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  • bacteria
  • This suggests that recognition of LPS receptor play a major role to recognize bacterial entry and processing of ingested bacteria. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Bacterial endotoxins are heat-stable components of the Gram-negative outer membrane that are released after a bacterial cell lyses and are also continuously shed by viable bacteria. (asmscience.org)
  • Second group of TI antigens consists mainly of highly repetitive surface structures (epitopes) of encapsulated bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • Coley's toxins (also called Coley's toxin, Coley's vaccine, Coley vaccine, Coley's fluid or mixed bacterial vaccine) is a mixture consisting of killed bacteria of species Streptococcus pyogenes and Serratia marcescens, named after William Coley, a surgical oncologist at the Hospital for Special Surgery who developed the mixture in the late 19th century as a treatment for cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Polysaccharide encapsulated bacteria, frequently referred to simply as encapsulated bacteria and less precisely called encapsulated organisms, are a group of bacteria that have an outer covering, a bacterial capsule, made of polysaccharide. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many encapsulated bacteria are pathogens that lead to a significant amount of morbidity and mortality. (wikipedia.org)
  • The altered Schaedler flora (ASF) is a community of eight bacterial species: two Lactobacilli, one Bacteroides, one spiral bacteria of the Flexistipes genus, and four extremely oxygen sensitive (EOS) Fusobacterium species. (wikipedia.org)
  • Intestinal commensal bacteria play an important role in affecting gene expression of the GI tract, immune responses, nutrient absorption, and pathogen resistance. (wikipedia.org)
  • The distribution of the bacteria species in the gut depends on their need of and aversion to oxygen, flow rate, and substrate abundance, with variability based on age, gender and other pathogens present in the mice. (wikipedia.org)
  • In simple terms, physical barriers prevent pathogens such as bacteria and viruses from entering the organism. (wikipedia.org)
  • proteins
  • The s. typhi suppresses surface Vi antigen and produces flagellin and secreted proteins, these factors promote the bacterial invasion from the surface of M cells of Peyer's patches. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Despite broad interest in flagellins as antigens and adjuvants in vaccine formulations, there have been few advances towards the development of scalable and economical purification methods for these proteins. (jove.com)
  • Upon activation, TLRs recruit adapter proteins (proteins that mediate other protein-protein interactions) within the cytosol of the immune cell in order to propagate the antigen-induced signal transduction pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • While a host's homologous recombination can act as a defense mechanisms for fixing DNA double stranded breaks (DSBs), it can also create changes in antigenic DNA that can create new, unrecognizable proteins that allow the antigen to escape recognition by the host's immune response. (wikipedia.org)
  • Through the recombination of H. pylori's outer membrane proteins, immunoglobulins can no longer recognize these new structures and, therefore, cannot attack the antigen as part of the normal immune response. (wikipedia.org)
  • However bacterial polysaccharides and lipopolysaccharides, and some polymeric proteins, can stimulate B lymphocytes without involvement of helper T cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Recognition of extracellular or endosomal pathogen-associated molecular patterns is mediated by transmembrane proteins known as toll-like receptors (TLRs). (wikipedia.org)
  • vaccine
  • Thus, unlike many depot-type adjuvants, such as aluminum hydroxide, no advanced preparation or absorption is required to formulate the antigen/adjuvant vaccine. (asm.org)
  • The basic platform for formulating a vaccine involves deciphering the kinds of immune responses to the various antigenic factors of the pathogen. (jyi.org)
  • Shigella, a major diarrheal disease pathogen worldwide, is the target of vaccine development. (jove.com)
  • Some antigens may even target pathways different than those the vaccine had originally intended to target. (wikipedia.org)
  • Meningococcus B caused over 50% of meningococcal meningitis, and scientists had been unable to create a successful vaccine for the pathogen because of the bacterium's unique structure. (wikipedia.org)
  • During the development of the MenB vaccine, scientists adopted the same Reverse Vaccinology methods for other bacterial pathogens. (wikipedia.org)
  • infection
  • Although the size and diversity of the lymphocyte repertoire make it likely that there is an antigen, a specific lymphocyte for any given pathogen, the frequency of these cells can be extremely low and normally will not be sufficient to protect the host against a primary infection. (jyi.org)
