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  • pathogen
  • The idea of using pili as a Trojan horse for antibiotic delivery is new and allows us to specifically and effectively target a given bacterial pathogen. (sfu.ca)
  • In an article entitled Chronicle of An Ecological Disaster Foretold, which was published in an ISIS newsletter, Ho speculated that if a bacterium acquired the barnase gene and survived, this could make the bacteria a more dangerous pathogen. (wikipedia.org)
  • fecal indicator bacteria
  • Significant advances in the field of microbial and chemical source tracking (MST or CST) provide access to a variety of analytical tools, beyond traditional culture-based measurements of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB), in the identification and apportionment of pollution sources adversely impacting water quality and of public health concern. (asmscience.org)
  • Decision tree approach to identifying pollution sources based on fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) density, relationship to environmental conditions, physical assessments and proximity to potential pollution sources. (asmscience.org)
  • microbial
  • Here we report the development and implementation of a modified approach to this method, in which phylogenetically inferred genes are inserted into a microbial genome, and laboratory evolution is then used to examine the adaptive potential of the resulting hybrid genome. (springer.com)
  • inactivation
  • The study experimented with the Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms and found that a disruption of relA and spoT genes produced an inactivation of the Stringent response (SR) in cells with nutrient limitation, which provides cells be more susceptible to antibiotics. (wikipedia.org)
  • proteins
  • In this issue, the Casanova group identifies bi-allelic loss-of-expression, loss-of-function mutations of the calcium- and integrin-binding protein 1 ( CIB1 ) gene as a new cause of epidermodysplasia verruciformis (EV) and demonstrate that the CIB1 interacts with the EVER1 and EVER2 proteins to form a complex involved in keratinocyte-intrinsic immune response to human β-papillomaviruses (β-HPVs). (rupress.org)
  • In molecular biology, bacterial DNA binding proteins are a family of small, usually basic proteins of about 90 residues that bind DNA and are known as histone-like proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since bacterial binding proteins have a diversity of functions, it has been difficult to develop a common function for all of them. (wikipedia.org)
  • in these processes, bacterial DNA binding proteins have an architectural role, maintaining structural integrity as transcription, recombination, replication, or any other DNA-dependent process proceeds. (wikipedia.org)
  • Initially, bacterial DNA binding proteins were thought to help stabilize bacterial DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • Currently, many more functions of bacteria DNA binding proteins have been discovered, including the regulation of gene expression by histone-like nucleoid-structuring protein, H-NS. (wikipedia.org)
  • Arsenite in water can be thought of as an inorganic equivalent of non-ionized glycerol and is transported across cell membranes from bacterial cells to human cells by glyceroporin membrane channel proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • A DNA construct may express wildtype protein, prevent the expression of certain genes by expressing competitors or inhibitors, or express mutant proteins, such as deletion mutations or missense mutations. (wikipedia.org)
  • With this technology, segments of DNA could be sequenced, amplified, and proteins produced using bacterial transformations. (wikipedia.org)
  • symbiotic
  • show that a heavily glycosylated monoclonal IgA coats B. theta and induces Mucus-Associated Functional Factor in vivo to enhance symbiotic interactions with commensal bacteria to maintain gut homeostasis. (rupress.org)
  • protein
  • The genes selected for transfer usually code for a single, useful protein like insulin. (essaypride.com)
  • Hybrid lineages exhibit a general adaptive strategy in which the fitness cost of the ancient gene was ameliorated in part by upregulation of protein production. (springer.com)
  • 2004 ). Mathematical sequence reconstructions of ancient genes and their subsequent in vitro biochemical characterization alone, however, may not necessarily provide the salient details of why the protein evolved along a particular evolutionary pathway (Bar-Rogovsky et al. (springer.com)
  • When viruses, including bacteriophages (viruses that infect bacteria), infect bacterial cells, their normal mode of reproduction is to harness the replicational, transcriptional, and translation machinery of the host bacterial cell to make numerous virions, or complete viral particles, including the viral DNA or RNA and the protein coat. (wikipedia.org)
  • cyanobacteria
  • Anoxygenic photosynthesis, or photosynthesis that doesn't produce oxygen and is common with photosynthetic bacteria and certain cyanobacteria, uses electron donors other than water to reduce CO2 for incorporation into biomass. (wikipedia.org)
