• biofilm
  • Within the bladder epithelium, UPEC typically reproduces in a biofilm-like state composed of intracellular bacterial communities (IBC). (nih.gov)
  • Antigens
  • We have previously shown that cigarette smoke extract (CSE) represents an environmental stress to which P. gingivalis adapts by altering the expression of several virulence factors - including major and minor fimbrial antigens (FimA and Mfa1, respectively) and capsule - concomitant with a reduced pro-inflammatory potential of intact P. gingivalis. (nih.gov)
  • The pentameric structure of IgM antibodies makes them efficient at binding antigens with repetitive epitopes (e.g. bacterial capsule, viral capsid) and activation of complement cascade. (wikipedia.org)
  • bacterium
  • the capsule appears as a clear halo around the bacterium as the ink can't penetrate the capsule. (wikipedia.org)
  • Maneval's capsule stain: the capsule appears as a clear halo between the pink-stained bacterium and the bluish-grey stained background. (wikipedia.org)
  • Staphylococcus epidermidis The yeast Cryptococcus neoformans, though not a bacterium, has a similar capsule. (wikipedia.org)
  • acquisition of the causative bacterium from another individual, colonization, invasion of mucosal epithelium resulting in bacteremia, haematogenous dissemination, invasion of the blood-brain barrier and, finally, the occurrence of inflammatory changes within the subarachnoid space consequent upon bacterial multiplication within the central nervous system (Figure 1). (springer.com)
  • Specific forms of vaginal inflammation include the following types: Infectious vaginitis accounts for 90% of all cases in reproductive age women: Candidiasis: vaginitis caused by proliferation of Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, Candida krusei Bacterial vaginosis: vaginitis caused by increased growth of Gardnerella (a bacterium). (wikipedia.org)
  • sugars
  • Prevnar (PCV7) is a heptavalent vaccine, meaning that it contains the cell capsule sugars of seven serotypes of the bacteria S. pneumoniae (4, 6B, 9V, 14, 18C, 19F and 23F), conjugated with diphtheria proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • strains
  • Bacteria evolving resistance against the action of multiple drugs and its ability to disseminate the multidrug resistance trait(s) across various strains of the same bacteria or different bacterial species impose serious threat to public health. (frontiersin.org)
  • Agar well diffusion assay was used for initial evaluation of antimicrobial properties of plant materials against five bacterial and two yeast strains. (biomedcentral.com)
  • microscope
  • For examination under the microscope, the bacteria and their background are stained darker than the capsule, which doesn't stain. (wikipedia.org)
  • When examined under the microscope, the capsule appears 'swollen' due to an increase in its refractivity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Capsule was visualized under light microscope after certain staining techniques. (readtiger.com)
  • inflammatory
  • Bacterial-epithelial interactions incite a strong inflammatory response through which the UPEC must persist. (nih.gov)
  • We hypothesized that CSE-regulation of capsule and fimbrial genes is reflected at the ultrastructural and functional levels, alters the nature of host-pathogen interactions, and contributes to the reduced pro- inflammatory potential of smoke exposed P. gingivalis. (nih.gov)
  • envelope
  • Some bacterial cells are surrounded by a viscous substance forming a covering layer or envelope around the cell wall. (readtiger.com)
  • articular capsule the saclike envelope that encloses the cavity of a synovial joint by attaching to the circumference of the articular end of each involved bone. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • permit
  • It may permit bacterial colonies to survive chemical sterilization with chlorine, iodine, and other chemicals, leaving autoclaving or flushing with boiling water as the only certain methods of decontaminating. (wikipedia.org)
  • pathogenicity
  • Bacteria that possess capsules are considered to be encapsulated, and generally have greater pathogenicity (ability to cause disease) because capsules protect bacteria, even from phagocytic white blood cells of the immune system. (scienceprofonline.com)
  • cell wall
  • In addition, the capsule and several factors embedded in the cell wall, including M protein, lipoteichoic acid, and protein F (SfbI) facilitate attachment to various host cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • cells
  • When viewed, bacterial cells as well as the surface they are on, are stained dark, while the capsule remains pale or colorless and appears as a ring, or halo, around the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • The capsule can protect cells from engulfment by eukaryotic cells, such as macrophages. (wikipedia.org)
  • Using a high speed blender they were able to force the bacteriophages from the bacterial cells after adsorption. (wikipedia.org)
  • surface
  • As a result of this combination, and precipitation of the large, complex molecule formed, the capsule appears to swell, because of increased surface tension, and its outlines become clearly demarcated. (wikipedia.org)
  • host
  • In their experiments, Hershey and Chase showed that when bacteriophages, which are composed of DNA and protein, infect bacteria, their DNA enters the host bacterial cell, but most of their protein does not. (wikipedia.org)