• biomass
  • Oxo-biodegradable plastic is bio-assimilated by the same bacteria and fungi, which transform natural material such as twigs and leaves to cell biomass, like lignocellulosic materials. (wikipedia.org)
  • Materials derived from biomass/biodegradable materials" (PDF). (wikipedia.org)
  • However this claim is debatable, if the manufacturer was minimally conforming to the now-withdrawn American Society for Testing and Materials standard definition of the word, as it applies to plastics: "that which is capable of undergoing biological decomposition in a compost site such that the material is not visually distinguishable and breaks down into carbon dioxide, water, inorganic compounds and biomass at a rate consistent with known compostable materials. (wikipedia.org)
  • biodegradation
  • OXO Biodegradable OXO-biodegradation is defined by CEN (the European Standards Organisation) {CEN/TR 1535-2006} as "degradation resulting from oxidative and cell-mediated phenomena, either simultaneously or successively. (wikipedia.org)
  • These descriptions should not be used for material which degrades by the process of OXO-biodegradation defined by CEN, and the correct description is "OXO-biodegradable. (wikipedia.org)
  • Timescale for complete biodegradation is much shorter than for "conventional" plastics which, in normal environments, are very slow to biodegrade and cause large scale harm. (wikipedia.org)
  • There is however a lot of doubt on the complete biodegradation of oxo-biodegradable plastics. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since many of these plastics require access to sunlight, oxygen, or lengthy periods of time to achieve degradation or biodegradation, the Federal Trade Commission's GUIDES FOR THE USE OF ENVIRONMENTAL MARKETING CLAIMS, commonly called the "green guide," require proper marking of these products to show their performance limits. (wikipedia.org)
  • The claim is therefore deceptive Since there are no pass-fail tests for "biodegradable" plastic bags, manufacturers must print on the product the environmental requirements for biodegradation to take place, time frame and end results in order to be within US Trade Requirements. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed
  • citation needed] A genetically encoded 3-hydroxypropionic acid inducible system has been characterized in bacteria demonstrating that such system in combination with fluorescent reporter protein can be utilized as a biosensor to measure intracellular and extracellular 3-HP concentrations by fluorescence output. (wikipedia.org)
  • Indeed, under the ASTM definition, the only criterion needed for a plastic to be called compostable is that it has to appear to go away at the same rate as something else that one already knows is compostable under the traditional definition[citation needed]. (wikipedia.org)
  • renewable
  • The company is also in the process of developing platforms to co-produce plastics, chemicals, and energy from crops Metabolix has been recognized for its research, development and product innovations through a series of prestigious awards and grants including: the "Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge Award" (2005), the "New Technologies in Renewable Materials and Processes Award" (2006), the "Technology Pioneer Award" (2010), and the Museum of Science Boston's "Invented Here! (wikipedia.org)
  • fungi
  • At the end of this process it is no longer visible, as it has been converted via Carboxylation or Hydroxylation to small-chain organic chemicals which will then biodegrade when the right fungi and/or bacteria are present. (wikipedia.org)
  • trillion plastic bags
  • Although few peer-reviewed studies or government surveys have provided estimates for global plastic bag use, environmental activists estimate that between 500 billion and 1 trillion plastic bags are used each year worldwide. (wikipedia.org)
  • Every year approximately 500 billion to 1 trillion plastic bags are used worldwide. (wikipedia.org)
  • reusable
  • Scientists have discovered a bacteria that eats Styrofoam and turns it reusable plastic! (pcstats.com)
  • Some reusable shopping bags are made of plastic film, fibers, or fabric. (wikipedia.org)
  • The implementation of reusable plastic containers arises as a consequence of concerns with sustainability and environmental impact. (wikipedia.org)
  • The adoption of reusable plastic containers will amount to an approximate annual increase of 0.058 euros/kg of delivered goods. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cost associated with reusable plastic containers are packaging purchasing costs, transportation costs, labor/handling costs, management costs, and costs resulting from losses. (wikipedia.org)
