• microbes
  • The oldest method for obtaining information on microbial community structure is to examine the sample with a microscope and characterize the microbes by their morphology. (asmscience.org)
  • The sampling protocols include the assessment of resources available to the microbial community (dissolved organic carbon, particulate organic matter, inorganic nutrients), and a comprehensive description of the viral and bacterial communities (via direct viral and microbial counts, enumeration of autofluorescent microbes, and construction of viral and microbial metagenomes). (jove.com)
  • In microbiology, the term isolation refers to the separation of a strain from a natural, mixed population of living microbes, as present in the environment, for example in water or soil flora, or from living beings with skin flora, oral flora or gut flora, in order to identify the microbe(s) of interest. (wikipedia.org)
  • Depending on the expected density and viability of microbes present in a liquid sample, physical methods to increase the gradient as for example serial dilution or centrifugation may be chosen. (wikipedia.org)
  • EXPOSE data support long-term in situ studies of microbes in artificial meteorites, as well as of microbial communities from special ecological niches. (wikipedia.org)
  • enumeration
  • Molecular enumeration (RLEP PCR) and viability determinations (qRT-PCR) were performed via Taqman methodology on DNA and RNA, respectively, purified from ethanol-fixed FP tissue and compared with conventional enumeration (microscopic counting of acid fast bacilli) and viability assays (radiorespirometry, viability staining) which utilized bacilli freshly harvested from the contralateral FP. (nih.gov)
  • lysis
  • Bacterial lysis is achieved using either mechanical or non mechanical methods, or a combination of both, while washing steps include, among others, detergent and/or DNase treatments. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Considering that extracellular DNA (eDNA) is a key factor in the biofilm matrix, we reasoned that prophage spontaneous activation with the consequent bacterial host lysis could provide a source of eDNA, enhancing pneumococcal biofilm development. (jove.com)
  • These findings establish that limited phage-mediated host lysis of a fraction of the bacterial population, due to spontaneous phage induction, constitutes an important source of eDNA for the S. pneumoniae biofilm matrix and that this localized release of eDNA favors biofilm formation by the remaining bacterial population. (jove.com)
  • diversity
  • The composition of this microbiota can now be rapidly assessed by a choice of methods depending on the question and the answers that can link our microbial diversity to health, diet, geographic location, disease and genotype. (wiley.com)
  • The PCR methods have been used with samples from sediments and microbial mats, as well as deep-sea holothurian guts, often showing unexpected bacterial and archaeal diversity. (asmscience.org)
  • Similar to exploration of bacterial diversity, these techniques have allowed high-resolution studies of fundamental questions in fungal ecology such as phylogeography, fungal diversity in forest soils, stratification of fungal communities in soil horizons, and fungal succession on decomposing plant litter. (wikipedia.org)
  • organism
  • The inability of Mycobacterium leprae to grow on axenic media has necessitated specialized techniques in order to determine viability of this organism. (nih.gov)
  • If one expects or looks for a particularly fastidious organism, the microbiological culture and isolation techniques will have to be geared towards that microbe. (wikipedia.org)
  • protein
  • Bacterial inclusion bodies are submicron protein clusters usually found in recombinant bacteria that have been traditionally considered as undesirable products from protein production processes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Using an appropriate combination of chemical and mechanical cell disruption methods we have established a convenient procedure for the recovery of bacterial inclusion bodies with undetectable levels of viable cell contamination, below 10 -1 cfu/ml, keeping the particulate organization of these aggregates regarding size and protein folding features. (biomedcentral.com)
  • It induces directed polymerization of actin by the ActA transmembrane protein, thus pushing the bacterial cell around. (wikipedia.org)
  • mats
  • This study underscores the presence of diverse mechanisms of adaptation to cold and other stresses in polar mats, consistent with the proportional representation of major bacterial groups. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Microbial mats dominated by cyanobacteria are commonly found in extreme environments, such as geothermal springs, hypersaline basins, ultraoligotrophic ponds, and hot and cold desert soils ( 10 , 14 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Biofilms
  • Monitoring biofilm growth of lysogenic and non-lysogenic pneumococcal strains indicated that phage-infected bacteria are more proficient at forming biofilms, that is their biofilms are characterized by a higher biomass and cell viability. (jove.com)
  • Analysis of lysogens deficient for phage lysin and the bacterial major autolysin revealed that the absence of either lytic activity impaired biofilm development and the addition of DNA restored the ability of mutant strains to form robust biofilms. (jove.com)
  • assay
  • The purpose of this study was to develop a simple and sensitive molecular assay for determining M. leprae viability directly from infected tissues. (nih.gov)
  • Bacilli were harvested on day 1 and at 4, 8, 12, and 17 weeks post infection and enumerated by direct counting (A). Viability of M. leprae was determined by BacLight viability staining (B) and RR (C). Dotted line represents the lower detection limit of the assay. (nih.gov)
