• bacteria
  • Due to the increasing emergence of antibiotic-resistant strains of enteropathogenic bacteria, development of alternative treatments to fight against gut infections is a major health issue. (frontiersin.org)
  • As far as parasites and bacteria infection usure. (backyardchickens.com)
  • The absence of integrins or impaired PMN activation results in diminished responses to a number of pathogens, including bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus , fungal infections such as Aspergillus fumigatus , and protozoan infection by Toxoplasma gondii ( 7 - 10 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Upon reaching the site of the infection, PMNs phagocytose Ig-opsonized foreign particles, such as bacteria or fungi, via Fc receptors or complement-opsonized particles through integrins for degradation in lysosomes ( 1 , 13 - 15 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • A detailed description and name for each species of bacteria are needed so that different laboratories can recognize all of the bacterial species present in the mouth," said Wade. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • The destructive ability of bacteria to organize an infection or block pathways such as intestines, medical stents and wastewater pipes relies on communication with one another. (eurekalert.org)
  • He studied two types of disease-causing bacteria, Vibrio cholerae -- the infectious agent behind cholera -- and Staphylococcus aureus, which can cause various infections such as abscesses and hospital infections. (eurekalert.org)
  • What is more, the transported quorum-sensing molecules can find their way to bacteria downstream and establish long-range communication between bacterial cells, the researchers found. (eurekalert.org)
  • It is often seen in infections with C. perfringens or any of myriad soil-borne anaerobic bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gangrenous infection by soil-borne bacteria was common in the combat injuries of soldiers well into the 20th century, because of nonsterile field surgery and the basic nature of care for severe projectile wounds. (wikipedia.org)
  • Opportunistic infection may be caused by microbes ordinarily in contact with the host, such as pathogenic bacteria or fungi in the gastrointestinal or the upper respiratory tract, and they may also result from (otherwise innocuous) microbes acquired from other hosts (as in Clostridium difficile colitis) or from the environment as a result of traumatic introduction (as in surgical wound infections or compound fractures). (wikipedia.org)
  • When viruses, including bacteriophages (viruses that infect bacteria), infect bacterial cells, their normal mode of reproduction is to harness the replicational, transcriptional, and translation machinery of the host bacterial cell to make numerous virions, or complete viral particles, including the viral DNA or RNA and the protein coat. (wikipedia.org)
  • Blisters and sores appear on numb areas of the feet and legs such as metatarso-phalangeal joints, heel region and as a result pressure or injury goes unnoticed and eventually become portal of entry for bacteria and infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • The compound is indicated for treating community-acquired lower respiratory tract infections (acute sinusitis, exacerbations of chronic bronchitis caused by susceptible bacteria, community-acquired pneumonia). (wikipedia.org)
  • The three main causes of vaginitis are infections by bacteria (bacterial vaginosis), yeast (vaginal candidiasis), or the protozoan that causes trichomoniasis. (wikipedia.org)
  • detectable viral
  • Although most HIV-1 infected individuals have a detectable viral load and in the absence of treatment will eventually progress to AIDS, a small proportion (about 5%) retain high levels of CD4+ T cells (T helper cells) without antiretroviral therapy for more than 5 years. (wikipedia.org)
  • chronic
  • IL-27R deficiency during chronic Mtb infection does not impact antigen-specific CD4 + T cell number but maintains programmed death-1 (PD-1), CD69, and CD127 expression while reducing T-bet and killer cell lectin-like receptor G1 (KLRG1) expression. (rupress.org)
  • Usually with respiratory infections, the eye's and sinus cavities will swell too, if that happens, she has CRD, Chronic Respiratory Disease (mycoplasma gallepsum) it is permanent and will always be carried by the bird. (backyardchickens.com)
  • When you have chronic disease like HIV, liver problems, you're predisposed, and infection could form and it could be fatal," said WDSU medical editor Dr. Corey Hebert. (wdsu.com)
  • Jun 2011: Taksta may be effective in the treatment of chronic prosthetic joint infections and osteomyelitis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Recent studies have found that the cause of chronic sinus infections lies in the nasal mucus, not in the nasal and sinus tissue targeted by standard treatment. (wikipedia.org)
  • A long-term infection is a chronic infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • clinically
  • Hematopoiesis from the transplanted hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and progenitor cells (HS/PCs) occurs with a significant lag phase, in which the patient shows severe myeloid cytopenia and is vulnerable to severe and potentially lethal infections, for example by the clinically important gram-negative bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa or the fungus Aspergillus fumigatus . (rupress.org)
  • The word infection can denote any presence of a particular pathogen at all (no matter how little) but also is often used in a sense implying a clinically apparent infection (in other words, a case of infectious disease). (wikipedia.org)
  • To get around the usage annoyance, it is common for health professionals to speak of colonization (rather than infection) when they mean that some of the pathogens are present but that no clinically apparent infection (no disease) is present. (wikipedia.org)
