• dorsal
  • In cultures of dorsal root ganglion neurons, we found that Sema3A treatment stimulates the synthesis of the eicosanoid, 12(S)-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (HETE), whereas Sema3A-induced growth cone collapse is prevented when 12(S)-HETE synthesis is blocked with an inhibitor of 12/15-lipoxygenase (LO). (jneurosci.org)
  • The subsequent retrograde axonal transport of NogoΔ20 in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons results in increased Rho-GTP and decreased levels of phosphorylated cAMP response element binding (pCREB) in the soma. (rupress.org)
  • The researchers show that Sema3A overexpression in the neural tube of chick embryos induces the exuberant growth of motor axon projections through normally non-permissive tissues, but that RNAi knockdown of Sema3A in motoneurons inhibits the normal dorsal growth of these neurons. (biologists.org)
  • effects on growth cone
  • Although the functional consequences of Eph/ephrin bi-directional signaling have not been completely elucidated, it is clear that such a unique signaling process allows for ephrin Ephs to have opposing effects on growth cone survival and allows for the segregation of Eph-expressing cells from ephrin-expressing cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • kinase
  • Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is an evolutionarily conserved serine/threonine kinase that plays a central role in control of cell growth ( Schmelzle and Hall, 2000 ). (jneurosci.org)
  • The response to axonal injury requires the activities of MAP kinase and cAMP signaling pathways that are required, for example, for signaling growth cone formation. (geneontology.org)
  • In C. elegans, the activity of the upstream-most kinase in one of the MAPK signaling pathways, DLK-1, is stimulated by Ca2+ influx mediated by the EGL-19 voltage-gated calcium channel. (geneontology.org)
  • In this study, we report that type II protein kinase A (PKA) is highly enriched in growth cone filopodia, and this spatial localization enables the coupling of cAMP signaling to its specific effectors to regulate guidance responses. (rupress.org)
  • Whatever extracellular signals may be involved in inducing axon formation are transduced through at least 4 different pathways: the Rac-1 pathway, the Ras-mediated pathway, the cAMP-liver kinase B1 pathway, and the calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • filopodia
  • Disrupting the localization of PKA to filopodia impairs cAMP-mediated growth cone attraction and prevents the switching of repulsive responses to attraction by elevated cAMP. (rupress.org)
  • In the midline of zebrafish, pioneer neurons grow slower, their growth cones tend to be shorter and wider than followers' and have up to 50% more filopodia and while followers' neurons filopodia are mostly forward oriented, pioneers' are arranged in all directions. (wikipedia.org)
  • The route of extending growth cones has been shown to be abundant in glial cells, which are in turn part of a cellular mesh including other intermediate neurons and filopodia. (wikipedia.org)
  • regulation
  • These results reveal a novel pathway for activation of presynaptic MAPK and suggest a role of this pathway in the regulation of short-term presynaptic plasticity. (jneurosci.org)
  • Netrin-1-dependent regulation of exocytotic events requires the activation of the Erk1/2 and SFK pathways. (jneurosci.org)
  • One well-studied example is the requirement for Slit-Robo signaling in regulation of axonal midline crossing. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since LINGO-1 is a leucine-rich repeat protein, which are known for their important role in protein-protein interactions in a wide variety of cellular processes and their implication in important functions like neuronal differentiation and growth or the regulation of axon guidance and regeneration processes, it is logical to deduce that its functions are linked with the nervous system. (wikipedia.org)
  • proteins
  • Our long-term goal is to identify the critical genes and cellular pathways affected by misfolded human disease proteins. (stanford.edu)
  • We are now using these models to perform high-throughput genetic and small molecule screens to elucidate the molecular pathways that regulate the function of these disease proteins and control their conversion to a pathological conformation. (stanford.edu)
  • Alternatively, it has been suggested that the buildup of axonal growth factors in the neurite destined to become the axon means there is a depletion of axonal growth factors by default, as they must compete for the same proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • behaviors
  • Thus cyclic nucleotides can regulate growth cone behaviors and may be targets for designing treatments to alleviate the inhibition of nerve regeneration by repulsive factors. (sciencemag.org)
  • It is conceivable that cAMP could act at multiple steps in the Ca 2+ signaling pathway to affect growth cone behaviors, but how it specifically targets distinct downstream effectors remains to be investigated. (rupress.org)
  • cGMP
  • The pathway involving the cyclic guanosine-3′,5′-monophosphate (cGMP) may provide a unique signaling mechanism in regulating axon branching. (jneurosci.org)
  • no substrate has been defined that is responsible for cGMP function in axonal development, and particularly in branching. (jneurosci.org)
  • the repulsion can be converted to attraction by pharmacological activation of the guanosine 3′,5′-monophosphate (cGMP) and adenosine 3′,5′-monophosphate signaling pathways, respectively. (sciencemag.org)
  • A gradient of Sema III (50 μg/ml in the pipette) was applied in normal culture medium ( A to C ) or in medium containing 100 μM 8-Br-cGMP ( D to F ). Images of the growth cone are shown at the onset (A and D) and at the end of 1 hour (B and E). Bar in (A) = 20 μm. (sciencemag.org)
  • neurite
  • Sema III-containing saline was applied in pulses from a micropipette positioned 100 μm from the center of the growth cone and at a 45° angle with respect to the original direction of neurite extension ( Fig. 1 ) ( 8 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • Origin represents the center of the growth cone at the onset, with the original direction of neurite extension shown as vertical. (sciencemag.org)
  • The developing neurite sums together all of these growth signals in order to determine which direction the neurite will ultimately grow towards. (wikipedia.org)
  • Weak endogenous electric fields may be used to both facilitate and direct the growth of projections from cell soma neurites, EFs of moderate strength have been used to direct and enhance neurite outgrowth in both murine and xenopus models. (wikipedia.org)
  • Co-culture of neurons with electrically aligned glial tissue also directs neurite outgrowth, as it is rich in neurotrophins that promote nerve growth[citation needed]. (wikipedia.org)
  • regeneration
  • Nogo-A is one of the most potent myelin-associated inhibitors for axonal growth, regeneration, and plasticity in the adult central nervous system. (rupress.org)
  • EGL-19's regulatory role in the MAPK-mediated axon regeneration pathway was determined, in part, through doubly mutant animals containing an egl-19 hypermorphic mutation that results in occasional action potentials with significantly prolonged plateau phases and a dlk-1 loss-of-function mutation that showed a reduced axon regenerative response when compared to egl-19 alone. (geneontology.org)
  • motoneurons
  • In spite of these interactions, ablation of the pioneer motoneuron does not affect the ability of other identified motoneurons to select the pathways that lead to appropriate target muscles. (zfin.org)