  • It is this process of clonal selection and the ultimate perpetuation of these antigen-specific memory cells that protects against a secondary infection. (jyi.org)
  • This part of immune response may be important in some early stages of infection by extracellular pathogens, because it is rapidly activated and does not require T cell help or clonal maturation and expansion. (wikipedia.org)
  • Vaccines can be prophylactic (example: to prevent or ameliorate the effects of a future infection by a natural or "wild" pathogen), or therapeutic (e.g., vaccines against cancer are being investigated). (wikipedia.org)
  • During a streptococcal infection, mature antigen-presenting cells such as B cells present the bacterial antigen to CD4+T cells which differentiate into helper T2 cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bacterial immunotherapy for the treatment of cancer has been utilized throughout history, with the earliest report in 2600 BC, by Egyptian pharaoh Imhotep who had a poultice, followed by incision, to facilitate the development of infection in the desired location and cause regression of the tumour. (wikipedia.org)
  • medical citation needed] Inflammation is commonly associated with a bacterial infection but can also be due to other insults such as repetitive trauma or in rare cases periodontitis. (wikipedia.org)
  • The pulp cavity inherently provides the body with an immune system response challenge, which makes it very difficult for a bacterial infection to be eliminated. (wikipedia.org)
  • Here, the immune system adapts its response during an infection to improve its recognition of the pathogen. (wikipedia.org)
  • induce
  • FcRn-mediated antigen presentation has important consequences in tissue compartments replete with IgG and serves not only to determine homeostatic immune activation at a variety of sites but also to induce inflammatory responses upon exposure to antigens perceived as foreign. (frontiersin.org)
  • TI-1 antigens are classified as B-cell mitogens, because they induce numerous cell divisions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Specificity
  • Antigen detection, which serves as the initiating event in this cascade, occurs via numerous mechanisms having varying levels of sensitivity and specificity. (frontiersin.org)
  • Specificity for antigen detection, uptake, and/or processing is conferred by cellular receptors that may bind to a unique ligand, such as insulin-like growth factor receptor 1 (IGFR1), or to a conserved motif present on many ligands, such as the mannose receptor (MR) DC-SIGN. (frontiersin.org)
  • TI-1 antigens have an intrinsic B cell activating activity, that can directly cause proliferation and differentiation of B lymphocytes without T cell stimulation and independently of their BCR specificity. (wikipedia.org)
  • recognition
  • Also described is the use of specific protease recognition sites linking antigens through which the encoded antigens are separated upon cleavage. (patents.com)
  • 8. A recombinant polynucleotide vector comprising a nucleic acid molecule encoding two or more antigens and a protease-recognition site, wherein the antigens are expressed as a polyprotein comprising the protease-recognition site separating at least two of the two or more antigens. (patents.com)
  • 11. The recombinant polynucleotide vector of claim 10, wherein the protease, upon expression, is expressed as part of the polyprotein and is linked to at least one of the antigens by a protease-recognition site. (patents.com)
  • TLRs are a type of pattern recognition receptor (PRR) and recognize molecules that are broadly shared by pathogens but distinguishable from host molecules, collectively referred to as pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). (wikipedia.org)
  • parasitic
  • A stable injectable composition includes a non-aqueous parasitic agent in a therapeutically effect amount, chosen from the group of avermectin, ivermectin, doramectin, abamectin, milbemycin and moxidecting, and an antigen in combination with a liquid carrier that also acts as an adjuvant for use with. (google.com)
  • A stable injectable composition includes a non-aqueous parasitic agent in a therapeutically effect amount, chosen from the group of avermectin, ivermectin, doramectin, abamectin, milbemycin and moxidecting, and an antigen in combination with a liquid carrier that also acts as an adjuvant for use with warm blooded animals and a method for treating parasitic diseases and preventing bacterial and viral diseases in warm blooded animals. (google.com)
  • This parasitic antigen diversity is particularly troublesome for the development of the malaria vaccines. (wikipedia.org)
