• protein
  • I am prepared to supervise PhD. students on projects that exploit bacterial genetics to study bacterial protein secretion. (ncl.ac.uk)
  • Each one specializes in binding to a specific molecule such as a viral, parasite, or bacterial protein, as well as to foreign substances such as poisons and drugs. (encyclopedia.com)
  • IgG2 represents the major antibody subclass reacting to glycan antigens but IgG1 and IgG3 subclasses have also been observed in such responses, particularly in the case of protein-glycan conjugates. (wikipedia.org)
  • It has the shortest half-life compared to the other IgG subclasses and is frequently present together with IgG1 in response to protein antigens in particular after viral infections. (wikipedia.org)
  • They suggest that the endorhamnosidase activity of the free tailspike molecule serves to modify O-antigen, compromising the LPS structure and thereby preventing the binding of a phage P22-attached tailspike protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • The triggering antigen is usually a bacterial protein (particularly from Staphylococcus aureus), but may also be a virus, fungus (particularly Candida albicans), or nematode. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genes believed to be involved include those for thyroglobulin, thyrotropin receptor, protein tyrosine phosphatase nonreceptor type 22, and cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen 4, among others. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, since Hsp70 plays an important role in the presentation of antigens of destroyed cells including cancer cells, this protein may be used as an effective adjuvant in the development of antitumor vaccines. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bacteria
  • Gram-negative bacterial infection refers to a disease caused by gram-negative bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • The smooth surface and negative charge of the exterior capsule limits the ability of phagocytes to counteract the bacteria through cell-mediated immunity, and hence the humoral immune response of B cell antigens is important for the removal of encapsulated bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • MSCRAMM (acronym for "microbial surface components recognizing adhesive matrix molecules") adhesin proteins mediate the initial attachment of bacteria to host tissue, providing a critical step to establish infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • This has an antiphagocytic effect, i.e. macrophages cannot "see" these bacteria as easily as if they were correctly opsonised by antigen. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is anchored within the viral coat and recognizes the O-antigen portion of the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on the outer-membrane of Gram-negative bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • The toxic activity of LPS was first discovered and termed "endotoxin" by Richard Friedrich Johannes Pfeiffer, who distinguished between exotoxins, which he classified as a toxin that is released by bacteria into the surrounding environment, and endotoxins, which he considered to be a toxin kept "within" the bacterial cell and released only after destruction of the bacterial cell wall. (wikipedia.org)
  • pathogen
  • We study how bacterial species such as the pathogen Salmonella enterica maintain a discrete number of flagellar per cell during cell growth and division. (ncl.ac.uk)
  • Vaccines are examples of antigens in an immunogenic form, which are intentionally administered to a recipient to induce the memory function of adaptive immune system toward the antigens of the pathogen invading that recipient. (wikipedia.org)
  • Together with Dr. Stephen Calderwood, Dr. Jason Harris, Dr. Regina LaRocque, Dr. Daniel Leung, Dr. Richelle Charles and colleagues at Harvard, and Dr. Firdausi Qadri and colleagues at the ICDDRB, Ryan has focused on advancing understanding of host-pathogen and immune responses during cholera, a human-restricted infection that largely afflicts impoverished individuals in resource-limited areas of the world. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ryan's efforts in typhoid have largely focused on using high throughput analyses to characterize both pathogen responses during typhoid fever, including bacterial gene expression in infected humans, and human immune responses to bacterial infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • outer membrane
  • It is important to recognize that this class is defined morphologically (by the presence of a bacterial outer membrane), and not histologically (by a pink appearance when stained), though the two usually coincide. (wikipedia.org)
  • Subsequent work showed that release of LPS from gram negative microbes does not necessarily require the destruction of the bacterial cell wall, but rather, LPS is secreted as part of the normal physiological activity of membrane vesicle trafficking in the form of bacterial outer membrane vesicles (OMVs), which may also contain other virulence factors and proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chemically, lipooligosaccharides lack O-antigens and possess only a lipid A-based outer membrane-anchoring moiety, and an oligosaccharide core. (wikipedia.org)
  • Innate
  • In contrast, monocytes and macrophages express other key molecules such as MHC class II (MHC-II), 4 which enables these cells to present Ags linking innate and adaptive immunity ( 5 ), and CD14, which is involved in the signaling pathway of bacterial LPS ( 1 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • In the case of infections with virulent F. tularensis , there is evidence that this organism interferes with innate immunity, as well as adaptive responses, as evidenced by the lack of protection from reinfection observed in humans who survived primary type A infection ( 4 , 6 , 7 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • An immunogen is an antigen substance (or adduct) that is able to trigger a humoral (innate) or cell-mediated immune response. (wikipedia.org)
  • toxin