  • When bacterial nomenclature was controlled under the Botanical Code, the term division was used, but now that bacterial nomenclature (with the exception of cyanobacteria) is controlled under the Bacteriological Code, the term phylum is preferred. (wikipedia.org)
  • archaea
  • For example, studies of the spatial distribution of rhodopsin genes in marine microbes suggest such genes are 'cosmopolitan', wandering among bacteria (or archaea) as environmental pressures dictate. (scienceblogs.com)
  • however, in one study, bacteria from arsenic-contaminated soil at a smelter site was able to reduce As(+5) to As(+3) under anaerobic conditions at arsenic concentration as high as 75 mg/L. Arsenate-respiring bacteria and Archaea have also recently been isolated from a diversity of natural environments, including freshwater streams and sediments, alkaline and saline lakes, and hot springs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Edward Lawri
  • George Wells Beadle and Edward Lawrie Tatum moot the "one gene-one enzyme hypothesis" based on induced mutations in bread mold Neurospora crassa (1941). (wikipedia.org)
  • coli
  • MicF in E. coli was found to regulate the expression of a key structural gene that makes up the outer membrane of the E. coli cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • organism
  • Taken together, these results suggest dae2 protects ticks from infection by the very organism from which the gene was horizontally transferred. (molecularecologist.com)
  • The viruses, whether positive or negative sense viruses, require a living organism to replicate their genes and produce more viruses. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus, the study of this gene transfer throughout each ecosystem, whether it be through a bacterial ecosystem or through the ecosystem of an organism, genetic ecology is the study of this gene transfer and its causes. (wikipedia.org)
  • selectively
  • showed type VI secretion amidase effector ( tae ) genes have been transferred from bacteria to eukaryotes at least six times and that domesticated versions of the gene ( dae ) have been selectively retained in eukaryotes for millions of years. (molecularecologist.com)
  • concentrations
  • However, arsenate-reducing bacteria may exist in low numbers until provided with new sources of carbon especially and possibly the selective pressure of higher concentrations of arsenic. (wikipedia.org)
  • transcription
  • report that transcription factor ETV6 optimizes gene expression in DCs and facilitates their ability to cross-prime T cells and initiate tumor-specific immune responses. (rupress.org)
  • Alternately, sRNAs may interact with mRNA targets and regulate gene expression by binding to complementary mRNA and blocking transcription, or by unmasking or blocking the ribosome-binding site. (wikipedia.org)
  • Plasmid DNA constructs often consist of a promoter sequence, followed a by a desired gene, and ended in a transcription termination or polyadenylation signal sequence. (wikipedia.org)
  • Phylum
  • This conferred coated bacteria with fitness within the mucus niche and contributed to intestinal homeostasis through cross-phylum interactions. (rupress.org)
  • mutations
  • Luria-Delbrück experiment demonstrates that in bacteria, beneficial mutations arise in the absence of selection, rather than being a response to selection (1943). (wikipedia.org)
  • infections
  • After reports of increased severity of bacterial infections from community institutions, a broad spectrum of 70 surfaces was sampled for potential bacterial pathogens in the morning and afternoon of one day per week over three consecutive weeks in a large U.S. university. (environmental-expert.com)
  • The SFU associate professor is an expert on the role that pili play in bacterial infections. (sfu.ca)
  • Some research suggests the overuse of antibiotics in the raising of livestock is contributing to outbreaks of bacterial infections such as C. difficile. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genetics
  • Genetics is the study of genes and what they do. (essaypride.com)
  • Gregor Mendel's experiments with the garden pea led him to surmise many of the fundamental laws of genetics (dominant vs recessive genes, the 1-2-1 ratio, see Mendelian inheritance) (1856-1863). (wikipedia.org)
  • 1975
  • Magnetotactic bacteria (or MTB) are a polyphyletic group of bacteria discovered by Richard P. Blakemore in 1975, that orient along the magnetic field lines of Earth's magnetic field. (wikipedia.org)
  • vitro
  • Geller BL et al (2013) Gene-silencing antisense oligomers inhibit acinetobacter growth in vitro and in vivo. (springer.com)
  • antibiotics
  • The authors recommend that pilus filaments be explored further as a transport mechanism to deliver antibiotics into a bacterium. (sfu.ca)
  • We do have antibiotics for V. cholerae , but these antibiotics also kill beneficial bacteria in the gut. (sfu.ca)
  • We know that other deadly bacteria have retractable pili but it'll be much easier to isolate how the mechanism can be used to uptake antibiotics in Vibrio cholerae . (sfu.ca)
