• bacteria
  • Due to the increasing emergence of antibiotic-resistant strains of enteropathogenic bacteria, development of alternative treatments to fight against gut infections is a major health issue. (frontiersin.org)
  • As far as parasites and bacteria infection usure. (backyardchickens.com)
  • The absence of integrins or impaired PMN activation results in diminished responses to a number of pathogens, including bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus , fungal infections such as Aspergillus fumigatus , and protozoan infection by Toxoplasma gondii ( 7 - 10 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Upon reaching the site of the infection, PMNs phagocytose Ig-opsonized foreign particles, such as bacteria or fungi, via Fc receptors or complement-opsonized particles through integrins for degradation in lysosomes ( 1 , 13 - 15 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • The destructive ability of bacteria to organize an infection or block pathways such as intestines, medical stents and wastewater pipes relies on communication with one another. (eurekalert.org)
  • He studied two types of disease-causing bacteria, Vibrio cholerae -- the infectious agent behind cholera -- and Staphylococcus aureus, which can cause various infections such as abscesses and hospital infections. (eurekalert.org)
  • What is more, the transported quorum-sensing molecules can find their way to bacteria downstream and establish long-range communication between bacterial cells, the researchers found. (eurekalert.org)
  • Even the bacteria themselves are threatened by pathogens: Certain viruses, the bacteriophages (literally, bacteria eaters), have become specialized to invade bacterial cells and proliferate inside of them. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • It is often seen in infections with C. perfringens or any of myriad soil-borne anaerobic bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gangrenous infection by soil-borne bacteria was common in the combat injuries of soldiers well into the 20th century, because of nonsterile field surgery and the basic nature of care for severe projectile wounds. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the United States, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimated roughly 1.7 million hospital-associated infections, from all types of microorganisms, including bacteria and fungi combined, cause or contribute to 99,000 deaths each year. (wikipedia.org)
  • Opportunistic infection may be caused by microbes ordinarily in contact with the host, such as pathogenic bacteria or fungi in the gastrointestinal or the upper respiratory tract, and they may also result from (otherwise innocuous) microbes acquired from other hosts (as in Clostridium difficile colitis) or from the environment as a result of traumatic introduction (as in surgical wound infections or compound fractures). (wikipedia.org)
  • When viruses, including bacteriophages (viruses that infect bacteria), infect bacterial cells, their normal mode of reproduction is to harness the replicational, transcriptional, and translation machinery of the host bacterial cell to make numerous virions, or complete viral particles, including the viral DNA or RNA and the protein coat. (wikipedia.org)
  • Blisters and sores appear on numb areas of the feet and legs such as metatarso-phalangeal joints, heel region and as a result pressure or injury goes unnoticed and eventually become portal of entry for bacteria and infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • detectable viral
  • Although most HIV-1 infected individuals have a detectable viral load and in the absence of treatment will eventually progress to AIDS, a small proportion (about 5%) retain high levels of CD4+ T cells (T helper cells) without antiretroviral therapy for more than 5 years. (wikipedia.org)
  • Staphylococcus
  • Pyk2 −/− mice were unable to efficiently clear infection with Staphylococcus aureus in a skin abscess model, owing in part to the poor release of granule contents at the site of infection. (jimmunol.org)
  • Taksta (previously CEM-102) is a front-loaded oral dosing regimen of sodium fusidate under development in the U.S. as an antibiotic for gram-positive infections including drug-resistant strains such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). (wikipedia.org)
  • Hospital-acquired pneumonia Ventilator-associated pneumonia Urinary tract infection Gastroenteritis Puerperal fever Staphylococcus aureus Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus Candida albicans Pseudomonas aeruginosa Acinetobacter baumannii' Stenotrophomonas maltophilia Clostridium difficile Escherichia coli Tuberculosis Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus Legionnaires' disease Indwelling catheters have recently been identified with hospital acquired infections. (wikipedia.org)
  • toxins
  • This is partly due to the burden on the immune system, its corresponding release of inflammatory cytokines, and the distribution of bacterial toxins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Infection is the invasion of an organism's body tissues by disease-causing agents, their multiplication, and the reaction of host tissues to the infectious agents and the toxins they produce. (wikipedia.org)