  • To function properly, an immune system must detect a wide variety of agents, known as pathogens, from viruses to parasitic worms, and distinguish them from the organism's own healthy tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • secretion
  • 3) Unlike other adjuvants, such as aluminum hydroxide or many Toll-like receptor (TLR)-based adjuvants (e.g., monophosphoryl lipid A [MPL] and CpG), dmLT induces strong interleukin-17 (IL-17) recall cytokine secretion and antigen-specific Th17 responses after parenteral or mucosal immunization ( 7 - 15 ). (asm.org)
  • receptors
  • These antigen-specific receptors are encoded by genes generated during a complex of gene rearrangement that occurs during the course of lymphocyte development. (jyi.org)
  • Immunoglobulins are unique molecules capable of simultaneously recognizing a diverse array of antigens and themselves being recognized by a broad array of receptors. (frontiersin.org)
  • More cell surface receptors can bind to the particle in a zipper-like mechanism as the pathogen is surrounded, increasing the binding avidity. (wikipedia.org)
  • TI-1 antigen, which has an activity that can directly activate B cells and TI-2 antigen, which has highly repetitive structure and causes simultaneous cross-linking of specific B cell receptors (BCR) on B lymphocyte. (wikipedia.org)
  • TI-1 antigens activate B-cells via Toll like receptors, which are, in human, expressed on the surface of B lymphocytes after BCR stimulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • inflammatory
  • Many bacterial pathogens, such as Francisella , Yersinia , Brucella , and Coxiella , synthesize an alternative form of lipid A that is less stimulatory in the mammalian host and significantly dampens the early host inflammatory responses, thus facilitating the establishment of disease. (asmscience.org)
  • Bacterial products may reach the pulp much earlier and begin the inflammatory response. (wikipedia.org)
  • recognize
  • This means that the response mechanisms a host's immune system normally utilizes to recognize and eliminate a virus or pathogen is no longer able to do so. (wikipedia.org)
  • epithelial cells
  • The surface omp C protein of S. typhi was responsible for this agglutination, This agglutination maybe promote bacterial entry into epithelial cells. (nii.ac.jp)
  • toxins
  • A composition as claimed in claim 4 , wherein the antigen is selected from the group consisting of antigens and toxins for the prevention of clostridial diseases in warm-blooded animals. (google.com)
  • Microbes can prevent growth of harmful pathogens by altering pH, consuming nutrients required for pathogen survival, and secreting toxins that inhibit growth of pathogens. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecules
  • Cross-linking of FcRn by multivalent IgG IC within antigen presenting cells such as dendritic cells initiates specific mechanisms that result in trafficking of the antigen-bearing IgG IC into compartments from which the antigen can successfully be processed into peptide epitopes compatible with loading onto both major histocompatibility complex class I and II molecules. (frontiersin.org)
  • This gene encodes a member of the family of carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecules (CEACAMs), which are used by several bacterial pathogens to bind and invade host cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • PRRs are germline-encoded host sensors, which detect molecules typical for the pathogens. (wikipedia.org)
  • ligand
  • In each case, ligand binding by the receptor can not only initiate ligand internalization but also trigger additional signaling cascades, which exert direct or indirect effects on subsequent antigen presentation. (frontiersin.org)
  • If the ligand is a bacterial factor, the pathogen might be phagocytosed and digested, and its antigens presented to CD4+ T cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • macrophages
  • Vi was maximally expressed inside macrophages, Vi deleted mutants stimulated macrophages during the entry into macrophages and quickly processed by macrophages, This means that S. typhi needs to mask surface antigen to enter macrophage because Vi deleted S, typhi quickly stimulated macrophages. (nii.ac.jp)
  • It is part of the adaptive immune system, but it links to the innate response by recruiting macrophages to phagocytose pathogens. (wikipedia.org)
  • humoral
  • In turn, this enables the synchronous activation of both CD4 + and CD8 + T cell responses against the cognate antigen, thereby bridging the gap between the humoral and cellular branches of the adaptive immune response. (frontiersin.org)
  • Salmonella
  • Publications] Miyake, M., L. Zhao, L. T. Ezaki, K. Hirose, A. Q. Khan, Y. Kawamura, R. Shima, M. Kamijo, T. Masuzawa and Y. Yanagihara: 'Vi-deficient and nonfimbriated mutants of Salmonella typhi agglutinate human blood type antigens and are hyperinvasive. (nii.ac.jp)
  • lymphocytes
