• protein
  • I am prepared to supervise PhD. students on projects that exploit bacterial genetics to study bacterial protein secretion. (ncl.ac.uk)
  • Each one specializes in binding to a specific molecule such as a viral, parasite, or bacterial protein, as well as to foreign substances such as poisons and drugs. (encyclopedia.com)
  • IgG2 represents the major antibody subclass reacting to glycan antigens but IgG1 and IgG3 subclasses have also been observed in such responses, particularly in the case of protein-glycan conjugates. (wikipedia.org)
  • It has the shortest half-life compared to the other IgG subclasses and is frequently present together with IgG1 in response to protein antigens in particular after viral infections. (wikipedia.org)
  • They suggest that the endorhamnosidase activity of the free tailspike molecule serves to modify O-antigen, compromising the LPS structure and thereby preventing the binding of a phage P22-attached tailspike protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • The triggering antigen is usually a bacterial protein (particularly from Staphylococcus aureus), but may also be a virus, fungus (particularly Candida albicans), or nematode. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genes believed to be involved include those for thyroglobulin, thyrotropin receptor, protein tyrosine phosphatase nonreceptor type 22, and cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen 4, among others. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bacteria
  • Gram-negative bacterial infection refers to a disease caused by gram-negative bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • The smooth surface and negative charge of the exterior capsule limits the ability of phagocytes to counteract the bacteria through cell-mediated immunity, and hence the humoral immune response of B cell antigens is important for the removal of encapsulated bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • MSCRAMM (acronym for "microbial surface components recognizing adhesive matrix molecules") adhesin proteins mediate the initial attachment of bacteria to host tissue, providing a critical step to establish infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • This has an antiphagocytic effect, i.e. macrophages cannot "see" these bacteria as easily as if they were correctly opsonised by antigen. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is anchored within the viral coat and recognizes the O-antigen portion of the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on the outer-membrane of Gram-negative bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • The toxic activity of LPS was first discovered and termed "endotoxin" by Richard Friedrich Johannes Pfeiffer, who distinguished between exotoxins, which he classified as a toxin that is released by bacteria into the surrounding environment, and endotoxins, which he considered to be a toxin kept "within" the bacterial cell and released only after destruction of the bacterial cell wall. (wikipedia.org)
  • pathogen
  • We study how bacterial species such as the pathogen Salmonella enterica maintain a discrete number of flagellar per cell during cell growth and division. (ncl.ac.uk)
  • Vaccines are examples of antigens in an immunogenic form, which are intentionally administered to a recipient to induce the memory function of adaptive immune system toward the antigens of the pathogen invading that recipient. (wikipedia.org)
  • Together with Dr. Stephen Calderwood, Dr. Jason Harris, Dr. Regina LaRocque, Dr. Daniel Leung, Dr. Richelle Charles and colleagues at Harvard, and Dr. Firdausi Qadri and colleagues at the ICDDRB, Ryan has focused on advancing understanding of host-pathogen and immune responses during cholera, a human-restricted infection that largely afflicts impoverished individuals in resource-limited areas of the world. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ryan's efforts in typhoid have largely focused on using high throughput analyses to characterize both pathogen responses during typhoid fever, including bacterial gene expression in infected humans, and human immune responses to bacterial infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • Innate
  • In contrast, monocytes and macrophages express other key molecules such as MHC class II (MHC-II), 4 which enables these cells to present Ags linking innate and adaptive immunity ( 5 ), and CD14, which is involved in the signaling pathway of bacterial LPS ( 1 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • In the case of infections with virulent F. tularensis , there is evidence that this organism interferes with innate immunity, as well as adaptive responses, as evidenced by the lack of protection from reinfection observed in humans who survived primary type A infection ( 4 , 6 , 7 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • An immunogen is an antigen substance (or adduct) that is able to trigger a humoral (innate) or cell-mediated immune response. (wikipedia.org)
  • proteins
  • The human leukocyte antigen (HLA) is not a single antigen, but is rather a group of proteins that are located on the surface of white blood cells. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Research on human blood cells in the 1950s identified three genes associated with the HLA (HLA-A, HLA-B, HLA-C). In the 1970s, another gene was identified (HLA-D). With the advent of molecular technology beginning in the 1980s, more genes that code for proteins that function in the antigen complex have continued to be identified. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Both of these tailspike proteins also contain right-handed parallel beta-helices and share similar O-antigen binding and cleavage to P22TSP. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tailspike proteins have also shown potential for more translational applications such as fighting bacterial infections. (wikipedia.org)
  • Subsequent work showed that release of LPS from gram negative microbes does not necessarily require the destruction of the bacterial cell wall, but rather, LPS is secreted as part of the normal physiological activity of membrane vesicle trafficking in the form of bacterial outer membrane vesicles (OMVs), which may also contain other virulence factors and proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • species