  • strains
  • Clinical trials are being conducted on microbial strains unique to individual healthcare facilities around the world to evaluate to what extent copper alloys can reduce the incidence of infection in hospital environments. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first colistin-resistance gene in a plasmid which can be transferred between bacterial strains was found in 2011 in China and became publicly known in November 2015. (wikipedia.org)
  • researchers
  • Researchers at Princeton University explored the effect of fluid flow on bacterial communication, or quorum sensing, which the single-celled organisms use when blocking pathways such as intestines, medical stents and. (eurekalert.org)
  • The researchers simulated real-life environments in the laboratory and found that the shape of the spaces and the flow of fluids through them affected bacterial growth and the formation of slimy surface layers called biofilms. (eurekalert.org)
  • Pseudomonas
  • In the current study, 25(OH)D was encapsulated in liposomes to enable aerosolisation, and tested for the ability to prevent pulmonary infection by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. (ljmu.ac.uk)
  • 25(OH)D-loaded liposomes further demonstrated promising effects regarding prevention of Pseudomonas infection in human bronchial epithelial cells. (ljmu.ac.uk)
  • Hematopoiesis from the transplanted hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and progenitor cells (HS/PCs) occurs with a significant lag phase, in which the patient shows severe myeloid cytopenia and is vulnerable to severe and potentially lethal infections, for example by the clinically important gram-negative bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa or the fungus Aspergillus fumigatus . (rupress.org)
  • Colistimethate sodium may be used to treat Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections in cystic fibrosis patients, and it has come into recent use for treating multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter infection, although resistant forms have been reported. (wikipedia.org)
  • Colistimethate sodium has also been given intrathecally and intraventricularly in Acinetobacter baumannii and Pseudomonas aeruginosa meningitis/ventriculitis Some studies have indicated that colistin may be useful for treating infections caused by carbapenem-resistant isolates of Acinetobacter baumannii. (wikipedia.org)
  • pathogens
  • M-CSF treatment during engraftment or after infection efficiently protected from these pathogens as early as 3 days after transplantation and was effective as a single dose. (rupress.org)
  • Since approximately 80% of infectious diseases are known to be transmitted by touch, and pathogens found in healthcare facilities can survive on inanimate surfaces for days and even months, the microbial burden of frequently touched surfaces is believed to play a significant role in infection causality. (wikipedia.org)
  • To get around the usage annoyance, it is common for health professionals to speak of colonization (rather than infection) when they mean that some of the pathogens are present but that no clinically apparent infection (no disease) is present. (wikipedia.org)
  • clinical
  • A research group led by Kobe University professor Morioka Ichiro (Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics), associate professor Osawa Kayo (Graduate School of Health Sciences, Department of Biophysics), and clinical technologist Sato Itsuko (Kobe University Hospital, Department of Clinical Laboratory) is proposing a new criterion for diagnosis of bacterial infection in preterm infants. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • Sep 2010: Taksta demonstrated comparable clinical success rates compared to linezolid in a Phase 2 trial in the U.S. for acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dec 2015: Cempra Doses First Patient in Phase 3 Clinical Trial of Taksta(TM) in Acute Bacterial Skin and Skin Structure Infections. (wikipedia.org)
  • Such an infection can be acquired in hospital, nursing home, rehabilitation facility, outpatient clinic, or other clinical settings. (wikipedia.org)
  • Infection is spread to the susceptible patient in the clinical setting by various means. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because colistin was introduced into clinical practice over 50 years ago, it was never subject to the regulations that modern drugs are subject to, and therefore there is no standardised dosing of colistin and no detailed trials on pharmacology or pharmacokinetics: The optimal dosing of colistin for most infections is therefore unknown. (wikipedia.org)
  • genome
  • If the lysogen is induced (by UV light for example), the phage genome is excised from the bacterial chromosome and initiates the lytic cycle, which culminates in lysis of the cell and the release of phage particles. (wikipedia.org)
  • The packaging of bacteriophage DNA has low fidelity and small pieces of bacterial DNA, together with the bacteriophage genome, may become packaged into the bacteriophage genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • If the viral genome results in spare capacity, viral packaging mechanisms may incorporate bacterial genetic material into the new virion. (wikipedia.org)
