• biomass
  • Oxo-biodegradable plastic is bio-assimilated by the same bacteria and fungi, which transform natural material such as twigs and leaves to cell biomass, like lignocellulosic materials. (wikipedia.org)
  • Materials derived from biomass/biodegradable materials" (PDF). (wikipedia.org)
  • However this claim is debatable, if the manufacturer was minimally conforming to the now-withdrawn American Society for Testing and Materials standard definition of the word, as it applies to plastics: "that which is capable of undergoing biological decomposition in a compost site such that the material is not visually distinguishable and breaks down into carbon dioxide, water, inorganic compounds and biomass at a rate consistent with known compostable materials. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pseudomonas
  • citation needed] A 1995 paper showed that scientists have also been able to induce another species of bacterium, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, to evolve the capability to break down the same nylon byproducts in a laboratory by forcing them to live in an environment with no other source of nutrients. (wikipedia.org)
  • fungi
  • At the end of this process it is no longer visible, as it has been converted via Carboxylation or Hydroxylation to small-chain organic chemicals which will then biodegrade when the right fungi and/or bacteria are present. (wikipedia.org)
  • renewable
  • The company is also in the process of developing platforms to co-produce plastics, chemicals, and energy from crops Metabolix has been recognized for its research, development and product innovations through a series of prestigious awards and grants including: the "Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge Award" (2005), the "New Technologies in Renewable Materials and Processes Award" (2006), the "Technology Pioneer Award" (2010), and the Museum of Science Boston's "Invented Here! (wikipedia.org)
  • genetically
  • Mirel is a product of corn sugar fermentation with proprietary genetically engineered bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] A genetically encoded 3-hydroxypropionic acid inducible system has been characterized in bacteria demonstrating that such system in combination with fluorescent reporter protein can be utilized as a biosensor to measure intracellular and extracellular 3-HP concentrations by fluorescence output. (wikipedia.org)
  • scientists
  • As described in a 1983 publication, other scientists were able to get the ability to generate the enzymes to transfer from the Flavobacterium strain to a strain of E. coli bacteria via a plasmid transfer. (wikipedia.org)
  • strains
  • revealed that the three enzymes the bacteria were using to digest the byproducts were significantly different from any other enzymes produced by other Flavobacterium strains (or, for that matter, any other bacteria), and not effective on any material other than the manmade nylon byproducts. (wikipedia.org)
  • Materials
  • The field of plastic surgery is not named for use of plastic materials, but rather the meaning of the word plasticity, with regard to the reshaping of flesh. (wikipedia.org)
  • While others have been able to produce 100% biodegradable plastic materials, the cost to produce them at scale is difficult to justify from a cost perspective. (btn.com)
  • As plastic bags increasingly replaced paper bags, and as other plastic materials and products replaced glass, metal, stone, timber and other materials, a packaging materials war erupted, with plastic shopping bags at the center of highly publicized disputes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Recent studies now urge a complete ban on the selling of these types of plastics Degradation is a process that takes place in many materials. (wikipedia.org)
  • decades
  • In recent decades, numerous countries have introduced legislation restricting the sale of plastic bags, in a bid to reduce littering and plastic pollution. (wikipedia.org)
  • contaminant
  • Depending on their chemical composition, plastics and resins have varying properties related to contaminant absorption and adsorption. (wikipedia.org)
  • company's
  • The company's patent position gave it a virtual monopoly on plastic shopping bag production, and the company set up manufacturing plants across Europe and in the US. (wikipedia.org)
  • products
  • Due to their low cost, ease of manufacture, versatility, and imperviousness to water, plastics are used in a multitude of products of different scale, including paper clips and spacecraft. (wikipedia.org)
  • Plastics can also be classified by: their various physical properties, such as: hardness, density, tensile strength, resistance to heat and glass transition temperature, and by their chemical properties, such as the organic chemistry of the polymer and its resistance and reaction to various chemical products and processes, such as: organic solvents, oxidation, and ionizing radiation. (wikipedia.org)
  • How we're going to make more products, whether it be fuels, plastics, making them more sustainable and bio-friendly," Ducat says. (btn.com)
  • Succinate is an interesting chemical for industries producing food and pharmaceutical products, surfactants, detergents and biodegradable plastics. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Nylon-eating bacteria are a strain of Flavobacterium that are capable of digesting certain by-products of nylon 6 manufacture. (wikipedia.org)
  • Plastic pollution involves the accumulation of plastic products in the environment that adversely affects wildlife, wildlife habitat, or humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many plastic manufacturers throughout Canada and the US have released products indicated as being compostable. (wikipedia.org)
  • In January 2011, the ASTM withdrew standard ASTM D 6002, which many plastic manufacturers had been referencing to attain credibility in labelling their products as compostable. (wikipedia.org)
