Loading...
  • horizontal gene tra
  • We independently sequenced the genome of H. dujardini and detected a low level of horizontal gene transfer. (pnas.org)
  • 2015) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 112(52):15976- the authors concluded that the tardigrade Hypsibius dujardini had an unprecedented proportion (17%) of genes originating through functional horizontal gene transfer (fHGT) and speculated that fHGT was likely formative in the evolution of cryptobiosis. (pnas.org)
  • We address this question in the case of horizontal gene transfer processes such as viral transduction and conjugation, which result in the rapid acquisition of new traits in bacteria. (weizmann.ac.il)
  • Bacteria develop antibiotic resistance in two main ways: horizontal gene transfer and mutation in different chromosomal loci. (asmscience.org)
  • This movement of genes can occur through Horizontal Gene Transfer, or HGT, effectively scramblingthe information on which biologists rely to reconstruct the phylogeny of organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • From evolutionary perspective, the finding of the UBact-proteasome system in gram-negtive bacteria suggests that either the Pup/UBact-proteasome systems evolved in bacteria prior to the split into gram positive and negative clades over 3000 million years ago or, that these systems were acquired by different bacterial lineages through horizontal gene transfer(s) from a third, yet unknown, organism. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is a mechanism of horizontal gene transfer as are transformation and transduction although these two other mechanisms do not involve cell-to-cell contact. (wikipedia.org)
  • MRSA is any strain of S. aureus that has developed, through horizontal gene transfer and natural selection, multiple drug resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics. (wikipedia.org)
  • genome
  • We are currently sequencing the genome of the Pasteuria bacterium and have performed amino acid level analyses of 33 bacterial species (including P. penetrans ) using concatenation of 40 housekeeping genes, with and without insertions/deletions (indels) removed, and using each gene individually. (asm.org)
  • We use the infection of E. coli cells by bacteriophage lambda, whose DNA integrates at a unique site into the bacterial genome, when following the lysogenic pathway. (weizmann.ac.il)
  • Life at the level of single cells is subject to unavoidable fluctuations in gene expression, and cells having the same genome may behave rather differently. (weizmann.ac.il)
  • One of the advantages afforded in studying a bacterium with a divided genome is to be able to ask: Do the chromosomes communicate to improve stability of their maintenance? (nih.gov)
  • The transfer genes - Though a functioning set of tra genes is necessary for plasmid transfer, they may be located in a variety of places including the plasmid in question, another plasmid in the same host cell, or even in the bacterial genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • Four genes in the human genome code for ubiquitin: UBB, UBC, UBA52 and RPS27A. (wikipedia.org)
  • In support of the second possibility, two UBact loci were found in the genome of an uncultured anaerobic methanotrophic Archaeon (ANME-1;locus CBH38808.1 and locus CBH39258.1). (wikipedia.org)
  • By delivering the Cas9 nuclease complexed with a synthetic guide RNA (gRNA) into a cell, the cell's genome can be cut at a desired location, allowing existing genes to be removed and/or new ones added. (wikipedia.org)
  • proteins
  • T3SSs consist of multiple proteins which assemble to form an apparatus capable of exporting proteins through both membranes of Gram-negative bacteria in one step. (bham.ac.uk)
  • By using tools including BLAST and HMMER in conjunction phylogenetic analysis this thesis examines the range of T3SSs, both in terms of the proteins they contain, and also the bacteria which contain them. (bham.ac.uk)
  • Use of conserved components allows for identification of T3SS loci in diverse bacteria, in order to assess in the different proteins used by different T3SSs, and to see where, in evolutionary space, these differences arose. (bham.ac.uk)
  • These five perC homologues were characterized, and it was found that three of the homologues (renamed p er C h omologue pchA , pchB and pchC ) encoded 104 aa proteins, and when expressed on a multicopy plasmid enhanced the expression of LEE genes. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Deletion mutants of the pch genes were constructed, and the effect on the expression of LEE-encoded type III effector proteins, such as EspA, B and D, and adhesion phenotype to HEp-2 cells was examined. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Bacteria developed two regulatory proteins, MerR and MerD, for mercury(II) reductase. (wikipedia.org)