  • mechanisms
  • Parameters addressed with these protocols yield the minimum on information essential to characterize and understand the underlying mechanisms of viral and microbial community dynamics. (jove.com)
  • Whilst many specific social immune mechanisms have been studied for some time in relative isolation (e.g. the "collective medication" found in wood ants), it was only until Sylvia Cremer et al. (wikipedia.org)
  • cell
  • The application of the developed protocol allows obtaining bacterial free inclusion bodies suitable for use in mammalian cell cultures and other biological interfaces. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Here, we demonstrate that Foxp3 + T reg cell deficiency results in gut microbial dysbiosis and autoimmunity over the lifespan of scurfy (SF) mouse. (rupress.org)
  • After biofilm disruption, cell viability was measured by staining with resazurin. (jove.com)
  • About half of the dry mass of a bacterial cell consists of carbon, and also about half of it can be attributed to proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • As in other organisms, the bacterial cell wall provides structural integrity to the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • The bacterial cell wall differs from that of all other organisms by the presence of peptidoglycan which is located immediately outside of the cytoplasmic membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • Peptidoglycan is responsible for the rigidity of the bacterial cell wall and for the determination of cell shape. (wikipedia.org)
  • While all bacterial cell walls (with a few exceptions e.g. extracellular parasites such as Mycoplasma) contain peptidoglycan, not all cell walls have the same overall structures. (wikipedia.org)
  • If the bacterial cell wall is entirely removed, it is called a protoplast while if it's partially removed, it is called a spheroplast. (wikipedia.org)
  • β-Lactam antibiotics such as penicillin inhibit the formation of peptidoglycan cross-links in the bacterial cell wall. (wikipedia.org)
  • analysis
  • This type of analysis is often used to check the viability of cells and performed with pinners (often also called froggers). (wikipedia.org)
  • This bacterial system might also be able to provide some utility for the analysis of eukaryotic Mg2+ transport proteins, but differences in biological systems of prokaryotes and eukaryotes will have to be considered in any experiment. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecular
  • hsp18 and esxA qRT-PCR are sensitive molecular indicators, reliably detecting viability of M. leprae in tissues without the need for bacterial isolation or immediate processing, making these assays applicable for in vivo drug screening and promising for clinical and field applications. (nih.gov)
  • conventional
  • Unfortunately, the majority of strains in Sarawak, Borneo, are susceptible to aminoglycosides and macrolides, which means the conventional recommendations for isolation and identification do not apply there. (wikipedia.org)
  • methods
  • Methods of microbial isolation have drastically changed over the past 50 years, from a labor perspective with increasing mechanization, and in regard to the technology involved, and hence speed and accuracy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus
  • Especially metagenomic sequencing techniques used for viral and bacterial community characterization, have been established only in recent years, and are thus still subjected to constant improvement. (jove.com)
  • techniques
  • Historically, the laboratory techniques of isolation first developed in the field of bacteriology and parasitology (during the 19th century), before those in virology during the 20th century. (wikipedia.org)
  • Proper isolation techniques of virology did not exist prior to the 20th century. (wikipedia.org)
  • products
  • This turn in the understanding of IB biological nature has prompted to explore potential applications of such aggregates as straightforward bacterial products. (biomedcentral.com)
  • communities
  • The microbial world within us includes a vast array of gastrointestinal (GI) tract communities that play an important role in health and disease. (wiley.com)
  • study
  • 2005. In vitro study of lipid biosynthesis in an anaerobically methane-oxidizing microbial mat. (asmscience.org)
  • A research study was completed by a Harvard Medical School professor at Brigham and Women's Hospital, Andrew B. Onderdonk, PhD. The study has revealed GLB44's strength and effectiveness against bacterial pathogens. (wikipedia.org)
  • content
  • In order to isolate organisms in materials with high microbial content, such as sewage, soil or stool, serial dilutions will increase the chance of separating a mixture. (wikipedia.org)
  • samples
  • Broth is convenient, as most bacterial samples can be easily introduced into and grown in this type of medium, even those with widely different aerotolerance (oxygen requirements). (blogspot.com)
  • Treatment
  • In addition, the ability of these assays to detect the effects of anti-leprosy drug treatment on M. leprae viability was determined using rifampin and rifapentine, each at 10 mg/kg for 1, 5, or 20 daily doses, in the athymic nu/nu FP model. (nih.gov)
  • medium
  • Ashdown's medium (or Burkholderia cepacia medium) may be used for selective isolation. (wikipedia.org)
  • In other agar substances are added to exploit an organism's ability to produce a visible pigment (e.g.granada medium for Group B Streptococcus)which changes the bacterial colony's color, or to dissolve blood agar by hemolysis so that they can be more easily spotted. (wikipedia.org)