  • innate
  • The present study explores the suitability of zebrafish larvae to study the pathogenesis of A. hydrophila and the interaction mechanisms between the bacterium and the innate immune responses through an infection model using different routes for infection. (frontiersin.org)
  • Polymorphonuclear leukocytes or neutrophils (PMNs) are an essential component of the innate host defense response and are often the first cells to respond to an infection ( 1 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • virulence
  • The mechanisms of infection, the main virulence factors and the host immune response triggered by A. hydrophila have been studied in detail using murine models and adult fish. (frontiersin.org)
  • clinically
  • The word infection can denote any presence of a particular pathogen at all (no matter how little) but also is often used in a sense implying a clinically apparent infection (in other words, a case of infectious disease). (wikipedia.org)
  • tissue
  • Bacterial meningitis attacks tissue covering the central nervous system and can lead to neurological disability or even death in approximately 1 in 5 people affected. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • To overcome that stage and jump-start the healing process a number of factors need to be addressed such as bacterial burden, necrotic tissue, and moisture balance of the whole wound. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hospital
  • To evaluate their effectiveness as secondary infection control measures, these products have been made from copper and its alloys and deployed in hospital geriatric wards, intensive care units, and general medical wards around the world. (wikipedia.org)
  • A hospital-acquired infection (HAI), also known as a nosocomial infection, is an infection that is acquired in a hospital or other health care facility. (wikipedia.org)
  • To emphasize both hospital and nonhospital settings, it is sometimes instead called a health care-associated infection (HAI or HCAI). (wikipedia.org)
  • In Europe, where hospital surveys have been conducted, the category of gram-negative infections are estimated to account for two-thirds of the 25,000 deaths each year. (wikipedia.org)
  • For those with ventilator-associated or hospital-acquired pneumonia, controlling and monitoring hospital indoor air quality needs to be on agenda in management, whereas for nosocomial rotavirus infection, a hand hygiene protocol has to be enforced. (wikipedia.org)
  • treatment
  • treatment of infected, human bronchial 16-HBE cells with 25(OH)D liposomes however resulted in a significant reduction in bacterial survival. (ljmu.ac.uk)
  • Myeloablative treatment preceding hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) and progenitor cell (HS/PC) transplantation results in severe myeloid cytopenia and susceptibility to infections in the lag period before hematopoietic recovery. (rupress.org)
  • Advances in the prevention and treatment of an often fatal condition called bacterial meningitis appear to be paying dividends in the United States, report infectious disease experts at the University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston (UTHealth) in the journal The Lancet Infectious Diseases. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • Using this method could lead to early diagnosis and treatment for bacterial infection and improve the prognosis for preterm infants. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • A randomized, double-blind Phase 2 study comparing the efficacy and safeety of an oral fusidic acid loading-dose regimen to oral linezolid in the treatment of acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections. (wikipedia.org)
  • Without treatment, the average survival time after infection is 11 years. (wikipedia.org)
  • Without treatment, this second stage of the natural history of HIV infection can last from about three years to over 20 years (on average, about eight years). (wikipedia.org)
  • larvae
  • We used an early-embryo infection model at 3 days post-fertilization (dpf) through the microinjection of A. hydrophila into the duct of Cuvier, caudal vein, notochord, or muscle and two bath infection models using 4 dpf healthy and injured larvae. (frontiersin.org)
  • species
  • Mucosal delivery of preparations containing specific antibodies has allowed to demonstrate that passive immunization reduces infection in various species, including humans ( 5 - 8 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • sinus
  • Maxillary sinusitis is common due to the close anatomic relation of the frontal sinus, anterior ethmoidal sinus and the maxillary teeth, allowing for easy spread of infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • Furthermore, the drainage orifice lies near the roof of the sinus, and so the maxillary sinus does not drain well, and infection develops more easily. (wikipedia.org)
  • cause