  • He also demonstrated that serum containing antitoxin taken from immune animals could neutralize (inactivate) the toxin, and that injection of such serum in nonimmune animals had a prophylactic and therapeutic effect against tetanus infection. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Such treatment is usually contraindicated in humans infected with Shiga-toxin expressing E. coli infection (STEC/EHEC: enterohemorrhagic E. coli, Verotoxin-producing Escherichia coli), in whom such treatment substantially increasing the risk of renal failure. (wikipedia.org)
  • complement
  • We complement our study of flagellar abundance with research to understanding how a filament is assembled from multiple flagellins, a trait maintained by many bacterial species. (ncl.ac.uk)
  • Despite the high sequence similarity (90% identical on the amino acid level), each subclass has a different half-life, a unique profile of antigen binding and distinct capacity for complement activation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Patients with complement deficiency are at risk of infections with encapsulated organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • detection
  • In the case of respiratory viruses, many of which have similar broad symptoms, detection can be carried out using nasal wash samples from the subject with the suspected infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • Otherwise a rapid antigen detection test (RAPD) or throat swab is recommended. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecular
  • The flagellum is a unique molecular machine driving bacterial movement through liquid environments. (ncl.ac.uk)
  • We are also using our work on flagellar systems to begin to investigate the distribution and localization of other molecular machines in the bacterial cell envelope and how they spatially interact with each other to maintain their functional output. (ncl.ac.uk)
  • At the molecular level, an antigen can be characterized by its ability to bind to an antibody's variable Fab region. (wikipedia.org)
  • The term lipooligosaccharide ("LOS") is used to refer to a low-molecular-weight form of bacterial lipopolysaccharides. (wikipedia.org)
  • The term is synonymous with the low molecular weight form of bacterial LPS. (wikipedia.org)
  • decrease
  • The use of a cycloplegic agent is an often overlooked adjunctive treatment and may decrease pain as well as synechia formation in bacterial keratitis. (aao.org)
  • Defined tumor antigens decrease the risk of autoimmunity, but because the immune response is directed to a single epitope, tumors can evade destruction through antigen loss variance. (wikipedia.org)
  • vaccine
  • Assessment of changes in the expression of host genes associated with suppression of inflammatory responses revealed that SchuS4, but not live vaccine strain, induced IFN-β following infection of human dendritic cells. (jimmunol.org)
  • This enhances the anti-tumor immune response to tumor antigens released following viral lysis and provides a patient-specific vaccine. (wikipedia.org)
  • immune responses
  • It becomes critically essential in immunocompromised patients who fail to mount specific immune responses due to congenital or acquired immunodeficiencies as a result of chemotherapy, dialysis, immunosuppressive drugs, or HIV infection. (springer.com)
  • Selection of the appropriate adjuvant to activate antigen-presenting cells to stimulate immune responses, is required. (wikipedia.org)
  • respiratory infection
  • Epidemic and pandemic outbreaks of respiratory infection are a major medical concern, often causing considerable disease and a high death toll, typically over a relatively short period of time. (frontiersin.org)
  • Diphtheria Diphtheria is a potentially life-threatening upper respiratory infection caused by Corynebacterium diphtheriae which has been largely eradicated in developed nations since the introduction of childhood vaccination programs, but is still reported in the Third World and increasingly in some areas in Eastern Europe. (wikipedia.org)
  • cell
  • Rotation of the filament is achieved via the action of a universal joint known as the hook and a basal motor anchored into the bacterial cell envelope. (ncl.ac.uk)
  • Our data demonstrate that E-FABP (show FABP5L1 ELISA Kits ) is dispensable for antigen-specific T cell response following bacterial infection. (antibodies-online.com)
  • Hence, there appears to be a role for self or foreign antigen in shaping the repertoire of the B-1 B cell compartment. (wikipedia.org)
  • These hydrophobic fatty acid chains anchor the LPS into the bacterial membrane, and the rest of the LPS projects from the cell surface. (wikipedia.org)
  • membrane
  • When bacterial cells are lysed by the immune system, fragments of membrane containing lipid A are released into the circulation, causing fever, diarrhea, and possible fatal endotoxic shock (also called septic shock). (wikipedia.org)
  • sensitivity
  • IgA1 has a longer hinge region which increases its sensitivity to bacterial proteases. (wikipedia.org)
  • It has also been implicated in non-pathogenic aspects of bacterial ecology, including surface adhesion, bacteriophage sensitivity, and interactions with predators such as amoebae. (wikipedia.org)
  • cells
  • Following infection with Listeria monocytogenes, we observed similar clonal expansion, contraction and formation of memory CD8 (show CD8A ELISA Kits ) T cells in WT and E-FABP (show FABP5L1 ELISA Kits )-/- mice. (antibodies-online.com)
  • Furthermore, for a peptide to induce an immune response (activation of T-cells by antigen-presenting cells) it must be a large enough size, since peptides too small will also not elicit an immune response. (wikipedia.org)
  • Antigen presenting cells present antigens in the form of peptides on histocompatibility molecules. (wikipedia.org)
  • include
  • citation needed] Others A few other causes are rare, but possibly fatal, and include parapharyngeal space infections: peritonsillar abscess ("quinsy"), submandibular space infection (Ludwig's angina), and epiglottitis. (wikipedia.org)
  • risk
  • Patching the eye of a contact-lens-wearing patient with a corneal abrasion is not advised because of the increased risk of bacterial keratitis. (aao.org)
  • type
  • Phlyctenular keratoconjunctivitis, also known as phlyctenulosis, is an inflammatory syndrome caused by a delayed (aka type-IV) hypersensitivity reaction to one or more antigens. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pharyngitis is typically a type of respiratory tract infection. (wikipedia.org)