  • This cost is reoccurring but is only relevant once every 50 cycles, which is the typical lifetime of reusable plastic containers. (wikipedia.org)
  • Transportation costs are slightly higher for reusable plastic containers as compared to traditional use and throwaway plastic containers in that these reusable containers need additional transportation to recycling facilities. (wikipedia.org)
  • Reusable plastic containers also require work loading and unloading from trucks as well as quality inspection, this adds additional labor costs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Management costs exists because reusable plastic container stock count needs to be managed. (wikipedia.org)
  • The final cost of reusable plastic containers is the cost incurred when packages are lost or there are errors within the management system. (wikipedia.org)
  • Figure 2 provides a detailed summary of the costs associated with adopting reusable plastic containers. (wikipedia.org)
  • Materials
  • The field of plastic surgery is not named for use of plastic materials, but rather the meaning of the word plasticity, with regard to the reshaping of flesh. (wikipedia.org)
  • This effectively removes the damaging effects of plastic waste from the environment at the same time as producing economically attractive raw materials. (naturalnews.com)
  • While others have been able to produce 100% biodegradable plastic materials, the cost to produce them at scale is difficult to justify from a cost perspective. (btn.com)
  • As plastic bags increasingly replaced paper bags, and as other plastic materials and products replaced glass, metal, stone, timber and other materials, a packaging materials war erupted, with plastic shopping bags at the center of highly publicized disputes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Recent studies now urge a complete ban on the selling of these types of plastics Degradation is a process that takes place in many materials. (wikipedia.org)
  • polyester
  • The biopolymer poly-3-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) is a polyester produced by certain bacteria processing glucose, corn starch or wastewater. (wikipedia.org)
  • A method has been developed by the University of Minnesota to produce a biodegradable polymer polyester known as poly(3-hydroxypropionic acid). (wikipedia.org)
  • The market for a bio-based and biodegradable replacement for polyester is expected to grow rapidly during the next five years. (wikipedia.org)
  • scientists
  • As described in a 1983 publication, other scientists were able to get the ability to generate the enzymes to transfer from the Flavobacterium strain to a strain of E. coli bacteria via a plasmid transfer. (wikipedia.org)
  • strains
  • revealed that the three enzymes the bacteria were using to digest the byproducts were significantly different from any other enzymes produced by other Flavobacterium strains (or, for that matter, any other bacteria), and not effective on any material other than the manmade nylon byproducts. (wikipedia.org)
  • decades
  • In recent decades, numerous countries have introduced legislation restricting the sale of plastic bags, in a bid to reduce littering and plastic pollution. (wikipedia.org)
  • bags
  • Plastic bags are a convenient and sanitary way of handling garbage, and are widely used. (wikipedia.org)
  • Plastic garbage bags are fairly lightweight and are particularly useful for messy or wet rubbish, as is commonly the case with food waste, and are also useful for wrapping up garbage to minimize odour. (wikipedia.org)
  • Plastic bags are often used for lining litter or waste containers or bins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Plastic bags can be incinerated with their contents in appropriate facilities for waste-to-energy conversion. (wikipedia.org)
  • Plastic bags for rubbish or litter are sold in a number of sizes at many stores in packets or rolls of a few tens of bags. (wikipedia.org)
  • Oxo-biodegradable plastic bags have the same strength as ordinary plastic and cost very little extra. (wikipedia.org)
  • American and European patent applications relating to the production of plastic shopping bags can be found dating back to the early 1950s, but these refer to composite constructions with handles fixed to the bag in a secondary manufacturing process. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Dixie Bag Company, along with similar firms such as Houston Poly Bag and Capitol Poly, was instrumental in the manufacturing, marketing and perfecting of plastic bags in the 1980s. (wikipedia.org)
  • Kroger, a Cincinnati-based grocery chain, began to replace its paper shopping bags with plastic bags in 1982, and was soon followed by its rival, Safeway. (wikipedia.org)
