• Specificity
  • Antigen detection, which serves as the initiating event in this cascade, occurs via numerous mechanisms having varying levels of sensitivity and specificity. (frontiersin.org)
  • Specificity for antigen detection, uptake, and/or processing is conferred by cellular receptors that may bind to a unique ligand, such as insulin-like growth factor receptor 1 (IGFR1), or to a conserved motif present on many ligands, such as the mannose receptor (MR) DC-SIGN. (frontiersin.org)
  • TI-1 antigens have an intrinsic B cell activating activity, that can directly cause proliferation and differentiation of B lymphocytes without T cell stimulation and independently of their BCR specificity. (wikipedia.org)
  • infection
  • Although the size and diversity of the lymphocyte repertoire make it likely that there is an antigen, a specific lymphocyte for any given pathogen, the frequency of these cells can be extremely low and normally will not be sufficient to protect the host against a primary infection. (jyi.org)
  • It is this process of clonal selection and the ultimate perpetuation of these antigen-specific memory cells that protects against a secondary infection. (jyi.org)
  • During a streptococcal infection, mature antigen-presenting cells such as B cells present the bacterial antigen to CD4+T cells which differentiate into helper T2 cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bacterial immunotherapy for the treatment of cancer has been utilized throughout history, with the earliest report in 2600 BC, by Egyptian pharaoh Imhotep who had a poultice, followed by incision, to facilitate the development of infection in the desired location and cause regression of the tumour. (wikipedia.org)
  • medical citation needed] Inflammation is commonly associated with a bacterial infection but can also be due to other insults such as repetitive trauma or in rare cases periodontitis. (wikipedia.org)
  • The pulp cavity inherently provides the body with an immune system response challenge, which makes it very difficult for a bacterial infection to be eliminated. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mycobacterium
  • 16. The recombinant polynucleotide vector of claim 8, wherein the nucleic acid molecule encodes at least two antigens encoded by open reading frames Ag85A, Ag85B, and TB10.4 of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. (patents.com)
  • Objective To investigate antigen-specific CD4 + T cell responses to influenza virus, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigens in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and peripheral blood between HIV-infected individuals and HIV-uninfected Malawian adults. (bmj.com)
  • parasitic
  • A stable injectable composition includes a non-aqueous parasitic agent in a therapeutically effect amount, chosen from the group of avermectin, ivermectin, doramectin, abamectin, milbemycin and moxidecting, and an antigen in combination with a liquid carrier that also acts as an adjuvant for use with. (google.com)
  • To function properly, an immune system must detect a wide variety of agents, known as pathogens, from viruses to parasitic worms, and distinguish them from the organism's own healthy tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecules
  • Immunoglobulins are unique molecules capable of simultaneously recognizing a diverse array of antigens and themselves being recognized by a broad array of receptors. (frontiersin.org)
  • Cross-linking of FcRn by multivalent IgG IC within antigen presenting cells such as dendritic cells initiates specific mechanisms that result in trafficking of the antigen-bearing IgG IC into compartments from which the antigen can successfully be processed into peptide epitopes compatible with loading onto both major histocompatibility complex class I and II molecules. (frontiersin.org)
  • The ability of immune system to recognize molecules that are broadly shared by pathogens is, in part, due to the presence of Immune receptors called toll-like receptors (TLRs) that are expressed on the membranes of leukocytes including dendritic cells, macrophages, natural killer cells, cells of the adaptive immunity (T and B lymphocytes) and non immune cells (epithelial and endothelial cells, and fibroblasts). (wikipedia.org)
  • This gene encodes a member of the family of carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecules (CEACAMs), which are used by several bacterial pathogens to bind and invade host cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • PRRs are germline-encoded host sensors, which detect molecules typical for the pathogens. (wikipedia.org)
  • receptors
  • These antigen-specific receptors are encoded by genes generated during a complex of gene rearrangement that occurs during the course of lymphocyte development. (jyi.org)