  • The tra locus includes the pilin gene and regulatory genes, which together form pili on the cell surface, polymeric proteins that can attach themselves to the surface of F-bacteria and initiate the conjugation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The tra genes encode proteins which are useful for the propagation of the plasmid from the host cell to a compatible donor cell or maintenance of the plasmid. (wikipedia.org)
  • UBA52 and RPS27A genes code for a single copy of ubiquitin fused to the ribosomal proteins L40 and S27a, respectively. (wikipedia.org)
  • The UBB and UBC genes code for polyubiquitin precursor proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Cpf1 loci encode Cas1, Cas2 and Cas4 proteins more similar to types I and III than from type II systems. (wikipedia.org)
  • Database searches suggest the abundance of Cpf1-family proteins in many bacterial species. (wikipedia.org)
  • The locus also includes the genes for the proteins that attach themselves to the surface of F− bacteria and initiate conjugation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Several proteins coded for in the tra or trb locus seem to open a channel between the bacteria and it is thought that the traD enzyme, located at the base of the pilus, initiates membrane fusion. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bacterial microcompartments (BMCs) are organelles consisting of a protein shell that encloses enzymes and other proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • But then genes coding for proteins homologous to those of the carboxysome shell were identified in the pdu (propanediol utilization) and eut (ethanolamine utilization) operons. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although the carboxysome, propanediol utilizing (PDU), and ethanolamine utilizing (EUT) BMCs encapsulate different enzymes and therefore have different functions, the genes encoding for the shell proteins are very similar. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most of the genes (coding for the shell proteins and the encapsulated enzymes) from experimentally characterized BMCs are located near one another in distinct genetic loci or operons. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Cas proteins showed helicase and nuclease motifs, suggesting a role in the dynamic structure of the CRISPR loci. (wikipedia.org)
  • Superantigens, bacterial adhesions, and the actions of Yops (which are bacterial proteins once thought to be "Yersinia outer membrane proteins") that are encoded on the "[plasmid] for Yersinia virulence" - commonly known as the pYV - cause host pathogenesis and allow the bacteria to live parasitically. (wikipedia.org)
  • Inside the bacterium, these Yops are bound by pYV-encoded Sycs (specific Yop chaperones), which prevent premature interaction with other proteins and guide the Yops to a type-III secretory apparatus. (wikipedia.org)
  • species
  • Complex polysaccharide degradation and utilization by bacteria is only achieved by the concerted action of various enzymes synthetized by species typically found in human gut and animal rumen. (iamexpat.nl)
  • These bacterial species contain physically linked genes (Polysaccharide Utilization Loci, PULs). (iamexpat.nl)
  • We have obtained a comprehensive picture of co-localization preferences of genes for nineteen major carbohydrate metabolism functional classes, over two hundred gene orthologous clusters, and thirty bacterial classes, and characterized the cassette variety in size and content among different species, highlighting a significant role of short cassettes. (beds.ac.uk)
  • We analyzed overall co-localization tendencies of these genes, belonging to a large and important segment of metabolism, simultaneously in a broad number of bacterial species. (beds.ac.uk)
  • CAGEF provides typing services for isolated bacteria using Multi-Locus Sequence Typing (MLST), 16S rRNA, and species-specific gene sequencing. (utoronto.ca)
  • We use high-throughput Sanger and Next-Gen targeted amplicon sequencing to determine variants and compare these against the species-approriate pubMLST database or against available gene sequences to determine relationships. (utoronto.ca)
  • Recombination probably mediates genetic change in all bacterial species and is likely to have been crucial in allowing bacteria to avoid the immune response, in distributing among the population genes that increase virulence or transmission between hosts, and in providing increased resistance to antibiotics. (asmscience.org)
  • Some genes are only found in a few species or a single genus of bacteria while others (such as traL) are found in very similar forms in many bacterial species. (wikipedia.org)
