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  • dorsal
  • In cultures of dorsal root ganglion neurons, we found that Sema3A treatment stimulates the synthesis of the eicosanoid, 12(S)-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (HETE), whereas Sema3A-induced growth cone collapse is prevented when 12(S)-HETE synthesis is blocked with an inhibitor of 12/15-lipoxygenase (LO). (jneurosci.org)
  • The subsequent retrograde axonal transport of NogoΔ20 in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons results in increased Rho-GTP and decreased levels of phosphorylated cAMP response element binding (pCREB) in the soma. (rupress.org)
  • The researchers show that Sema3A overexpression in the neural tube of chick embryos induces the exuberant growth of motor axon projections through normally non-permissive tissues, but that RNAi knockdown of Sema3A in motoneurons inhibits the normal dorsal growth of these neurons. (biologists.org)
  • actin
  • Mediates netrin-1-induced F-actin-substrate coupling or 'clutch engagement' within the axon growth cone through activation of CDC42, RAC1 and PAK1-dependent signaling pathway, thereby converting the F-actin retrograde flow into traction forces, concomitantly with filopodium extension and axon outgrowth. (uniprot.org)
  • Studies with follower and pioneer neuron populations show differences in growth cone morphology, actin dynamics and axonal elongation. (wikipedia.org)
  • effects on growth cone
  • Although the functional consequences of Eph/ephrin bi-directional signaling have not been completely elucidated, it is clear that such a unique signaling process allows for ephrin Ephs to have opposing effects on growth cone survival and allows for the segregation of Eph-expressing cells from ephrin-expressing cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • outgrowth
  • The Nogo-A-specific fragment NogoΔ20 induces growth cone collapse, and inhibits neurite outgrowth and cell spreading by activating RhoA. (rupress.org)
  • midline
  • One well-studied example is the requirement for Slit-Robo signaling in regulation of axonal midline crossing. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the midline of zebrafish, pioneer neurons grow slower, their growth cones tend to be shorter and wider than followers' and have up to 50% more filopodia and while followers' neurons filopodia are mostly forward oriented, pioneers' are arranged in all directions. (wikipedia.org)
  • regulation
  • These results reveal a novel pathway for activation of presynaptic MAPK and suggest a role of this pathway in the regulation of short-term presynaptic plasticity. (jneurosci.org)
  • Netrin-1-dependent regulation of exocytotic events requires the activation of the Erk1/2 and SFK pathways. (jneurosci.org)
  • Since LINGO-1 is a leucine-rich repeat protein, which are known for their important role in protein-protein interactions in a wide variety of cellular processes and their implication in important functions like neuronal differentiation and growth or the regulation of axon guidance and regeneration processes, it is logical to deduce that its functions are linked with the nervous system. (wikipedia.org)
  • collapse
  • Detection of a repellent factor, such as a semaphorin (Sema), causes localized collapse of the growth cone and directs the neurite away from the repellent. (jneurosci.org)
  • Pincher-mediated macroendocytosis results in the formation of NogoΔ20-containing signalosomes that direct RhoA activation and growth cone collapse. (rupress.org)
  • Here, we show that NogoΔ20 actions on growth cone collapse require signaling from endosomes that contain activated Rho. (rupress.org)
  • CRMPs are predominantly expressed in the nervous system during development and play important roles in axon formation from neurites and in growth cone guidance and collapse through their interactions with microtubules. (wikipedia.org)
  • kinase
  • Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is an evolutionarily conserved serine/threonine kinase that plays a central role in control of cell growth ( Schmelzle and Hall, 2000 ). (jneurosci.org)
  • In C. elegans, the activity of the upstream-most kinase in one of the MAPK signaling pathways, DLK-1, is stimulated by Ca2+ influx mediated by the EGL-19 voltage-gated calcium channel. (geneontology.org)
  • Plays a role in cytoskeletal organization by regulating the subcellular localization of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) activity at the axonal growth cone. (uniprot.org)
  • motoneurons
  • Growth cones of later motoneurons interact with the pioneer via contact, coupling, and axonal fasciculation. (zfin.org)
  • In spite of these interactions, ablation of the pioneer motoneuron does not affect the ability of other identified motoneurons to select the pathways that lead to appropriate target muscles. (zfin.org)
  • semaphorin
  • Here, we show that stabilized gradients of increasing semaphorin concentrations elicit stereotyped responses from cortical growth cones, independent of the absolute concentration and the slope of these gradients. (jneurosci.org)
  • morphogenesis
  • We find that activation of the cGMP pathway indeed promotes branch formation, thus providing strong evidence to establish its role in branching morphogenesis. (jneurosci.org)
  • ventral
  • Growth cones of lateral and ventral marginal zones, including those of descending spinal and supraspinal pathways, were labeled by application of tracer to the caudal medulla or to one of several levels of the spinal cord. (semanticscholar.org)
  • MAPK
  • EGL-19's regulatory role in the MAPK-mediated axon regeneration pathway was determined, in part, through doubly mutant animals containing an egl-19 hypermorphic mutation that results in occasional action potentials with significantly prolonged plateau phases and a dlk-1 loss-of-function mutation that showed a reduced axon regenerative response when compared to egl-19 alone. (geneontology.org)
  • regeneration
  • Nogo-A is one of the most potent myelin-associated inhibitors for axonal growth, regeneration, and plasticity in the adult central nervous system. (rupress.org)
  • In the later stages of regeneration the remaining endoneurial tube directs axon growth back to the correct targets. (wikipedia.org)
  • substrate
  • no substrate has been defined that is responsible for cGMP function in axonal development, and particularly in branching. (jneurosci.org)
  • cellular
  • Disruption of the MSB2 gene in S. cerevisiae has no appreciable effects on the cell's ability to activate the High-Osmolarity Glycerol (HOG) pathway upon osmotic stress, or on cellular growth on high-osmolarity media. (geneontology.org)