  • inflammation
  • The influence of vitamin D3 and its metabolites calcifediol (25(OH)D) and calcitriol on immune regulation and inflammation is well described, and raises the question of potential benefit against bacterial infections. (ljmu.ac.uk)
  • Moreover, oral administration to mice of immune complexes composed of S . Typhimurium and SCIgA/M reduces mucosal infection, systemic dissemination, and local inflammation. (frontiersin.org)
  • This suggests a beneficial effect in treatments that target primarily the underlying and presumably damage-inflicting nasal and sinus membrane inflammation, instead of the secondary bacterial infection that has been the primary target of past treatments for the disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mammalian hosts react to infections with an innate response, often involving inflammation, followed by an adaptive response. (wikipedia.org)
  • Choledocholithiasis is frequently associated with obstruction of the biliary tree, which in turn can lead to acute ascending cholangitis, from the Greek: chol- (bile) + ang- (vessel) + itis- (inflammation), a serious infection of the bile ducts. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other complications include ascending cholangitis if there is a bacterial infection which can cause purulent inflammation in the biliary tree and liver, and acute pancreatitis as blockage of the bile ducts can prevent active enzymes being secreted into the bowel, instead damaging the pancreas. (wikipedia.org)
  • The following symptoms may indicate the presence of infection: Irritation or itching of the genital area inflammation (irritation, redness, and swelling caused by the presence of extra immune cells) of the labia majora, labia minora, or perineal area vaginal discharge foul vaginal odor pain/irritation with sexual intercourse Vaginal infections left untreated can lead to further complications, especially for the pregnant woman. (wikipedia.org)
  • Specific forms of vaginal inflammation include the following types: Infectious vaginitis accounts for 90% of all cases in reproductive age women: Candidiasis: vaginitis caused by proliferation of Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, Candida krusei Bacterial vaginosis: vaginitis caused by increased growth of Gardnerella (a bacterium). (wikipedia.org)
  • researchers
  • Researchers at Princeton University explored the effect of fluid flow on bacterial communication, or quorum sensing, which the single-celled organisms use when blocking pathways such as intestines, medical stents and. (eurekalert.org)
  • The researchers simulated real-life environments in the laboratory and found that the shape of the spaces and the flow of fluids through them affected bacterial growth and the formation of slimy surface layers called biofilms. (eurekalert.org)
  • causative
  • Further, there are complications which lead to daily discomfort such as: persistent discomfort superficial skin infection (from scratching) complications of the causative condition (such as gonorrhea and candida infection) Vaginitis is the disruption of the healthy vaginal microbiota. (wikipedia.org)
  • systemic
  • They may be formed originally by the same things that cause acute ones, such as surgery or accidental trauma, or they may form as the result of systemic infection, vascular, immune, or nerve insufficiency, or comorbidities such as neoplasias or metabolic disorders. (wikipedia.org)
  • genes
  • These experiments tested associations between naturally occurring genetic variation in immune-related genes and postinfection bacterial load. (genetics.org)
  • In these studies, genetic variation in many of the immune genes was found to associate significantly with one or more of the bacterial load phenotypes. (genetics.org)
  • Specifically, polymorphisms in autosomal genes encoding recognition and signaling proteins (but not antimicrobial peptides) associate consistently with bacterial load phenotypes, suggesting that not all functional classes of immune-related genes harbor equally influential genetic variation. (genetics.org)
  • The surprise was that the changes involved alterations in the genes encoding two potent toxins that contribute to human infections," said Musser, who is director for the Center for Molecular and Translational Human Infectious Disease Research at Houston Methodist. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • At the same time, some phage genes are left behind in the bacterial chromosome. (wikipedia.org)
  • Specialized transduction is the process by which a restricted set of bacterial genes is transferred to another bacterium. (wikipedia.org)
  • Specialized transduction occurs when the prophage excises imprecisely from the chromosome so that bacterial genes lying adjacent to the prophage are included in the excised DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • toxins
  • This is partly due to the burden on the immune system, its corresponding release of inflammatory cytokines, and the distribution of bacterial toxins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Infection is the invasion of an organism's body tissues by disease-causing agents, their multiplication, and the reaction of host tissues to the infectious agents and the toxins they produce. (wikipedia.org)
  • strains
  • Clinical trials are being conducted on microbial strains unique to individual healthcare facilities around the world to evaluate to what extent copper alloys can reduce the incidence of infection in hospital environments. (wikipedia.org)
  • Taksta (previously CEM-102) is a front-loaded oral dosing regimen of sodium fusidate under development in the U.S. as an antibiotic for gram-positive infections including drug-resistant strains such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). (wikipedia.org)
  • antibiotics