  • A plasmid with a mob site (like many found in Rhodococcus species) cannot be transferred via transfer genes which normally interact with the oriT site (which is common in E. coli) Each of the individual genes in the tra operon codes for a different protein product. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus determining the phylogenetic history of a species can not be done conclusively by determining evolutionary trees for single genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, if two distantly related bacteria have exchanged a gene, a phylogenetic tree including those species will show them to be closely related even though most other genes have diverged substantially. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cpf1 appears in many bacterial species. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ubiquitin was named for its ubiquitous presence among eukaryotes, while UBact ('Ubiquitin bacterial') is very limited in occurrence among the vast number of bacterial species. (wikipedia.org)
  • PafA, (ii) C-terminal sequence that ends exclusively with glutamine or glutamate across bacterial species, (iii) short size (similar to that of ubiquitin) and, (iv) high sequence conservation across tremendous evolutionary distance (a characteristic also in common with ubiquitin). (wikipedia.org)
  • The 70-kb pYV is critical to Yersinia's pathogenicity, since it contains many genes known to encode virulence factors and its loss gives avirulence of all Yersinia species. (wikipedia.org)
  • homologous
  • In marine systems, the most frequently encountered nitrogen-oxidizing bacteria are related to the UBact encoding Nitrospina gracilis From the knowledge accumlated about the Pup-proteasome system and its importance in bactrial durability and disease causing ability, the homologous UBact-proteasome system is expected to have similar impact on the gram-negative bacteria where it is found. (wikipedia.org)
  • The F-plasmid is an episome (a plasmid that can integrate itself into the bacterial chromosome by homologous recombination) with a length of about 100 kb. (wikipedia.org)
  • A major addition to the understanding of CRISPR came with Jansen's observation that the prokaryote repeat cluster was accompanied by a set of homologous genes that make up CRISPR-associated systems or cas genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • rRNA
  • To reconstruct this tree of life, the gene sequence encoding the small subunit of ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA, 16s rRNA) has proven useful, and the tree (as shown in the picture) relies heavily on information from this single gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, recently it has been argued that SSU rRNA genes can also be horizontally transferred. (wikipedia.org)
  • eukaryotes
  • Among 23,021 gene predictions we identified 0.2% strong candidates for fHGT from bacteria and 0.2% strong candidates for fHGT from nonmetazoan eukaryotes. (pnas.org)
  • it is no longer safe to assume that those were the only lateral gene transfers that occurred after the first eukaryotes arose. (wikipedia.org)
  • Only in later, multicellular eukaryotes do we know of definite restrictions on horizontal gene exchange, such as the advent of separated (and protected) germ cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • chromosome
  • Bacterial genes belonging to same metabolic pathway are often co-localized in the chromosome, but it is not a strict rule. (beds.ac.uk)
  • A better understanding of the mechanisms operating in bacterial models will enhance our general understanding of chromosome replication and segregation, and can guide the rational development of therapeutics for many human diseases. (nih.gov)
  • The processes that contribute to chromosome segregation in bacteria are still poorly understood. (nih.gov)
  • In addition to the range of mechanisms proposed, which includes chromosome replication, there are clearly additional mechanisms that anchor the centromere analog to the cell pole in some bacteria, including V. cholerae . (nih.gov)
  • Studies in several bacteria indicate that par genes, in addition to their role in chromosome segregation, contribute to other cellular processes such as chromosome replication and cell division. (nih.gov)
  • In common laboratory strains of E. coli the transfer of the entire bacterial chromosome takes about 100 minutes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first member of this family (Smr45C) was found in a Sinorhizobium meliloti 1021 locus located in the chromosome (C). Further homology and structure conservation analysis identified homologs in several nitrogen-fixing symbiotic rhizobia (i.e. (wikipedia.org)
  • analyses
  • Further analyses of the UBact (and not Pup) locus in Leptospirillum ferrodiazotrophum revealed its existence and extreme conservation across several gram-negative bacterial phyla, as illustrated in figure 3. (wikipedia.org)
  • amino
  • 90% amino acid identity with known gene products, whereas on 13 inserts no resistance gene could be identified with high confidence, in which case we predicted resistance to be mainly mediated by antibiotic efflux. (frontiersin.org)