  • A significant number of bacterial species encode multiple copies of the filament building block - flagellin. (ncl.ac.uk)
  • We complement our study of flagellar abundance with research to understanding how a filament is assembled from multiple flagellins, a trait maintained by many bacterial species. (ncl.ac.uk)
  • lymphocytes
  • Rather, class II molecules are on the surface of immune cells such as macrophages and B-lymphocytes that are designed to process cells and present the antigens from these cells to T lymphocytes. (encyclopedia.com)
  • tissue
  • Because the HLA is a chemical tag that distinguishes "self" from "nonself," the antigen is important in the rejection of transplanted tissue and in the development of certain diseases (e.g., insulin-dependent diabetes). (encyclopedia.com)
  • Tissue Antigens. (wikipedia.org)
  • A lack of CD16 in a given population of neutrophils may indicate prematurity, as could be caused by a left shift due to neutrophilic leukocytosis induced by tissue necrosis or bacterial infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • complement
  • Despite the high sequence similarity (90% identical on the amino acid level), each subclass has a different half-life, a unique profile of antigen binding and distinct capacity for complement activation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Patients with complement deficiency are at risk of infections with encapsulated organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • detection
  • In the case of respiratory viruses, many of which have similar broad symptoms, detection can be carried out using nasal wash samples from the subject with the suspected infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • Otherwise a rapid antigen detection test (RAPD) or throat swab is recommended. (wikipedia.org)
  • cell
  • Rotation of the filament is achieved via the action of a universal joint known as the hook and a basal motor anchored into the bacterial cell envelope. (ncl.ac.uk)
  • We are also using our work on flagellar systems to begin to investigate the distribution and localization of other molecular machines in the bacterial cell envelope and how they spatially interact with each other to maintain their functional output. (ncl.ac.uk)
  • Our data demonstrate that E-FABP (show FABP5L1 ELISA Kits ) is dispensable for antigen-specific T cell response following bacterial infection. (antibodies-online.com)
  • Patients with B cell deficiencies are highly susceptible to encapsulated bacterial infections. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hence, there appears to be a role for self or foreign antigen in shaping the repertoire of the B-1 B cell compartment. (wikipedia.org)
  • These hydrophobic fatty acid chains anchor the LPS into the bacterial membrane, and the rest of the LPS projects from the cell surface. (wikipedia.org)
  • recognize
  • It is important to recognize that this class is defined morphologically (by the presence of a bacterial outer membrane), and not histologically (by a pink appearance when stained), though the two usually coincide. (wikipedia.org)
  • vaccine
  • Assessment of changes in the expression of host genes associated with suppression of inflammatory responses revealed that SchuS4, but not live vaccine strain, induced IFN-β following infection of human dendritic cells. (jimmunol.org)
  • responses
  • It becomes critically essential in immunocompromised patients who fail to mount specific immune responses due to congenital or acquired immunodeficiencies as a result of chemotherapy, dialysis, immunosuppressive drugs, or HIV infection. (springer.com)
  • cells
  • Following infection with Listeria monocytogenes, we observed similar clonal expansion, contraction and formation of memory CD8 (show CD8A ELISA Kits ) T cells in WT and E-FABP (show FABP5L1 ELISA Kits )-/- mice. (antibodies-online.com)
  • Furthermore, for a peptide to induce an immune response (activation of T-cells by antigen-presenting cells) it must be a large enough size, since peptides too small will also not elicit an immune response. (wikipedia.org)
  • severe
  • An oral tetracycline antibiotic (such as doxycycline) may be used in systemic or particularly severe/intractable infections. (wikipedia.org)
  • If the infection is severe, the doctor may prescribe antibiotics, such as ciprofloxacin or TMP-SMX (Bactrim). (wikipedia.org)
  • parasite
  • When laboratory services are not available, it may be necessary to administer a combination of drugs, including an amoebicidal drug to kill the parasite and an antibiotic to treat any associated bacterial infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • sensitivity
  • IgA1 has a longer hinge region which increases its sensitivity to bacterial proteases. (wikipedia.org)
  • It has also been implicated in non-pathogenic aspects of bacterial ecology, including surface adhesion, bacteriophage sensitivity, and interactions with predators such as amoebae. (wikipedia.org)
  • respiratory
  • Pharyngitis is typically a type of respiratory tract infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • Measles Common cold: rhinovirus, coronavirus, respiratory syncytial virus, parainfluenza virus can cause infection of the throat, ear, and lungs causing standard cold-like symptoms and often pain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Diphtheria Diphtheria is a potentially life-threatening upper respiratory infection caused by Corynebacterium diphtheriae which has been largely eradicated in developed nations since the introduction of childhood vaccination programs, but is still reported in the Third World and increasingly in some areas in Eastern Europe. (wikipedia.org)
  • coli
  • Such treatment is usually contraindicated in humans infected with Shiga-toxin expressing E. coli infection (STEC/EHEC: enterohemorrhagic E. coli, Verotoxin-producing Escherichia coli), in whom such treatment substantially increasing the risk of renal failure. (wikipedia.org)
  • include
  • citation needed] Others A few other causes are rare, but possibly fatal, and include parapharyngeal space infections: peritonsillar abscess ("quinsy"), submandibular space infection (Ludwig's angina), and epiglottitis. (wikipedia.org)
  • type
  • Phlyctenular keratoconjunctivitis, also known as phlyctenulosis, is an inflammatory syndrome caused by a delayed (aka type-IV) hypersensitivity reaction to one or more antigens. (wikipedia.org)