  • From the mid-1980s onwards, plastic bags became common for carrying daily groceries from the store to vehicles and homes throughout the developed world. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2009, the United States International Trade Commission reported that 102 billion plastic bags are used annually in the United States alone. (wikipedia.org)
  • Plastic shopping bags are commonly manufactured by blown film extrusion. (wikipedia.org)
  • These include items such as plastic grocery bags. (wikipedia.org)
  • species
  • Saphium, which is convincing bacteria to create a biodegradable plastic, and Efflorus, a company that is making one of the most expensive fragrances in Asia - Oud - out of yeast instead of an endangered plant species called agarwood. (idaireland.com)
  • contaminant
  • Depending on their chemical composition, plastics and resins have varying properties related to contaminant absorption and adsorption. (wikipedia.org)
  • company's
  • The company's patent position gave it a virtual monopoly on plastic shopping bag production, and the company set up manufacturing plants across Europe and in the US. (wikipedia.org)
  • products
  • Due to their low cost, ease of manufacture, versatility, and imperviousness to water, plastics are used in a multitude of products of different scale, including paper clips and spacecraft. (wikipedia.org)
  • Plastics can also be classified by: their various physical properties, such as: hardness, density, tensile strength, resistance to heat and glass transition temperature, and by their chemical properties, such as the organic chemistry of the polymer and its resistance and reaction to various chemical products and processes, such as: organic solvents, oxidation, and ionizing radiation. (wikipedia.org)
  • With our partners we have modified natural bacteria, producing new designs that can live off plastics and break them down into useful end products that can be used to make new, biodegradable plastics," he explained. (naturalnews.com)
  • How we're going to make more products, whether it be fuels, plastics, making them more sustainable and bio-friendly," Ducat says. (btn.com)
  • Nylon-eating bacteria are a strain of Flavobacterium that are capable of digesting certain by-products of nylon 6 manufacture. (wikipedia.org)
  • Plastic pollution involves the accumulation of plastic products in the environment that adversely affects wildlife, wildlife habitat, or humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many plastic manufacturers throughout Canada and the US have released products indicated as being compostable. (wikipedia.org)
  • In January 2011, the ASTM withdrew standard ASTM D 6002, which many plastic manufacturers had been referencing to attain credibility in labelling their products as compostable. (wikipedia.org)
  • But OXO-biodegradable products utilize a prodegradant to speed up the molecular breakdown of the polyolefins and to incorporate oxygen atoms into the resulting low molecular mass molecules. (wikipedia.org)
  • material
  • Plastic is material consisting of any of a wide range of synthetic or semi-synthetic organic compounds that are malleable and so can be molded into solid objects. (wikipedia.org)
  • The adjective is applicable to any material which undergoes a plastic deformation, or permanent change of shape, when strained beyond a certain point. (wikipedia.org)
  • million tonnes
  • In the UK alone, more than 5 million tonnes of plastic are consumed each year, of which an estimated mere 24% makes it into recycling systems. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecules
  • The success and dominance of plastics starting in the early 20th century led to environmental concerns regarding its slow decomposition rate after being discarded as trash due to its composition of large molecules. (wikipedia.org)
  • applications
  • In developed economies, about a third of plastic is used in packaging and roughly the same in buildings in applications such as piping,plumbing or vinyl siding. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the developing world, the applications of plastic may differ - 42% of India's consumption is used in packaging. (wikipedia.org)
  • In principle they could replace many applications for petroleum-derived plastics, however cost and performance remain problematic. (wikipedia.org)
  • On account of these properties, P(3-HP) has applications in packaging or biodegradable plastics. (wikipedia.org)
  • bottles
  • PLA and PLA blends generally come in the form of granulates with various properties, and are used in the plastic processing industry for the production of films, fibers, plastic containers, cups and bottles. (wikipedia.org)