  • protein
  • Using ligation-independent cloning, Type IV genes csf1, csf2, csf3, and cas6 were inserted into transfer vectors with no tag, a Histidine-tag, and a Maltose Binding Protein tag. (usu.edu)
  • 7 ] identified an outer member protein gene ( omp ) to differentiate isolates/strains of ' Ca . L. asiaticus' from different geographical origins, although each regions was represented by only one to three strains. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • MerP, a periplasmic mercury transport protein found in gram negative bacteria, transports mercury through the outer membrane into the inner membrane where it holds the mercury for another protein to bind to it and transport it to mercury(II) reductase. (wikipedia.org)
  • MerT, a membrane bound protein found in both gram negative and gram positive bacteria, binds to free floating mercury. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ubiquitin Bacterial (UBact) is a ubiquitin-like protein that is homologus to Prokaryotic ubiquitin-like protein (Pup). (wikipedia.org)
  • The terms 'Ubiquitin Bacterial' and 'Prokaryotic ubiquitin-like protein' suggest a molecular similarity between ubiquitin and UBact/Pup which is largely absent. (wikipedia.org)
  • RNAs
  • Small RNAs (sRNAs) are post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression that play fundamental roles in the response of bacterial cells to environmental cues. (weizmann.ac.il)
  • Post-genomic research has rendered bacterial small non-coding RNAs (sRNAs) as major players in post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression in response to environmental stimuli. (wikipedia.org)
  • αr45 is a family of bacterial small non-coding RNAs with representatives in a broad group of α-proteobacteria from the order Rhizobiales. (wikipedia.org)
  • enzymes
  • The aim of the PhD project to exploit PUL context in aquatic bacteria, an unexplored source, which is powerful route to discover novel carbohydrate-active enzymes, CAZymes. (iamexpat.nl)
  • Discovery of novel aquatic bacterial enzymes targeting host polysaccharides is the first step to develop new commercial enzyme cocktails for designs of efficient enzymatic pretreatment strategies functionalizing economically appealing biomass as food ingredients. (iamexpat.nl)
  • For example, myxobacteria, moving in swarms, are able to maintain a high concentration of extracellular enzymes used to digest food, from which all the bacteria in the swarm benefit. (wikipedia.org)
  • The extracellular enzymes secreted by swarming bacteria, the slime of a biofilm, or the soma cells in a differentiated organism represent public goods which are vulnerable to exploitation by cheaters. (wikipedia.org)
  • obligate
  • Pasteuria penetrans is an endospore-forming, gram-positive, obligate parasitic bacterium of the root knot nematodes (RKN), Meloidogyne spp. (asm.org)
  • For example, the obligate mutualistic bacteria that reside in specialized host cells often have matching topologies with their hosts, suggesting they are vertically transmitted and have had a long-term co-evolutionary history ( Moran & Baumann , 1994 ). (peerj.com)
  • phylogenetic trees
  • Although phylogenetic trees are crucial for understanding these evolutionary patterns, the effects of taxonomic sampling, especially in regard to the hyper-diverse and yet largely unknown bacteria, on co-evolutionary inference has not been examined extensively. (peerj.com)
  • Because our interpretations of the co-evolutionary history of the bacteria and their host depend on these trees, it is imperative that bacterial phylogenetic trees are built using appropriate sampling and methodologies. (peerj.com)
  • HGT is thus a potential confounding factor in inferring phylogenetic trees from the sequence of one gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Repeats
  • In 1993 researchers of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in the Netherlands published two articles about a cluster of interrupted direct repeats (DR) in this bacterium. (wikipedia.org)
  • immune
  • This acquired immune mechanism is found in Prevotella and Francisella bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • The combined function of these effector Yops permits the bacteria to resist internalization by immune and intestinal cells and to evade the bactericidal actions of neutrophils and macrophages. (wikipedia.org)
  • While the cause of Crohn's disease is unknown, it is believed to be due to a combination of environmental, immune, and bacterial factors in genetically susceptible individuals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Staphylococcus
  • A smaller version of Cas9 from the bacterium Staphylococcus aureus is a potential alternative to Cpf1. (wikipedia.org)
  • Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) (/ɛmɑːrɛseɪ/ or /ˈmɜːrsə/) is a gram-positive bacterium that is genetically different from other strains of Staphylococcus aureus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Like all Staphylococcus aureus (usually S. aureus but abbreviated SA at times), methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a gram-positive, spherical (coccus) bacterium that is about 1 micron in diameter. (wikipedia.org)
  • strains
  • A genomic region (CLIBASIA_05640 to CLIBASIA_05650) of ' Ca . L. asiaticus' showing hyper-sequence variation or locus mosaicism was identified and investigated using 262 bacterial strains (188 from China and 74 from Florida). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • 8 ] analyzed the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in a bacteriophage-type DNA polymerase gene and revealed three clusters of ' Ca . L. asiaticus' strains from the Southeast Asia. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Some strains of bacteria with an integrated F-plasmid can be isolated and grown in pure culture. (wikipedia.org)
  • These resistant strains may or may not possess the mecA gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • characterize
  • In this study, we have applied FLIM to characterize the metabolic changes in HeLa cells upon bacterial infection and made comparison with the results from the cells treated with staurosporine (STS), a well-known apoptosis inducer. (spiedigitallibrary.org)
  • functional
  • Analysis of frequently co-localized genes yielded forty-five significant pairwise links between genes belonging to different functional classes. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Genes from eleven functional classes tend to co-localize with genes from the same class, indicating an important role of clustering of genes with similar functions. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Here, we applied functional metagenomics to study the presence and diversity of functional resistance genes in the sponges Aplysina aerophoba, Petrosia ficiformis , and Corticium candelabrum . (frontiersin.org)
  • The functional enrichment analysis of this group of genes using gene ontology showed that there are many genes related with cytokine production, lymphocyte activation and the response to bacterial infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • soil
  • The life cycle of this bacterium has coevolved with its host and begins when a J2 migrating through the soil becomes encumbered with endospores. (asm.org)
  • where resistance genes are obtained either from the indigenous human microbiota or from environmental microorganisms to which an individual is exposed (e.g., via food, water or soil). (frontiersin.org)
  • It is a soil-dwelling bacterium endemic in tropical and subtropical regions worldwide, particularly in Thailand and northern Australia. (wikipedia.org)
  • Rhizobial adaptations to soil and plant cell environments require the coordinate expression of complex gene networks in which sRNAs are expected to participate. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition to humans, animals such livestock and fish that eat from the ground or swim in water are expected to be constantly exposed to UBact containing bacteria in the soil and water respectively. (wikipedia.org)
  • Extracellular and capsular polysaccharides are produced by a variety of pathogenic and soil-dwelling bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • Curdlan is a neutral β-(1,3)-glucan, perhaps with a few intra- or interchain 1,6-linkages, produced as an exopolysaccharide by soil bacteria of the family Rhizobiaceae. (wikipedia.org)
  • infection
  • Being associated with mitochondria, FAD lifetimes and redox ratio could indicate heterogeneous mitochondrial function, microenvironment with bacterial infection, and further pathway to cell death. (spiedigitallibrary.org)
  • The redox ratios for both EHEC-infected and STS-treated HeLa cells have been observed and these observations also indicate possible apoptosis induced by bacterial infection. (spiedigitallibrary.org)
  • gram negative
  • Burkholderia pseudomallei (also known as Pseudomonas pseudomallei) is a Gram-negative, bipolar, aerobic, motile rod-shaped bacterium. (wikipedia.org)
  • While Pup is predominantly found in the gram-positive phylum Actinobacteria, UBact was identified only in gram-negative bacteria from the following five phyla: Nitrospirae, Verrucomicrobia, Armatimonadetes, Nitrospinae, and Planctomycetes. (wikipedia.org)
  • In summary, the UBact Pup homologs in gram-negative bacteria are an exciting expansion to our knowledge about ubiquitin-proteasome analogous systems in bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • Yersinia pseudotuberculosis is a Gram-negative bacterium that causes Far East scarlet-like fever in humans, who occasionally get infected zoonotically, most often through the food-borne route. (wikipedia.org)