  • More cell surface receptors can bind to the particle in a zipper-like mechanism as the pathogen is surrounded, increasing the binding avidity. (wikipedia.org)
  • TI-1 antigen, which has an activity that can directly activate B cells and TI-2 antigen, which has highly repetitive structure and causes simultaneous cross-linking of specific B cell receptors (BCR) on B lymphocyte. (wikipedia.org)
  • TI-1 antigens activate B-cells via Toll like receptors, which are, in human, expressed on the surface of B lymphocytes after BCR stimulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • tuberculosis
  • 14. The recombinant polynucleotide vector of claim 8, wherein the antigens are from at least one tuberculosis (TB)-causing bacillus. (patents.com)
  • We determined the proportion of T cell subsets including naive, memory and regulatory T cells using flow cytometry, and used intracellular cytokine staining to identify CD4 + T cells recognising influenza virus-, S pneumoniae - and M tuberculosis -antigens. (bmj.com)
  • In particular, HIV-infected individuals are 30 times more likely than uninfected adults to suffer from bacterial pneumonia or active tuberculosis. (bmj.com)
  • and antigens of interest, such as tuberculosis antigens. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • diseases
  • A composition as claimed in claim 4 , wherein the antigen is selected from the group consisting of antigens and toxins for the prevention of clostridial diseases in warm-blooded animals. (google.com)
  • Therapeutically targeting the pathway by which FcRn enables T cell activation in response to IgG IC is thus a highly attractive prospect not only for the treatment of diseases that are driven by immune complexes but also for manipulating local immune responses against defined antigens such as those present during infections and cancer. (frontiersin.org)
  • Salmonella
  • Publications] Miyake, M., L. Zhao, L. T. Ezaki, K. Hirose, A. Q. Khan, Y. Kawamura, R. Shima, M. Kamijo, T. Masuzawa and Y. Yanagihara: 'Vi-deficient and nonfimbriated mutants of Salmonella typhi agglutinate human blood type antigens and are hyperinvasive. (nii.ac.jp)
  • infections
  • Our results indicate that Psl is an accessible serotype-independent surface feature and promising novel protective antigen for preventing P. aeruginosa infections. (rupress.org)
  • Antibody therapy for serious bacterial infections using polyclonal immune antitoxin or anticapsule horse serum actually predates antibiotic use. (rupress.org)
  • However, widespread drug resistance is quickly reducing the number of effective antibiotics available for treatment of severe bacterial infections. (rupress.org)
  • In particular, these drugs could be effective in preventing or treating high-risk hospital infections caused by bacterial pathogens such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa . (rupress.org)
  • Patients with B cell deficiencies are highly susceptible to encapsulated bacterial infections. (wikipedia.org)
  • epithelial cells
  • The surface omp C protein of S. typhi was responsible for this agglutination, This agglutination maybe promote bacterial entry into epithelial cells. (nii.ac.jp)
  • vectors
  • The recombinant vectors may comprise a nucleic acid encoding the protease cleaving the linkers and separating the antigens. (patents.com)
  • dendritic cells
  • Raftery MJ, Winau F, Kaufmann SH, Schaible UE, Sch nrich G: CD1 antigen presentation by human dendritic cells as a target for herpes simplex virus immune evasion. (exbio.cz)
  • induce
  • FcRn-mediated antigen presentation has important consequences in tissue compartments replete with IgG and serves not only to determine homeostatic immune activation at a variety of sites but also to induce inflammatory responses upon exposure to antigens perceived as foreign. (frontiersin.org)
  • TI-1 antigens are classified as B-cell mitogens, because they induce numerous cell divisions. (wikipedia.org)
  • immune system
  • It is thought to serve an important role in controlling human-specific pathogens by the innate immune system. (wikipedia.org)
  • This results in the pathogens being able to attack targets of the immune system different than those intended to be targeted by the vaccination. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is part of the adaptive immune system, but it links to the innate response by recruiting macrophages to phagocytose pathogens. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, many of acquired nonself surfaces e.g. carcinoembryonic/oncofetal type neoantigens carrying "internal danger source"/"self turned nonself" type pathogen pattern are also identified and destroyed (e.g. by complement fixation or other cytotoxic attacks) or sequestered (phagocytosed or ensheathed) by the immune system by virtue of the CLRs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Also, compared to germfree animals, ASF mice have fully developed immune system, resistance to opportunistic pathogens, and normal GI function and health, and are a great representation of normal mice The GI tract is particularly difficult to study due to its complex host-pathogen interaction. (wikipedia.org)
