• receptor
  • At present, little is known about the effects of axonal AMPA/kainate receptor activation on neuronal function. (jneurosci.org)
  • Sema3A secreted by peripheral tissues interacts with neuropilin (its receptor) in the growth cones of motoneurons to control motor axon pathfinding, but Sema3A is also expressed by motoneurons themselves during axonal pathfinding. (biologists.org)
  • Retrograde neurotrophin signaling starts at axonal growth cones with ligand binding, Trk receptor dimerization and phosphorylation on specific tyrosine residues, and initiation of signaling cascades, which includes activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI-3 kinase)-, Ras/MAPK-, and phospholipase Cγ (PLCγ)-mediated pathways [ 2 ]. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The predominant mode of Trk receptor internalization in growth cones has been debated, with evidence to support both clathrin-dependent endocytosis and Pincher-mediated macropinocytosis, a process that involves plasma membrane ruffling and actions of actin-regulatory small GTPases [ 6 - 8 ]. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • in these two models the growth cone's response to Slit has been shown to be regulated through receptor trafficking and alternative splicing, respectively (Fig.3). (wikipedia.org)
  • Collectively, this type of receptor is known as a dependence receptor because the unbound pathway is usually apoptotic, meaning that cell survival depends on ligand presence. (wikipedia.org)
  • actin
  • The adhesion site effect seems partially independent of the actin cytoskeleton because growth cones treated with Sema3A and 12/15-LO inhibitor remain spread despite actin cytoskeleton loss. (jneurosci.org)
  • In response to growth factor stimulation, membrane ruffles are generated through localized actin filament assembly, which can subsequently close into macropinosomes ( Swanson, 2008 ). (jneurosci.org)
  • Studies with follower and pioneer neuron populations show differences in growth cone morphology, actin dynamics and axonal elongation. (wikipedia.org)
  • axon guidance
  • Heparin sulphate is believed to also be present during neural growth as a type of co-factor for axon guidance. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since LINGO-1 is a leucine-rich repeat protein, which are known for their important role in protein-protein interactions in a wide variety of cellular processes and their implication in important functions like neuronal differentiation and growth or the regulation of axon guidance and regeneration processes, it is logical to deduce that its functions are linked with the nervous system. (wikipedia.org)
  • effects on growth cone
  • Although the functional consequences of Eph/ephrin bi-directional signaling have not been completely elucidated, it is clear that such a unique signaling process allows for ephrin Ephs to have opposing effects on growth cone survival and allows for the segregation of Eph-expressing cells from ephrin-expressing cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • proteins
  • Our long-term goal is to identify the critical genes and cellular pathways affected by misfolded human disease proteins. (stanford.edu)
  • We are now using these models to perform high-throughput genetic and small molecule screens to elucidate the molecular pathways that regulate the function of these disease proteins and control their conversion to a pathological conformation. (stanford.edu)
  • MAPK
  • In C. elegans, the activity of the upstream-most kinase in one of the MAPK signaling pathways, DLK-1, is stimulated by Ca2+ influx mediated by the EGL-19 voltage-gated calcium channel. (geneontology.org)
  • EGL-19's regulatory role in the MAPK-mediated axon regeneration pathway was determined, in part, through doubly mutant animals containing an egl-19 hypermorphic mutation that results in occasional action potentials with significantly prolonged plateau phases and a dlk-1 loss-of-function mutation that showed a reduced axon regenerative response when compared to egl-19 alone. (geneontology.org)
  • Sema3A
  • Other experiments indicate that Sema3A expression in motoneurons sets their sensitivity to exogenous Sema3A by regulating neuropilin availability at the growth cone. (biologists.org)
  • Thus, the interplay between intrinsic and extrinsic Sema3A may help to organize the axonal pathways of motoneurons. (biologists.org)
  • motoneurons
  • Growth cones of later motoneurons interact with the pioneer via contact, coupling, and axonal fasciculation. (zfin.org)
  • In spite of these interactions, ablation of the pioneer motoneuron does not affect the ability of other identified motoneurons to select the pathways that lead to appropriate target muscles. (zfin.org)
  • responses
  • Here, we show that stabilized gradients of increasing semaphorin concentrations elicit stereotyped responses from cortical growth cones, independent of the absolute concentration and the slope of these gradients. (jneurosci.org)
  • mechanism
  • The pathway involving the cyclic guanosine-3′,5′-monophosphate (cGMP) may provide a unique signaling mechanism in regulating axon branching. (jneurosci.org)
  • A proposed mechanism involves the creation of a scaffold made out of interface glia, which growth cones contact during the establishment of axon tracts. (wikipedia.org)
  • substrate
  • no substrate has been defined that is responsible for cGMP function in axonal development, and particularly in branching. (jneurosci.org)
  • protein
  • Our data further show that PKA targets protein phosphatase-1 (PP1) through the phosphorylation of a regulatory protein inhibitor-1 (I-1) to promote growth cone attraction. (rupress.org)
  • cGMP
  • We find that activation of the cGMP pathway indeed promotes branch formation, thus providing strong evidence to establish its role in branching morphogenesis. (jneurosci.org)