  • coli
  • Analysis of homology data also allows for comprehensive re-annotation of T3SS loci within Desulfovibrio, Lawsonia and Hahella, and subsequent comparison of these T3SSs with related Yersinial T3SSs, and also (in conjunction with in vitro assays) for identification of many novel effectors in E. coli. (bham.ac.uk)
  • We hypothesize that recombinant co-expression in E. coli of all the Type IV genes (csf1, csf2, csf3, and cas6) along with a CRISPR will allow for a multi-subunit RNA-guided surveillance complex to form in vivo. (usu.edu)
  • Researcher Yoshizumi Ishino and colleagues published their findings on the sequence of a gene called "iap" and its relation to E. coli. (wikipedia.org)
  • antibiotic
  • A number of studies strongly suggest a possible association between bacteria with high mutation rates and antibiotic-resistance acquisition. (asmscience.org)
  • found
  • It has been found that environmental and physiological stress conditions can transiently increase the mutation rate in bacteria. (asmscience.org)
  • It is secreted into the host cell membranes and acts as a receptor for intimin which is found on the bacterial surface. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mercury(II) reductase, commonly known as MerA, is encoded in a structural gene found on the mer loci or as transposon 501 (Tn501). (wikipedia.org)
  • Bacteria from the phyla where UBact is found interact with humans, and are found in the human gut microbiota. (wikipedia.org)
  • IBD-affected individuals have been found to have 30-50 percent reduced biodiversity of commensal bacteria, such as decreases in Firmicutes (namely Lachnospiraceae) and Bacteroidetes. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2012, 163 IBD susceptibility loci were confirmed, which means that 163 alleles that can increase the susceptibility to the disease have been found. (wikipedia.org)
  • About half of the overall risk is related to genetics with more than 70 genes found to be involved. (wikipedia.org)
  • intergenic
  • Two complementary computational screens, eQRNA and RNAz, were used to search for novel sRNA-encoding genes in the intergenic regions IGRs of S. meliloti. (wikipedia.org)
  • evolutionary
  • Overall, we describe a complex web formed by evolutionary relationships of bacterial carbohydrate metabolism genes, manifested as co-localization patterns. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Scientists trying to reconstruct evolutionary history are challenged by the fact that genes can sometimes transfer between distant branches on the tree if life. (wikipedia.org)
  • subunit
  • Recent discoveries of "rampant" HGT in microorganisms, and the detection of horizontal movement of even genes for the small subunit of ribosomal RNA, have forced biologists to question the accuracy of at least the early branches in the tree, and even question the validity of trees as useful models of how early evolution occurs. (wikipedia.org)
  • A putative operon contains crdS, encoding β-(1,3)-glucan synthase catalytic subunit, flanked by two additional genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • CRISPR
  • Cpf1 genes are associated with the CRISPR locus, coding for an endonuclease that use a guide RNA to find and cleave viral DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although the CRISPR/Cas9 system can efficiently disable genes, it is challenging to insert genes or generate a knock-in. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first description of what would later be called CRISPR was from Osaka University researcher Yoshizumi Ishino in 1987, who accidentally cloned part of a CRISPR together with the iap gene, the target of interest. (wikipedia.org)
  • indicate
  • Here, a sub-network including NOD2, Il10 and CARD9 seems to indicate a close relationship between IBD and genes related with host interaction with bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • novel
  • Taken together, our results show that sponge microbiota host diverse and novel resistance genes that may be harnessed by phylogenetically distinct bacteria. (frontiersin.org)
  • outer
  • Tir is also a receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) that initiates its intimate adherence by inserting a hairpin orientation in the intestinal cell membrane to enable tight binding to intimin on the bacterial cell outer membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • commonly
  • For this reason it is important to use other information to infer phylogenies, such as the presence or absence of genes, or, more commonly, to include as wide a range of genes for analysis as possible. (wikipedia.org)
  • promoter
  • Verification of eQRNA/RNAz predictions by Northern hybridization and RACE mapping led to the identification of eight previously unknown genes, with recognizable promoter and termination signatures, expressing small transcripts. (wikipedia.org)