farming activity, particularly the salmonellae, and to estimate their incidence in these bacteria, as well as to explore the molecular elements that contribute to the dissemination of gentamicin resistance in this context. (lsu.edu)
  • Browse plasmids, from networks and gene regulation to sensing and signaling, to perform your synbio experiment. (addgene.org)
  • Once cut loose from its original strand of DNA, the DNA fragment the gene --is pasted into a special bacterium plasmid with the help of another special enzyme. (hawkhill.com)
  • They mix the new bacterium plasmids that now contain the fungus-resistance gene, with gold dust. (hawkhill.com)
  • This is done by transforming plant cells in culture, selecting transformed cells and regenerating an entire plant from the transformed cell (e.g. tobacco) When the bacteria with the desired, implanted gene are grown, they are made containing a selector. (wikipedia.org)
  • In order to ensure growth of only transformed bacteria (which carry the desired plasmids to be harvested), a marker gene is used in the destination vector for selection. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this example, a gene from mammalian gene library will be subcloned into a bacterial plasmid (destination platform). (wikipedia.org)
  • Both the PCR product containing the mammalian gene with the new restriction sites and the destination plasmid are subjected to restriction digestion, and the digest products are purified by gel electrophoresis. (wikipedia.org)
  • infects
  • When a phage infects a bacterium, it incorporates short 20- to 40-base pair (bp) segments of phage genome ("spacers") into a CRISPR array present in the bacterial genome. (sciencemag.org)
  • In transduction, donor DNA packaged in a bacteriophage infects the recipient bacterium. (nih.gov)
  • resistance
  • Cloning and sequencing of the gentamicin resistance determinants on these plasmids revealed the presence of aminoglycoside acetyltransferase genes aac(3)IIa and aac(3)VIa. (lsu.edu)
  • Plate 150 µL on appropriate plates (with antibiotic that corresponds to the resistance offered by your plasmid). (protocol-online.org)
  • It was one of the earlier bacteria in which penicillin resistance was found-in 1947, just four years after the drug started being mass-produced. (wikipedia.org)
  • CRISPR
  • CRISPR comes at a likely cost of reduced genomic plasticity for its bacterial hosts, who can no longer use plasmid acquisition to rapidly evolve. (grantome.com)
  • The specific goal of this proposal is thus to define the mechanisms and selective pressures allowing bacteria to maintain CRISPR despite its costs. (grantome.com)
  • First, a novel stochastic model will be designed to compete CRISPR+ and CRISPR- bacteria under varying viral pressure and periodic antibiotic treatment. (grantome.com)
  • By experimentally assaying the anti-plasmid and anti-viral efficienc of CRISPR in an Enterococcus genome, I will definitively test whether selection for CRISPR's antiviral immunity can inhibit the emergence of deadly multi-drug resistant pathogens. (grantome.com)
  • Our findings lead to the hypothesis that the CRISPR-Cas might be a double-edged sword, providing survival advantages to both bacteria and phages, leading to their coevolution and abundance on Earth. (sciencemag.org)
  • In the surviving bacteria, these spacers are expressed as CRISPR RNAs (crRNAs) and provide a surveillance mechanism for the descendant cells ( 6 , 7 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • Find essential background information on using CRISPR in your lab, specific CRISPR tools for genome editing in bacteria, and more. (addgene.org)
  • Find CRISPR tools for use in genome editing of bacteria. (addgene.org)
  • Mechanisms
  • Mechanisms of Transposition in Bacteria. (moluna.de)
  • Bacteria and bacteriophages arm themselves with various defensive and counterdefensive mechanisms to protect their own genome and degrade the other's. (sciencemag.org)
  • Although the molecular mechanisms of many of these innate defensive strategies are well understood, how the bacteria and phages, despite this perpetual "arms race," have evolved to dominate Earth's biomass remains poorly understood. (sciencemag.org)
  • Genetic exchanges among bacteria occur by several mechanisms. (nih.gov)
  • Operons
  • Positive Regulation and Transcription Initiation of xy1 Operons on TOL Plasmid. (moluna.de)
  • Our tiling array results indicate that the levels of transcription for the operons on a plasmid can vary by host background. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Bacteriophages
  • Bacteria have few structural or developmental features that can be observed easily, but they have a vast array of biochemical capabilities and patterns of susceptibility to antimicrobial agents or bacteriophages. (nih.gov)
  • Chemically modified purine and pyrimidine bases are found in some bacteria and bacteriophages. (nih.gov)
  • sequences
  • Plasmids, discovered in 1952, became important tools for transferring information between cells and replicating DNA sequences. (wikipedia.org)
  • uptake
  • The long-term goal of this proposal is to develop the information that will allow new therapies and approaches to be designed that limit plasmid uptake, substantially extending the lifetime of last-line antibiotic drugs. (grantome.com)
  • Griffiths experiment had already shown that some bacteria had the ability to naturally uptake and express foreign DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • organism
  • MGEs such as plasmids by a horizontal transmission are generally beneficial to an organism. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tazzyman and Bonhoeffer found that fixation (receiving) of the transferred plasmids in a new organism is just as important as the ability to transfer them. (wikipedia.org)
  • genome
  • Bacteria have evolved strategies to defend themselves against this onslaught by phages, such as the production of restriction endonucleases that can digest the phage genome ( 4 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • Cell
  • Partitioning of the pSC101 Plasmid During Cell Division. (moluna.de)
  • Just as higher forms of life have evolved a complex mitotic apparatus to partition duplicated DNA during cell division, bacteria require a specialized apparatus to partition their duplicated DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • Transformants retain the plasmid throughout cell divisions such that it can be recovered and used in other applications. (wikipedia.org)
  • These systems preferentially guarantee growth of plasmid-carrying daughter cells in a bacterial population by killing newborn bacteria that have not inherited a plasmid copy at cell division (post-segregational killing). (wikipedia.org)
  • It is interesting to note that L-form bacteria that lack a cell wall do not require FtsZ for division, which implies that bacteria may have retained components of an ancestral mode of cell division. (wikipedia.org)
  • restriction enzyme
  • Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis and restriction enzyme digestion analysis of R-plasmids carrying these genes revealed plasmids with sizes ranging from ca. 45 kb to 145 kb, with different restriction profiles, supporting their presence on mobile molecular elements. (lsu.edu)
  • Cloning
  • Sets of plasmids for fluorescence, cloning and expression, and synthetic biology. (addgene.org)
  • Kits are sets of plasmids intended for use together (e.g. cloning and expression systems) and therefore supplied as one item. (addgene.org)
  • antibiotics
  • Yet, there is a fundamental gap in our understanding of how to robustly block plasmid acquisition, especially with the selective pressure that antibiotics provide. (grantome.com)
  • NDM-1 is an enzyme that makes bacteria resistant to a broad range of beta-lactam antibiotics. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since many antibiotics lead to DNA damage, and all bacteria rely on RecA to fix this damage, inhibitors of RecA could be used to enhance the toxicity of antibiotics. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nearly all quinolone antibiotics in modern use are fluoroquinolones, which contain a fluorine atom in their chemical structure and are effective against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • soil
  • When Rhodococcus erythropolis strain T902, bearing a plasmid with trichloroethene and isopropylbenzene degradation pathways, was used as the inoculum, no transconjugant was isolated but the strain remained in the soil. (springer.com)