  • There is no cure for respiratory infections, it's like a cold with use, just has to run it's course, usually 2-3 weeks, but the antibiotics will help fight off other infections while she's down. (backyardchickens.com)
  • Hasbun said antibiotics are the best way to treat bacterial meningitis and are even more effective when used in combination with dexamethasone in cases due to S. pneumoniae. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • Physical factors that have been claimed to contribute to the development of infections include the following: constantly wet vulva due to tight clothing, chemicals coming in contact with the vagina via scented tampons, antibiotics, birth control pills, or a diet favoring refined sugar and yeast. (wikipedia.org)
  • bacterium
  • The present study explores the suitability of zebrafish larvae to study the pathogenesis of A. hydrophila and the interaction mechanisms between the bacterium and the innate immune responses through an infection model using different routes for infection. (frontiersin.org)
  • If bacteriophages undertake the lytic cycle of infection upon entering a bacterium, the virus will take control of the cell's machinery for use in replicating its own viral DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • This bacterial material may become recombined into another bacterium upon infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • pathogens
  • M-CSF treatment during engraftment or after infection efficiently protected from these pathogens as early as 3 days after transplantation and was effective as a single dose. (rupress.org)
  • Since approximately 80% of infectious diseases are known to be transmitted by touch, and pathogens found in healthcare facilities can survive on inanimate surfaces for days and even months, the microbial burden of frequently touched surfaces is believed to play a significant role in infection causality. (wikipedia.org)
  • In Chile, 70,000 nosocomial infections are reported each year, most commonly from common hospital-borne pathogens such as S. aureus, P. aeruginosa and A.baumanii. (wikipedia.org)
  • innate
  • Polymorphonuclear leukocytes or neutrophils (PMNs) are an essential component of the innate host defense response and are often the first cells to respond to an infection ( 1 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • sinus
  • Maxillary sinusitis is common due to the close anatomic relation of the frontal sinus, anterior ethmoidal sinus and the maxillary teeth, allowing for easy spread of infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • Furthermore, the drainage orifice lies near the roof of the sinus, and so the maxillary sinus does not drain well, and infection develops more easily. (wikipedia.org)
  • fatal
  • Advances in the prevention and treatment of an often fatal condition called bacterial meningitis appear to be paying dividends in the United States, report infectious disease experts at the University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston (UTHealth) in the journal The Lancet Infectious Diseases. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • This can be especially troublesome in hospital environments where patients with immunodeficiencies are at enhanced risk for contracting nosocomial infections (hospital-acquired infection), often with fatal consequences. (wikipedia.org)
  • virulence
  • The mechanisms of infection, the main virulence factors and the host immune response triggered by A. hydrophila have been studied in detail using murine models and adult fish. (frontiersin.org)
  • intensive care
  • The CDC notes those who contract Vibrosis can experience diarrhea and vomiting, but more serious infections can result in intensive care or limb amputation. (kare11.com)
  • To evaluate their effectiveness as secondary infection control measures, these products have been made from copper and its alloys and deployed in hospital geriatric wards, intensive care units, and general medical wards around the world. (wikipedia.org)
  • tissue
  • Bacterial meningitis attacks tissue covering the central nervous system and can lead to neurological disability or even death in approximately 1 in 5 people affected. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • To overcome that stage and jump-start the healing process a number of factors need to be addressed such as bacterial burden, necrotic tissue, and moisture balance of the whole wound. (wikipedia.org)
  • disease
  • Tooth decay and gum disease are the most common bacterial diseases of man and are caused by changes in the microbes normally present in the mouth. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • On the far end of the infection severity spectrum, group A streptococcus also causes necrotizing fasciitis ("flesh-eating" disease), an infection with a high mortality rate. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • Initially, doctors told LeBlanc she had Vibriosis, a bacterial infection which causes around 80,000 illnesses and 100 deaths each year in the United States, according to the Center for Disease Control . (kare11.com)
  • AIDS was first recognized by the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in 1981 and its cause-HIV infection-was identified in the early part of the decade. (wikipedia.org)
  • Infectious disease, also known as transmissible disease or communicable disease, is illness resulting from an infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • The branch of medicine that focuses on infections is referred to as infectious disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Risk factors implicated in the development of diabetic foot ulcers are infection, older age, diabetic neuropathy, peripheral vascular disease, cigarette smoking, poor glycemic control, previous foot ulcerations or amputations, and ischemia of small and large blood vessels. (wikipedia.org)
  • clinical
  • These results encourage potential clinical applications of M-CSF to prevent severe infections after HS/PC transplantation. (rupress.org)
