• gene
  • The goal of this study was to identify the gene(s) contributing to the high-level gentamicin resistance phenotype observed in bacteria from environmental samples with turtle farming activity, particularly the salmonellae, and to estimate their incidence in these bacteria, as well as to explore the molecular elements that contribute to the dissemination of gentamicin resistance in this context. (lsu.edu)
  • Once cut loose from its original strand of DNA, the DNA fragment the gene --is pasted into a special bacterium plasmid with the help of another special enzyme. (hawkhill.com)
  • They mix the new bacterium plasmids that now contain the fungus-resistance gene, with gold dust. (hawkhill.com)
  • Plasmid replication is controlled by gene products encoded in the plasmid itself. (irbbarcelona.org)
  • This is done by transforming plant cells in culture, selecting transformed cells and regenerating an entire plant from the transformed cell (e.g. tobacco) When the bacteria with the desired, implanted gene are grown, they are made containing a selector. (wikipedia.org)
  • In order to ensure growth of only transformed bacteria (which carry the desired plasmids to be harvested), a marker gene is used in the destination vector for selection. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this example, a gene from mammalian gene library will be subcloned into a bacterial plasmid (destination platform). (wikipedia.org)
  • The bacterial plasmid is a piece of circular DNA which contains regulatory elements allowing for the bacteria to produce a gene product (gene expression) if it is placed in the correct place in the plasmid. (wikipedia.org)
  • Both the PCR product containing the mammalian gene with the new restriction sites and the destination plasmid are subjected to restriction digestion, and the digest products are purified by gel electrophoresis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pseudomonas
  • IncP plasmid ATCC depositor: Helinski D.R. Naturally occuring Pseudomonas plasmid containing relaxation complex site (rlx). (stanford.edu)
  • Using a microarray with evenly tiled probes at a density of 9 bp, we mapped and quantified the transcripts of the carbazole catabolic plasmid pCAR1 in its original host Pseudomonas resinovorans CA10 and the transconjugant P . putida KT2440(pCAR1) during growth on either carbazole or succinate as the sole carbon source. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Infect
  • By removing the genes in the plasmid that caused the tumor and adding in novel genes researchers were able to infect plants with A. tumefaciens and let the bacteria insert their chosen DNA into the genomes of the plants. (wikipedia.org)
  • Operons
  • Positive Regulation and Transcription Initiation of xy1 Operons on TOL Plasmid. (moluna.de)
  • Our tiling array results indicate that the levels of transcription for the operons on a plasmid can vary by host background. (biomedcentral.com)
  • organism
  • MGEs such as plasmids by a horizontal transmission are generally beneficial to an organism. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tazzyman and Bonhoeffer found that fixation (receiving) of the transferred plasmids in a new organism is just as important as the ability to transfer them. (wikipedia.org)
  • restriction enzyme
  • Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis and restriction enzyme digestion analysis of R-plasmids carrying these genes revealed plasmids with sizes ranging from ca. 45 kb to 145 kb, with different restriction profiles, supporting their presence on mobile molecular elements. (lsu.edu)
  • Structural
  • Bacteria have few structural or developmental features that can be observed easily, but they have a vast array of biochemical capabilities and patterns of susceptibility to antimicrobial agents or bacteriophages. (nih.gov)
  • fungi
  • Actinomycetes are Gram-positive bacteria that resemble fungi in structure with a complex branched network of cells called a mycelium. (wikipedia.org)
  • arguably
  • The photosynthetic cyanobacteria are arguably the most successful bacteria, and changed the early atmosphere of the earth by oxygenating it. (wikipedia.org)
  • soil
  • When Rhodococcus erythropolis strain T902, bearing a plasmid with trichloroethene and isopropylbenzene degradation pathways, was used as the inoculum, no transconjugant was isolated but the strain remained in the soil. (springer.com)
  • transfer
  • In bacteria, expression of genes encoding components of the translational machinery-notably ribosomal RNA and transfer RNA (collectively called 'stable' RNA)-is coordinately regulated in response to nutrient availability. (embopress.org)
  • antibiotics
  • Since many antibiotics lead to DNA damage, and all bacteria rely on RecA to fix this damage, inhibitors of RecA could be used to enhance the toxicity of antibiotics. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nearly all quinolone antibiotics in modern use are fluoroquinolones, which contain a fluorine atom in their chemical structure and are effective against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cell Division
  • Partitioning of the pSC101 Plasmid During Cell Division. (moluna.de)
  • Just as higher forms of life have evolved a complex mitotic apparatus to partition duplicated DNA during cell division, bacteria require a specialized apparatus to partition their duplicated DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • These systems preferentially guarantee growth of plasmid-carrying daughter cells in a bacterial population by killing newborn bacteria that have not inherited a plasmid copy at cell division (post-segregational killing). (wikipedia.org)
  • It is interesting to note that L-form bacteria that lack a cell wall do not require FtsZ for division, which implies that bacteria may have retained components of an ancestral mode of cell division. (wikipedia.org)