• myelin
  • Demyelination and axon loss are pathological hallmarks of the neuroinflammatory disorder multiple sclerosis (MS). Although we have an increasingly detailed understanding of how immune cells can damage axons and myelin individually, we lack a unified view of how the axon-myelin unit as a whole is affected by immune-mediated attack. (rupress.org)
  • In this review, we propose that as a result of the tight cell biological interconnection of axons and myelin, damage to either can spread, which might convert a local inflammatory disease process early in MS into the global progressive disorder seen during later stages. (rupress.org)
  • The intertwined nature of axon and myelin pathology becomes even more apparent in MS, a common inflammatory disease of the CNS. (rupress.org)
  • Together, these findings indicate that neuronal and glial pathology in inflammatory conditions should not be regarded as separate entities but rather as highly interdependent entry points into damage of a common target, the axon-myelin unit. (rupress.org)
  • In this review, we bring together findings from the fields of axon and myelin biology to develop an integrated view of neuroinflammatory axon-myelin pathology. (rupress.org)
  • We further explore the interdependence of axons and myelin to better understand how glial dysfunction might cause axonal damage and vice versa. (rupress.org)
  • One of the most striking features of the axon-myelin unit is the close association of two plasma membrane surfaces over extensive areas. (rupress.org)
  • Schwann
  • The message for the low-affinity NGF receptor, p75NGFR, is induced in Schwann cells distal to the injury and is repressed as regenerating axons make contact with these cells. (rupress.org)
  • expression decreases distal to injury and increases as new axons contact Schwann cells and a program of myelination is initiated. (rupress.org)
  • Using an in vitro co-culture paradigm in which primary neurons and adult Schwann cells are separated by a microporous membrane, we show that axon contact is not an absolute requirement for neuronal regulation of Schwann cell genes. (rupress.org)
  • These results demonstrate that regenerating axons can direct the Schwann cell genetic program from a distance through diffusible molecules. (rupress.org)
  • Schwann cell-axon contacts in developing and regenerating peripheral nerve in situ contain high levels of the recognition molecules L1 and N-CAM, while the molecules are not detectable at the ab-axonal cell surface of Schwann cells. (semanticscholar.org)
  • To investigate whether Schwann cells, axons, or both contribute to the localization of the molecules at Schwann cell-axon contacts, a heterologous cell culture system consisting of Schwann cells from mice and neurons from chicken was investigated by immunoelectron microscopy using species-specific L1 and N-CAM antibodies. (semanticscholar.org)
  • cell
  • In particular, we discuss the commonalities and differences in the way axons and glial cells degenerate to find out which mechanistic concepts can be transferred from one cell type to the other. (rupress.org)