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  • amino acid
  • Conclusions The product spectrum of the platform strain C. glutamicum ORN1 was expanded to include the amino acid L-proline. (uni-bielefeld.de)
  • Two examples of these conserved signature indels are a two-amino-acid insertion in a conserved region of the enzyme phosphoribose diphosphate:decaprenyl-phosphate phosphoribosyltransferase and a three-amino-acid insertion in acetate kinase, both of which are found only in Corynebacterium species. (wikipedia.org)
  • yeast
  • Commonly used protein production systems include those derived from bacteria, yeast,baculovirus/insect, mammalian cells, and more recently filamentous fungi such as Myceliophthora thermophila. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, common hosts are bacteria (such as E.coli, B. subtilis), yeast (such as S.cerevisiae) or eukaryotic cell lines. (wikipedia.org)
  • To combine the high yield/productivity and scalable protein features of bacteria and yeast, and advanced epigenetic features of plants, insects and mammalians systems, other protein production systems are developed using unicellular eukaryotes (i.e. non-pathogenic 'Leishmania' cells). (wikipedia.org)
  • Microorganisms like yeast and bacteria are used to massively produce the many things. (wikipedia.org)
  • coli
  • For example, a DNA sequence for a protein of interest could be cloned or subcloned into a high copy-number plasmid containing the lac promoter, which is then transformed into the bacterium E. coli. (wikipedia.org)
  • In comparing C. glutamicum and E. coli, monomer and dimer, respectively, both enzymes were found to "efficiently catalyze identical reactions. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, C. glutamicum was recorded as having ten times as much activity than E. coli and seven times more affinitive/specific for NADP. (wikipedia.org)
  • microorganisms
  • In 1676, Antonie van Leeuwenhoek , who lived most of his life in Delft, Holland, observed bacteria and other microorganisms using a single-lens microscope of his own design. (wikipedia.org)
  • rRNA
  • Microbiologists often rely on molecular biology tools such as DNA sequence based identification, example 16s rRNA gene sequence used for bacteria identification. (wikipedia.org)
  • virulence
  • This bacterium is apparently equipped with a broad and varying set of virulence factors, including a novel type of a ribosome-binding protein. (uni-bielefeld.de)
  • respectively
  • Among 36 tetracycline- and 17 streptomycin-resistant isolates from dairy farm soils, 11 (30.6%) and 9 (52.9%) isolates carried multiple resistance genes encoding resistance to tetracycline and streptomycin, respectively, which was higher than in bacteria isolated from nondairy soils. (springer.com)
  • genes
  • Similarly, a higher prevalence of streptomycin resistance genes including strA (12.5%), strB (12.5%), ant(3″) (12.5), aph(6)-1c (12.5%), aph(3″) (10.8%), and addA (5.4%) was detected in bacteria isolated from dairy farm soils than in nondairy soils. (springer.com)
  • yeasts
  • Louis Pasteur's discovery that food fermentations are caused by microscopic organisms - bacteria, simple fungi and yeasts. (eufic.org)
  • production
  • Vinegar production was one of his major interests, a process which had historically had mixed success due to contamination by inappropriate bacteria. (eufic.org)
  • For the first time, we successfully achieved the production of the specialty anthocyanin C3G from the comparatively inexpensive flavonoid precursor catechin in C. glutamicum . (springer.com)
  • Biosynthetic pathway of anthocyanins (labeled in pink) in plants and the introduced pathway for cyanidin 3- O -glucoside production from catechin in C. glutamicum . (springer.com)
  • J. Vold Korgaard Jensen and V.F. Wendisch, "Ornithine cyclodeaminase-based proline production by *Corynebacterium glutamicum*", Microbial Cell Factories , vol. 12, 2013. (uni-bielefeld.de)
  • lactose
  • Addition of IPTG (a lactose analog) activates the lac promoter and causes the bacteria to express the protein of interest. (wikipedia.org)
  • analyses
  • PhoA fusion analyses of LysE of C. glutamicum provided evidence for a 5 transmembrane α-helical spanner (TMS) typology with the N-terminus inside and the C-terminus outside. (wikipedia.org)
  • found
  • Cyanophycin was first detected in 1887 by the Italian botanist Antonino Borzì and can be found in most cyanobacteria and a few heterotrophic bacteria such as Acinetobacter sp. (wikipedia.org)
  • Porins are water-filled pores and channels found in the membranes of bacteria and eukaryotes. (wikipedia.org)
  • They exhibit similar transport functions but have a more limited variety of porins, compared to the distribution found in gram-negative bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus, members of the ACR3 family are found in bacteria, archaea and eukarya. (wikipedia.org)
  • sequences
  • Comprehensive screening of secretion signal sequences has been conducted in C. glutamicum R by using bioinformatic analysis and a high-throughput secretion assay, which identified a total of 108 candidate signal sequences that could secrete heterologous α-amylase in the organism. (asmscience.org)
  • type
  • Pasteur was the first to identify the type of bacteria needed and to isolate them in a pure form. (eufic.org)
  • Porins have threshold sizes of transportable molecules that depend on the type of bacteria and porin. (wikipedia.org)
  • enzymes
  • In terms of stability with response to temperature, both enzymes had a similar Tm or melting temperature at about 55 °C to 60 °C. However, the monomer C. glutamicum showed a more consistent stability at higher temperatures, which was expected. (wikipedia.org)
  • produce
  • While originally identified in a screen for organisms secreting L-glutamate, mutants of C. glutamicum have also been identified which produce various other amino acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecular
  • molecular techniques have shown that much of the genetic material in humans is not only closely related to that of chimpanzees, but also to that of primitive bacteria. (eufic.org)
  • Because bacteria are prokaryotes, they are not equipped with the full enzymatic machinery to accomplish the required post-translational modifications or molecular folding. (wikipedia.org)
  • resistance
  • In Aarestrup F (ed), Antimicrobial Resistance in Bacteria of Animal Origin . (asmscience.org)
  • Lower frequencies of tetracycline (9 of 24 or 37.5%) and streptomycin (1 of 24 or 4.2%) resistance were observed in bacteria isolated from nondairy soils. (springer.com)
  • gene
  • Microbiologists often rely on molecular biology tools such as DNA sequence based identification, example 16s rRNA gene sequence used for bacteria identification. (wikipedia.org)
  • genetic
  • One study analyzed 235 genomes of bacteria and determined that the z coordinate of the Z curve accounted for 99.9% of the genetic variance and the x and y coordinates were not meaningful in studying nucleotide composition. (wikipedia.org)
  • plants
  • In plants and most bacteria, it is synthesized from aspartic acid (aspartate): L-aspartate is first converted to L-aspartyl-4-phosphate by aspartokinase (or aspartate kinase). (wikipedia.org)