  • The germs that cause bacterial meningitis can be spread by coming into contact with an infected person in the community or after undergoing a neurosurgical procedure in a healthcare facility. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • S. pneumoniae remains the leading cause of bacterial meningitis, according to their analysis. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • AIDS was first recognized by the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in 1981 and its cause-HIV infection-was identified in the early part of the decade. (wikipedia.org)
  • The combination of bacterial load and ability to multiply is the basis for the microbes' ability to cause massive infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • They can create a gateway for infection as well as cause wound edge deterioration preventing wound closure. (wikipedia.org)
  • confocal
  • We now establish that such polyreactive preparations bind efficiently to Salmonella enterica Typhimurium and trigger bacterial agglutination, as observed by laser scanning confocal microscopy. (frontiersin.org)
  • Disease
  • Infectious disease, also known as transmissible disease or communicable disease, is illness resulting from an infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • The branch of medicine that focuses on infections is referred to as infectious disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Risk factors implicated in the development of diabetic foot ulcers are infection, older age, diabetic neuropathy, peripheral vascular disease, cigarette smoking, poor glycemic control, previous foot ulcerations or amputations, and ischemia of small and large blood vessels. (wikipedia.org)
  • fever
  • However, in the case of preterm infants, it can sometimes be hard to detect the signs of bacterial infection visible in adults and other infants: fever, white blood cell count, and increase in C-reactive protein (CRP). (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • Thus, it is recommended that HIV be considered in people presenting an unexplained fever who may have risk factors for the infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • serum
  • When they superimposed three cases of preterm infants with bacterial infection on these curves, it clearly showed that in all three cases the serum PCT concentrations were higher than the 95th percentile values. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • Infected eels are also less resistant to stress, with infections causing large increases in serum cortisol levels (an important primary messenger of stress response in teleost fish). (wikipedia.org)
  • vascular
  • After adhesion, PMNs then migrate through the vascular endothelium to the site of the infection, following gradients of chemokines ( 11 , 12 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • whereas
  • Therefore, during Mtb infection, IL-27R acts intrinsically on T cells to limit protection and reduce fitness, whereas the IL-27R-deficient environment alters the phenotype and location of T cells. (rupress.org)
  • scientists
  • The findings provide a better understanding of where and when in a system scientists can interfere with bacterial communication to help prevent infections and blockages. (eurekalert.org)
  • The collaborating team of international scientists found that group A streptococcus was an excellent model organism to study the molecular basis of epidemic bacterial infections. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • Scientists at the Helmholtz Center for Infection Research (HZI) in Braunschweig, Germany, were now able to show that this defense system is much more diverse than previously thought and that it comes in multiple versions. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • deaths
  • DHS officials don't know if their deaths were caused by the infection, other health issues, or a combination of both. (wisn.com)
  • study
  • This is the first study analyzing both community-acquired bacterial meningitis and healthcare-associated bacterial meningitis in the U.S.," Hasbun says. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • The study titled "Epidemiology of bacterial meningitis in the USA from 1997 to 2010: a population-based observational study" received support from the National Center for Research Resources (NIH-1 K23 RR018929-01A2). (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • resistant
  • The microbiological success in each ME population with methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) infection is 100 percent (99/99) at both the EOT and PTE visits. (wikipedia.org)
  • people
  • To gauge the impact of steroid therapy introduced roughly a decade ago, Rodrigo Hasbun, MD, senior author and associate professor in the Division of Infectious Diseases at the UTHealth Medical School, analyzed a database of more than 50,000 people treated for bacterial meningitis between 1997 and 2010 in the United States. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • skin
  • Jan 2010: Taksta has completed enrollment in a Phase 2 trial (due to run until March 2010) and is preparing for Phase 3 studies in the U.S. for acute bacterial skin structure infections (being compared with Linezolid). (wikipedia.org)
  • Though the patient may have contracted the infection from their own skin, the infection is still considered nosocomial since it develops in the health care setting. (wikipedia.org)