  • In bacteria, antibiotics are used almost exclusively. (wikipedia.org)
  • penicillin
  • Alexander Fleming demonstrates that the zone of inhibition around a growth of penicillin mould on a culture dish of bacteria is caused by a diffusible substance secreted by the mould (1928). (wikipedia.org)
  • contamination
  • Some common locations with arsenate reducing bacteria that is causing major contamination problems by releasing arsenic into drinking water in shallow wells include Bangladesh, the American Midwest, and the Canadian Maritime Provinces. (wikipedia.org)
  • experiments
  • Since these initial discoveries, over six thousand bacterial sRNAs have been identified, largely through RNA-sequencing experiments. (wikipedia.org)
  • These bacteria have been the subject of many experiments: they have even been aboard the Space Shuttle to examine their magnetotactic properties in the absence of gravity, but a definitive conclusion was not reached. (wikipedia.org)
  • cells
  • The absence of T reg cells led to exacerbated inflammation, infiltration of CD8 + T cells to the epidermis, and an IFN-I gene signature in the tissue. (rupress.org)
  • Cells of the genus Azotobacter are relatively large for bacteria (1-2 μm in diameter). (wikipedia.org)
  • Inspired by Oswald Avery's discovery of the importance of DNA, Lederberg began to investigate his hypothesis that, contrary to prevailing opinion, bacteria did not simply pass down exact copies of genetic information, making all cells in a lineage essentially clones. (wikipedia.org)
  • In contrast to the magnetoception of animals, the bacteria contain fixed magnets that force the bacteria into alignment-even dead cells align, just like a compass needle. (wikipedia.org)
  • A screenable marker will make cells containing the gene look different. (wikipedia.org)
  • X-gal) is added, cells expressing the gene convert the X-gal to a blue product and can be seen with the naked eye. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecular biology
  • In nuclear biology and molecular biology, a marker gene is a gene used to determine if a nucleic acid sequence has been successfully inserted into an organism's DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • strain
  • In the scientific classification established by Carl von Linné, each bacterial strain has to be assigned to a species (binary nomenclature), which is a lower level of a hierarchy of ranks. (wikipedia.org)
  • produce
  • Some types of magnetotactic bacteria can produce magnetite even in anaerobic conditions, using nitric oxide, nitrate, or sulfate as a final acceptor for electrons. (wikipedia.org)
  • Magnetotactic bacteria produce their magnetic particles in chains. (wikipedia.org)
  • The bacteria produce the energy to fix carbon by oxidizing hydrogen sulfide found in the environment. (wikipedia.org)
  • Serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE) is a transcriptomic technique used by molecular biologists to produce a snapshot of the messenger RNA population in a sample of interest in the form of small tags that correspond to fragments of those transcripts. (wikipedia.org)
  • immune
  • use an AID fate-mapping model to identify an IgM memory population in the spleen of unimmunized mice, originating from persistent gut immune responses and endowed with cross-reactivity against bacteria. (rupress.org)
  • recipient
  • Genetic Engineering Genetic engineering is the process of manipulating and collecting a known quantity of genes from a known source, opening the recipient DNA at the desired point in the linkage. (essaypride.com)
  • If the new DNA matches with a homologous region of the recipient cell's chromosome, it will exchange DNA material similar to the actions in bacterial recombination. (wikipedia.org)
  • identification
  • Microbiologists of previous generations had to do their bacterial identification exclusively from physical and metabolic tests. (openwetware.org)
  • Many of these have improved the technique with the capture of longer tags, enabling more confident identification of a source gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • particles
  • Several different morphologies (shapes) of MTB exist, differing in number, layout and pattern of the bacterial magnetic particles (BMPs) they contain. (wikipedia.org)
  • chromosome
  • Thomas Hunt Morgan identifies a sex chromosome linked gene in Drosophila melanogaster (1910) and his student Alfred Sturtevant develops the first genetic map (1913). (wikipedia.org)
  • If the lysogenic cycle is adopted, the phage chromosome is integrated (by covalent bonds) into the bacterial chromosome, where it can remain dormant for thousands of generations. (wikipedia.org)
  • At the same time, some phage genes are left behind in the bacterial chromosome. (wikipedia.org)
  • sequence
  • Using sequence databases a researcher can usually determine, with some confidence, from which original mRNA (and therefore which gene) the tag was extracted. (wikipedia.org)
  • essential gene
  • Greenberg DE et al (2010) Antisense phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligomers targeted to an essential gene inhibit Burkholderia cepacia complex. (springer.com)