  • The success of these clinical trials to date, which are summarized here, are prompting hospitals around the world to specify antimicrobial copper touch surfaces as an additional weapon in the fight against infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sep 2010: Taksta demonstrated comparable clinical success rates compared to linezolid in a Phase 2 trial in the U.S. for acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dec 2015: Cempra Doses First Patient in Phase 3 Clinical Trial of Taksta(TM) in Acute Bacterial Skin and Skin Structure Infections. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because colistin was introduced into clinical practice over 50 years ago, it was never subject to the regulations that modern drugs are subject to, and therefore there is no standardised dosing of colistin and no detailed trials on pharmacology or pharmacokinetics: The optimal dosing of colistin for most infections is therefore unknown. (wikipedia.org)
  • treatment
  • treatment of infected, human bronchial 16-HBE cells with 25(OH)D liposomes however resulted in a significant reduction in bacterial survival. (ljmu.ac.uk)
  • Myeloablative treatment preceding hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) and progenitor cell (HS/PC) transplantation results in severe myeloid cytopenia and susceptibility to infections in the lag period before hematopoietic recovery. (rupress.org)
  • A randomized, double-blind Phase 2 study comparing the efficacy and safeety of an oral fusidic acid loading-dose regimen to oral linezolid in the treatment of acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections. (wikipedia.org)
  • Without treatment, the average survival time after infection is 11 years. (wikipedia.org)
  • Without treatment, this second stage of the natural history of HIV infection can last from about three years to over 20 years (on average, about eight years). (wikipedia.org)
  • While the exact association between trichomoniasis infection and HIV genital shedding has not been consistently demonstrated, "there is good evidence that TV treatment reduces HIV genital shedding. (wikipedia.org)
  • Vaginal infections often have multiple causes (varies between countries between 20 and 40% of vaginal infections), which present challenging cases for treatment. (wikipedia.org)
  • larvae
  • We used an early-embryo infection model at 3 days post-fertilization (dpf) through the microinjection of A. hydrophila into the duct of Cuvier, caudal vein, notochord, or muscle and two bath infection models using 4 dpf healthy and injured larvae. (frontiersin.org)
  • species
  • Mucosal delivery of preparations containing specific antibodies has allowed to demonstrate that passive immunization reduces infection in various species, including humans ( 5 - 8 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Prevotella species are part of the normal microbial flora in humans and are also associated with various oral diseases and infections in other parts of the body. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • officials
  • LAFAYETTE, La. - A Texas woman who ate raw oysters from a market off the coast of Louisiana died from a flesh-eating bacterial infection, health officials said. (kare11.com)
  • DHS officials don't know if their deaths were caused by the infection, other health issues, or a combination of both. (wisn.com)
  • confocal
  • We now establish that such polyreactive preparations bind efficiently to Salmonella enterica Typhimurium and trigger bacterial agglutination, as observed by laser scanning confocal microscopy. (frontiersin.org)
  • diseases
  • To gauge the impact of steroid therapy introduced roughly a decade ago, Rodrigo Hasbun, MD, senior author and associate professor in the Division of Infectious Diseases at the UTHealth Medical School, analyzed a database of more than 50,000 people treated for bacterial meningitis between 1997 and 2010 in the United States. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • vascular
  • After adhesion, PMNs then migrate through the vascular endothelium to the site of the infection, following gradients of chemokines ( 11 , 12 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Therefore
  • Therefore, during Mtb infection, IL-27R acts intrinsically on T cells to limit protection and reduce fitness, whereas the IL-27R-deficient environment alters the phenotype and location of T cells. (rupress.org)
  • Surfaces in hospitals and healthcare facilities are frequently touched and therefore could become reservoirs of infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • resistant
  • Infected eels are also less resistant to stress, with infections causing large increases in serum cortisol levels (an important primary messenger of stress response in teleost fish). (wikipedia.org)
  • The microbiological success in each ME population with methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) infection is 100 percent (99/99) at both the EOT and PTE visits. (wikipedia.org)
  • vulnerability
  • The idea of the werewolf's supposed vulnerability to silver probably dates back to the legend of the Beast of Gévaudan, in which a gigantic wolf is killed by a hunter with the name of "Argent" which is Latin for silver, wielding a gun loaded with silver bullets. (wikipedia.org)
  • people
  • Thus, it is recommended that HIV be considered in people presenting an unexplained fever who may have risk factors for the infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • particles
  • If the lysogen is induced (by UV light for example), the phage genome is excised from the bacterial chromosome and initiates the lytic cycle, which culminates in lysis of the cell and the release of phage particles. (wikipedia.org)
  • study
  • The study titled "Epidemiology of bacterial meningitis in the USA from 1997 to 2010: a population-based observational study" received support from the National Center for Research Resources (NIH-1 K23 RR018929-01A2). (infectioncontroltoday.com)