  • There are 2 distinct subgroups of TI antigens, different in mechanism of activating B lymphocytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • TI-2 antigens can activate only mature B lymphocytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Even though the response on TI antigens is not dependent on T lymphocytes, there are some cytokines, produced mainly by T lymphocytes and natural killer (NK) cells, necessary for eliciting reaction against these antigens. (wikipedia.org)
  • infects
  • The most common of antigenic escape mechanisms, homologous recombination, can be seen in a wide variety of bacterial pathogens, including Helicobacter pylori, a bacterium that infects the human stomach. (wikipedia.org)
  • genome
  • By comparing our medieval Borrelia recurrentis genome with modern representatives of the species, we offer an historical snapshot of genomic changes in an immune-evasion system and of reductive evolution in a specialized vector-borne human pathogen. (pnas.org)
  • Then, they scanned the sequenced genome for potential antigens. (wikipedia.org)
  • species
  • The lysosomes contain hydrolytic enzymes and reactive oxygen species (ROS) which kill and digest the pathogens. (wikipedia.org)
  • SPF mice still contain varying microbiota, just without certain known pathogen species. (wikipedia.org)
  • Due to the limited technology of the time, not much was known of the specific bacterial genus and species. (wikipedia.org)
  • The stimulus may be a microbe, a carcinogenic cell, a same species cell with different antigens, or cells from a different species. (wikipedia.org)
  • encodes
  • 16. The recombinant polynucleotide vector of claim 8, wherein the nucleic acid molecule encodes at least two antigens encoded by open reading frames Ag85A, Ag85B, and TB10.4 of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. (patents.com)
  • cells
  • After antigenic stimulation, there is activation and expansion of these antigen-specific cells. (jyi.org)
  • Hence, the goal of vaccination is to enhance the number of antigen-specific B and T cells against a given pathogen. (jyi.org)
  • T independent antigens are divided into 2 classes by the mechanism of activating B cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • This principle holds true for clearance of pathogens as well as dead or dying self cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Isolated lymphoid follicles (ILFs) collect antigens through M cells, develop germinal centers, and contain many B cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Odontoblasts, (the cells that form dentin) have cellular processes that extend into dentinal tubules and are the first to encounter the caries bacterial antigens. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cells are capable of sensing microbes as well as antigen capture and processing capabilities. (wikipedia.org)
  • human
  • The Vi suppressed S. typhi agglutinate with human blood type antigen. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Our results illustrate the potential of ancient DNA research to elucidate dynamics of reductive evolution in a specialized human pathogen and to uncover aspects of human health usually invisible to the archaeological record. (pnas.org)
  • The disease is part of a group of well-known deadly louse-borne pathogens, which specialize in vector-human transmission. (pnas.org)
  • It is thought to serve an important role in controlling human-specific pathogens by the innate immune system. (wikipedia.org)
  • Viruses were confirmed as human pathogens in 1901, with the discovery of the yellow fever virus by Walter Reed. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecule
  • Carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 3 (CEACAM3) also known as CD66d (Cluster of Differentiation 66d), is a member of the carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) gene family. (wikipedia.org)
  • susceptible
  • People that lack a spleen, functionally (as in sickle cell disease) or anatomically (due to a splenectomy or congenital absence, as in Ivemark Syndrome for example), have been shown to be more susceptible to these pathogens due to impaired opsonization of such organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • vaccination
  • Current vaccination protocols include whole cell, inactivated and adjuvanted vaccines for injection for primary immunization followed by oral boost where timing of boost delivery is followed by measuring circulating antibody levels against the pathogen. (frontiersin.org)
  • This results in the pathogens being able to attack targets of the immune system different than those intended to be targeted by the vaccination. (wikipedia.org)
  • cell
  • Critically, FcRn-driven T cell priming is efficient at very low doses of antigen due to the exquisite sensitivity of the IgG-mediated antigen delivery system through which it operates. (frontiersin.org)
  • How an antigen is detected depends at once on the nature of the antigen itself as well as on the particular immune cell that detects it. (frontiersin.org)