  • But OXO-biodegradable products utilize a prodegradant to speed up the molecular breakdown of the polyolefins and to incorporate oxygen atoms into the resulting low molecular mass molecules. (wikipedia.org)
  • bags
  • Plastic garbage bags are fairly lightweight and are particularly useful for messy or wet rubbish, as is commonly the case with food waste, and are also useful for wrapping up garbage to minimize odour. (wikipedia.org)
  • Plastic bags are often used for lining litter or waste containers or bins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Plastic bags can be incinerated with their contents in appropriate facilities for waste-to-energy conversion. (wikipedia.org)
  • Plastic bags for rubbish or litter are sold in a number of sizes at many stores in packets or rolls of a few tens of bags. (wikipedia.org)
  • Oxo-biodegradable plastic bags have the same strength as ordinary plastic and cost very little extra. (wikipedia.org)
  • American and European patent applications relating to the production of plastic shopping bags can be found dating back to the early 1950s, but these refer to composite constructions with handles fixed to the bag in a secondary manufacturing process. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Dixie Bag Company, along with similar firms such as Houston Poly Bag and Capitol Poly, was instrumental in the manufacturing, marketing and perfecting of plastic bags in the 1980s. (wikipedia.org)
  • Kroger, a Cincinnati-based grocery chain, began to replace its paper shopping bags with plastic bags in 1982, and was soon followed by its rival, Safeway. (wikipedia.org)
  • From the mid-1980s onwards, plastic bags became common for carrying daily groceries from the store to vehicles and homes throughout the developed world. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although few peer-reviewed studies or government surveys have provided estimates for global plastic bag use, environmental activists estimate that between 500 billion and 1 trillion plastic bags are used each year worldwide. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2009, the United States International Trade Commission reported that 102 billion plastic bags are used annually in the United States alone. (wikipedia.org)
  • Plastic shopping bags are commonly manufactured by blown film extrusion. (wikipedia.org)
  • These include items such as plastic grocery bags. (wikipedia.org)
  • In October 2011, Andolfi & C., an Italian films, packaging, and bags company, began using Mvera for a line of compostable plastic bags. (wikipedia.org)
  • microbial
  • however, it is unknown whether these bacteria ultimately clean up poisons or simply spread them elsewhere in the marine microbial ecosystem. (wikipedia.org)
  • produce
  • The enrichment of EPS-producing bacteria during the spill coupled with their capacity to produce amphiphilic EPS is likely to have contributed to the ultimate removal of the oil and to the formation of oil aggregates, which were a dominant feature observed in contaminated surface waters. (jove.com)
  • million tonnes
  • In the UK alone, more than 5 million tonnes of plastic are consumed each year, of which an estimated mere 24% makes it into recycling systems. (wikipedia.org)
  • chemicals
  • Metabolix is an advanced biomaterials company focused on sustainable solutions for the plastics and chemicals industries. (wikipedia.org)
  • Metabolix's technology platforms are creating sustainable solutions in the world of plastics, chemicals and energy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Much later, in April 2003, Mitsubishi Chemicals built a 3,000 tons/year capacity and launched to the market a PBS named GS Pla (Green and Sustainable Plastic). (wikipedia.org)
  • applications
  • In developed economies, about a third of plastic is used in packaging and roughly the same in buildings in applications such as piping,plumbing or vinyl siding. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the developing world, the applications of plastic may differ - 42% of India's consumption is used in packaging. (wikipedia.org)
  • In principle they could replace many applications for petroleum-derived plastics, however cost and performance remain problematic. (wikipedia.org)
  • On account of these properties, P(3-HP) has applications in packaging or biodegradable plastics. (wikipedia.org)
  • bottles
  • PLA and PLA blends generally come in the form of granulates with various properties, and are used in the plastic processing industry for the production of films, fibers, plastic containers, cups and bottles. (wikipedia.org)
  • novel
  • They recently had a paper published in Metabolic Engineering highlighting their novel way to make bacteria work for them. (btn.com)
  • Standard analytical (colorimetric assays, RT-qPCR and microarrays) and novel fluorescence techniques (for simultaneous labeling of bacteria and EPS) were integrated with specific software for data analysis to address the complex nature of oral biofilm research. (jove.com)
  • debris
  • Plastics that act as pollutants are categorized into micro-, meso-, or macro debris, based on size. (wikipedia.org)
  • Plastic debris is categorized as either primary or secondary. (wikipedia.org)
  • Plastic debris that starts off as meso- or macrodebris can become microdebris through degradation and collisions that break it down into smaller pieces. (wikipedia.org)
  • Plastic debris is categorized as macrodebris when it is larger than 20 mm. (wikipedia.org)
  • Even after they have been abandoned, they continue to trap marine organisms and other plastic debris. (wikipedia.org)
  • containers
  • One cycle consists of the initial stages of processing plastic containers all the way to the use and recycling of these containers by the consumers. (wikipedia.org)
  • Researchers
  • He also thinks that, while plastics are the big draw for many researchers, he wants their work to be much more broad. (btn.com)