  • If a pathogen breaches these barriers, the innate immune system provides an immediate, but non-specific response. (wikipedia.org)
  • If pathogens successfully evade the innate response, vertebrates possess a second layer of protection, the adaptive immune system, which is activated by the innate response. (wikipedia.org)
  • macrophages
  • Vi was maximally expressed inside macrophages, Vi deleted mutants stimulated macrophages during the entry into macrophages and quickly processed by macrophages, This means that S. typhi needs to mask surface antigen to enter macrophage because Vi deleted S, typhi quickly stimulated macrophages. (nii.ac.jp)
  • cells
  • After antigenic stimulation, there is activation and expansion of these antigen-specific cells. (jyi.org)
  • Angel CE, Lala A, Chen CJ, Edgar SG, Ostrovsky LL, Dunbar PR: CD14+ antigen-presenting cells in human dermis are less mature than their CD1a+ counterparts. (exbio.cz)
  • Mayer WJ, Irschick UM, Moser P, Wurm M, Huemer HP, Romani N, Irschick EU: Characterization of antigen-presenting cells in fresh and cultured human corneas using novel dendritic cell markers. (exbio.cz)
  • If the ligand is a bacterial factor, the pathogen might be phagocytosed and digested, and its antigens presented to CD4+ T cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • T independent antigens are divided into 2 classes by the mechanism of activating B cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Even though the response on TI antigens is not dependent on T lymphocytes, there are some cytokines, produced mainly by T lymphocytes and natural killer (NK) cells, necessary for eliciting reaction against these antigens. (wikipedia.org)
  • This principle holds true for clearance of pathogens as well as dead or dying self cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The stimulus may be a microbe, a carcinogenic cell, a same species cell with different antigens, or cells from a different species. (wikipedia.org)
  • Isolated lymphoid follicles (ILFs) collect antigens through M cells, develop germinal centers, and contain many B cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Odontoblasts, (the cells that form dentin) have cellular processes that extend into dentinal tubules and are the first to encounter the caries bacterial antigens. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cells are capable of sensing microbes as well as antigen capture and processing capabilities. (wikipedia.org)
  • humoral
  • In turn, this enables the synchronous activation of both CD4 + and CD8 + T cell responses against the cognate antigen, thereby bridging the gap between the humoral and cellular branches of the adaptive immune response. (frontiersin.org)
  • antigenic
  • The most common of antigenic escape mechanisms, homologous recombination, can be seen in a wide variety of bacterial pathogens, including Helicobacter pylori, a bacterium that infects the human stomach. (wikipedia.org)
  • species
  • A. The location of the genes involved in the synthesis of the O antigen in several species of Enterobacteriaceae. (intechopen.com)
  • The lysosomes contain hydrolytic enzymes and reactive oxygen species (ROS) which kill and digest the pathogens. (wikipedia.org)
  • SPF mice still contain varying microbiota, just without certain known pathogen species. (wikipedia.org)
  • Due to the limited technology of the time, not much was known of the specific bacterial genus and species. (wikipedia.org)
  • cell
  • Critically, FcRn-driven T cell priming is efficient at very low doses of antigen due to the exquisite sensitivity of the IgG-mediated antigen delivery system through which it operates. (frontiersin.org)
  • How an antigen is detected depends at once on the nature of the antigen itself as well as on the particular immune cell that detects it. (frontiersin.org)
  • Carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 3 (CEACAM3) also known as CD66d (Cluster of Differentiation 66d), is a member of the carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) gene family. (wikipedia.org)
  • People that lack a spleen, functionally (as in sickle cell disease) or anatomically (due to a splenectomy or congenital absence, as in Ivemark Syndrome for example), have been shown to be more susceptible to these pathogens due to impaired opsonization of such organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • genes
  • This process occurs on the cytoplasmic side of the internal membrane and c) genes for the assembly of the O antigen and its exportation (orange box). (intechopen.com)